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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304

RESUMO

Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , COVID-19 , Paquistão/epidemiologia , China , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Vet World ; 15(10): 2453-2457, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36425138

RESUMO

Background and Aim: In the aquaculture industry, the crucial goal is to minimize production costs, especially feeding costs, without significant side effects. Black soldier fly larva (BSFL) is a locally available, eco-friendly, and sustainable source that is high in crude protein (42% dry matter [DM]) and fat (35% DM). This study aimed to determine the growth performance along with the composition of crude fat and protein in red hybrid fingerlings after the addition of BSFL into the diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fingerlings of uniform size (mean initial weight of 1.46 ± 0.06 g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n = 10) (A, B, C, and D) per tank (1 m × 2 m × 1 m). For 21 days, Group A (control group) was fed with 100% commercial diet; Group B was fed with 90% commercial fish diet + 10% BSFL; Group C was fed with 80% commercial fish diet + 20% BSFL; and Group D was fed with 70% commercial fish diet + 30% BSFL. Feed efficiency, growth performance, and proximate composition analysis were performed on the fish. Results: The results displayed that the group with the highest BSFL percentage had a greater effect on protein and fat composition than the control group. The proximate composition analysis of fish-fed diet revealed that an increase in the level of BSFL inclusion increases the protein content in the fish. In comparison to the other groups, the experimental diet with 30% BSFL inclusion has the highest levels of crude protein (80.30% DM) and fat (2.90% DM). Conclusion: It is concluded that incorporating BSFL into a commercial diet for red hybrid tilapia fingerlings increased crude protein and fat composition, providing an alternative protein and fat source in fish diets.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms from large genome-wide association studies only explain a fraction of genetic heritability. Likely causes of the missing heritability include broad phenotype definitions and gene-environment interactions (GxE). The mechanisms underlying GxE in asthma are poorly understood. Previous GxE studies on pet ownership showed discordant results. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study the GxE between the 17q12-21 locus and pet ownership in infancy in relation to wheeze. METHODS: Wheezing classes derived from 5 UK-based birth cohorts (latent class analysis) were used to study GxE between the 17q12-21 asthma-risk variant rs2305480 and dog and cat ownership in infancy, using multinomial logistic regression. A total of 9149 children had both pet ownership and genotype data available. Summary statistics from individual analyses were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: rs2305480 G allele was associated with increased risk of persistent wheeze (additive model odds ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.25-1.51). There was no evidence of an association between dog or cat ownership and wheeze. We found significant evidence of a GxE interaction between rs2305480 and dog ownership (P = 8.3 × 10-4) on persistent wheeze; among dog owners, the G allele was no longer associated with an increased risk of persistent wheeze (additive model odds ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.73-1.24). For those without pets, G allele was associated with increased risk of persistent wheeze (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.40-1.86). Among cat owners, no such dampening of the genetic effect was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Among dog owners, rs2305480 G was no longer associated with an increased risk of persistent wheeze (or asthma). Early-life environmental exposures may therefore attenuate likelihood of asthma in those carrying 17q12-21 risk alleles.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e244158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36074417

RESUMO

Intestinal parasitism is the main cause of disease all over the world and described as a significant community health problem. The current study intended to find out the occurrence and identification of hazard factors linked with IPIs among 4-12 years aged shool-age children residing in Lower Dir district, Pakistan during 2019 - 2020. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a pre-arranged pre-tested survey. Anthropometric data and stool collection were done to obtain the findings. The direct wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods was used for stool examination. Data were investigated using the GraphPad Prism 5. A total of 400 children studied (mean age of 8.6±3.6 years) the total incidence rate for the intestinal parasitic disease was established to be 71.75%. Of the 400 children studied, the overall prevalence rate for intestinal parasitic infections was found to 71.75% Ascaris lumbricoides (33.1%), Trichuris trichiura (1.04%), E. vermicularis (1.39%), Hookworm (19.86%) were identified in children living in the study area. We concluded that there is a mass scale campaigns were required to generate alertness about health and sanitation in children and the need for the development of effective poverty control programs because deworming (killing of worm with drugs) alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Enteropatias Parasitárias , Animais , Ascaris lumbricoides , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Strongyloides
5.
J Adv Res ; 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mathematical modelling is a rapidly expanding field that offers new and interesting opportunities for both mathematicians and biologists. Concerning COVID-19, this powerful tool may help humans to prevent the spread of this disease, which has affected the livelihood of all people badly. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research is to explore an efficient mathematical model for the investigation of COVID-19 dynamics in a generalized fractional framework. METHODS: The new model in this paper is formulated in the Caputo sense, employs a nonlinear time-varying transmission rate, and consists of ten population classes including susceptible, infected, diagnosed, ailing, recognized, infected real, threatened, diagnosed recovered, healed, and extinct people. The existence of a unique solution is explored for the new model, and the associated dynamical behaviours are discussed in terms of equilibrium points, invariant region, local and global stability, and basic reproduction number. To implement the proposed model numerically, an efficient approximation scheme is employed by the combination of Laplace transform and a successive substitution approach; besides, the corresponding convergence analysis is also investigated. RESULTS: Numerical simulations are reported for various fractional orders, and simulation results are compared with a real case of COVID-19 pandemic in Italy. By using these comparisons between the simulated and measured data, we find the best value of the fractional order with minimum absolute and relative errors. Also, the impact of different parameters on the spread of viral infection is analyzed and studied. CONCLUSION: According to the comparative results with real data, we justify the use of fractional concepts in the mathematical modelling, for the new non-integer formalism simulates the reality more precisely than the classical framework.

6.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 194, 2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35906571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be associated with lung function. Recent findings showed that DNA methylation (DNAm) variation is likely to be a consequence of changes in BMI. However, whether DNAm mediates the association of BMI with lung function is unknown. We examined the mediating role of DNAm on the association of pre-adolescent BMI trajectories with post-adolescent and adulthood lung function (forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC). METHODS: Analyses were undertaken in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC). Group-based trajectory modelling was applied to infer latent BMI trajectories from age 1 to 10 years. An R package, ttscreening, was applied to identify CpGs at 10 years potentially associated with BMI trajectories for each sex. Linear regressions were implemented to further screen CpGs for their association with lung function at 18 years. Path analysis, stratified by sex, was applied to each screened CpG to assess its role of mediation. Internal validation was applied to further examine the mediation consistency of the detected CpGs based on lung function at 26 years. Mendelian randomization (MR-base) was used to test possible causal effects of the identified CpGs. RESULTS: Two BMI trajectories (high vs. low) were identified. Of the 442,475 CpG sites, 18 CpGs in males and 33 in females passed screening. Eight CpGs in males and 16 CpGs in females (none overlapping) were identified as mediators. For subjects with high BMI trajectory, high DNAm at all CpGs in males were associated with decreased lung function, while 8 CpGs in females were associated with increased lung function at 18 years. At 26 years, 6 CpGs in males and 14 CpGs in females showed the same direction of indirect effects as those at 18 years. DNAm at CpGs cg19088553 (GRIK2) and cg00612625 (HPSE2) showed a potential causal effect on FEV1. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of BMI trajectory in early childhood on post-adolescence lung function were likely to be mediated by pre-adolescence DNAm in both males and females, but such mediation effects were likely to diminish over time.


Assuntos
Trajetória do Peso do Corpo , Metilação de DNA , Pulmão , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Pulmão/fisiologia , Masculino , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
7.
Environ Epigenet ; 8(1): dvac002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317219

RESUMO

Acetaminophen is used by nearly two-thirds of pregnant women. Although considered safe, studies have demonstrated associations between prenatal acetaminophen use and adverse health outcomes in offspring. Since DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth may act as an early indicator of later health, assessments on whether DNAm of newborns is associated with gestational acetaminophen use or its metabolites are needed. Using data from three consecutive generations of the Isle of Wight cohort (F0-grandmothers, F1-mothers, and F2-offspring) we investigated associations between acetaminophen metabolites in F0 serum at delivery with epigenome-wide DNAm in F1 (Guthrie cards) and between acetaminophen use of F1 and F2-cord-serum levels with F2 cord blood DNAm. In epigenome-wide screening, we eliminated non-informative DNAm sites followed by linear regression of informative sites. Based on repeated pregnancies, indication bias analyses tested whether acetaminophen indicated maternal diseases or has a risk in its own right. Considering that individuals with similar intake process acetaminophen differently, metabolites were clustered to distinguish metabolic exposures. Finally, metabolite clusters from F1-maternal and F2-cord sera were tested for their associations with newborn DNAm (F1 and F2). Twenty-one differential DNAm sites in cord blood were associated with reported maternal acetaminophen intake in the F2 generation. For 11 of these cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites, an indication bias was excluded and five were replicated in F2 with metabolite clusters. In addition, metabolite clusters showed associations with 25 CpGs in the F0-F1 discovery analysis, of which five CpGs were replicated in the F2-generation. Our results suggest that prenatal acetaminophen use, measured as metabolites, may influence DNAm in newborns.

8.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(1)2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35237685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age of pubertal onset is associated with lung function in adulthood. However, the underlying role of epigenetics as a mediator of this association remains unknown. METHODS: DNA methylation (DNAm) in peripheral blood was measured at age 18 years in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC) along with data on age of pubertal events, forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) at 26 years. Structural equation models were applied to examine mediation effects of DNAm on the association of age at pubertal events with FVC and FEV1. Findings were further tested in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort. RESULTS: In the IOWBC, for females, 21 cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites (CpGs) were shown to mediate the association of age at puberty with FVC or FEV1 at 26 years (p<0.05). In males, DNAm at 20 CpGs was found to mediate the association of age at puberty with FVC (p<0.05). At almost all these CpGs, indirect effects (effects of age at pubertal events on FVC or FEV1 via DNAm) contributed a smaller portion to the total effects compared to direct effects (e.g. at cg08680129, ∼22% of the estimated total effect of age at menarche on FVC at age 26 was contributed by an indirect effect). Among the IOWBC-discovered CpGs available in ALSPAC, none of them was replicated in ALSPAC (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that post-adolescence DNAm in peripheral blood is likely not to mediate the association of age at pubertal onset with young adulthood FVC or FEV1.

9.
J Pers Med ; 12(1)2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35055391

RESUMO

Genome-wide and epigenome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants and differentially methylated nucleotides associated with childhood asthma. Incorporation of such genomic data may improve performance of childhood asthma prediction models which use phenotypic and environmental data. Using genome-wide genotype and methylation data at birth from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (n = 1456), a polygenic risk score (PRS), and newborn (nMRS) and childhood (cMRS) methylation risk scores, were developed to predict childhood asthma diagnosis. Each risk score was integrated with two previously published childhood asthma prediction models (CAPE and CAPP) and were validated in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study. Individually, the genomic risk scores demonstrated modest-to-moderate discriminative performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC: PRS = 0.64, nMRS = 0.55, cMRS = 0.54), and their integration only marginally improved the performance of the CAPE (AUC: 0.75 vs. 0.71) and CAPP models (AUC: 0.84 vs. 0.82). The limited predictive performance of each genomic risk score individually and their inability to substantially improve upon the performance of the CAPE and CAPP models suggests that genetic and epigenetic predictors of the broad phenotype of asthma are unlikely to have clinical utility. Hence, further studies predicting specific asthma endotypes are warranted.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

RESUMO

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Parasitos , Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Fezes
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMO

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Verduras , Helmintos , Paquistão , Solo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248281, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852158

RESUMO

The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , China , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(9): e12076, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Respiratory symptoms are common in early life and often transient. It is difficult to identify in which children these will persist and result in asthma. Machine learning (ML) approaches have the potential for better predictive performance and generalisability over existing childhood asthma prediction models. This study applied ML approaches to predict school-age asthma (age 10) in early life (Childhood Asthma Prediction in Early life, CAPE model) and at preschool age (Childhood Asthma Prediction at Preschool age, CAPP model). METHODS: Clinical and environmental exposure data was collected from children enrolled in the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1368, ∼15% asthma prevalence). Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) identified an optimal subset of features predictive of school-age asthma for each model. Seven state-of-the-art ML classification algorithms were used to develop prognostic models. Training was performed by applying fivefold cross-validation, imputation, and resampling. Predictive performance was evaluated on the test set. Models were further externally validated in the Manchester Asthma and Allergy Study (MAAS) cohort. RESULTS: RFE identified eight and twelve predictors for the CAPE and CAPP models, respectively. Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms provided the best performance for both the CAPE (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUC = 0.71) and CAPP (AUC = 0.82) models. Both models demonstrated good generalisability in MAAS (CAPE 8-year = 0.71, 11-year = 0.71, CAPP 8-year = 0.83, 11-year = 0.79) and excellent sensitivity to predict a subgroup of persistent wheezers. CONCLUSION: Using ML approaches improved upon the predictive performance of existing regression-based models, with good generalisability and ability to rule in asthma and predict persistent wheeze.

14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(8)2021 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440372

RESUMO

DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns over time at 1146 CpGs on coronavirus-related genes were assessed to understand whether the varying differences in susceptibility, symptoms, and the outcomes of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and young adults could be explained through epigenetic alterations in a host cell's transcriptional apparatus to coronaviruses. DNAm data from the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC) at birth, 10, 18, and 26 years of age were included. Linear mixed models with repeated measurements stratified by sex were used to examine temporal patterns, and cluster analysis was performed to identify CpGs following similar patterns. CpGs on autosomes and sex chromosomes were analyzed separately. The association of identified CpGs and expression of their genes were evaluated. Pathway enrichment analyses of the genes was conducted at FDR = 0.05. DNAm at 635 of the 1146 CpGs on autosomes showed statistically significant time effects (FDR = 0.05). The 635 CpGs were classified into five clusters with each representing a unique temporal pattern of DNAm. Of the 29 CpGs on sex chromosomes, DNAm at seven CpGs in males and eight CpGs in females showed time effects (FDR = 0.05). Sex-specific and non-specific associations of DNAm with gene expression were found at 24 and 93 CpGs, respectively. Genes which mapped the 643 CpGs represent 460 biological processes. We suggest that the observed variability in DNAm with advancing age may partially explain differing susceptibility, disease severity, and mortality of coronavirus infections among different age groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Metilação de DNA , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 17(1): 77, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301314

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Body mass index (BMI) is associated with asthma but associations of BMI temporal patterns with asthma incidence are unclear. Previous studies suggest that DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with asthma status and variation in DNAm is a consequence of BMI changes. This study assessed the direct and indirect (via DNAm) effects of BMI trajectories in childhood on asthma incidence at young adulthood. METHODS: Data from the Isle of Wight (IoW) birth cohort were included in the analyses. Group-based trajectory modelling was applied to infer latent BMI trajectories from ages 1 to 10 years. An R package, ttscreening, was applied to identify differentially methylated CpGs at age 10 years associated with BMI trajectories, stratified for sex. Logistic regressions were used to further exclude CpGs with DNAm at age 10 years not associated with asthma incidence at 18 years. CpGs discovered via path analyses that mediated the association of BMI trajectories with asthma incidence in the IoW cohort were further tested in an independent cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC). RESULTS: Two BMI trajectories (high vs. normal) were identified. Of the 442,474 CpG sites, DNAm at 159 CpGs in males and 212 in females were potentially associated with BMI trajectories. Assessment of their association with asthma incidence identified 9 CpGs in males and 6 CpGs in females. DNAm at 4 of these 15 CpGs showed statistically significant mediation effects (p-value < 0.05). At two of the 4 CpGs (cg23632109 and cg10817500), DNAm completely mediated the association (i.e., only statistically significant indirect effects were identified). In the ALSPAC cohort, at all four CpGs, the same direction of mediating effects were observed as those found in the IoW cohort, although statistically insignificant. CONCLUSION: The association of BMI trajectory in childhood with asthma incidence at young adulthood is possibly mediated by DNAm.

16.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235211

RESUMO

Investigating whether DNA methylation (DNA-M) at an earlier age is associated with lung function at a later age and whether this relationship differs by sex could enable prediction of future lung function deficit. A training/testing-based technique was used to screen 402 714 cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide sites (CpGs) to assess the longitudinal association of blood-based DNA-M at ages 10 and 18 years with lung function at 18 and 26 years, respectively, in the Isle of Wight birth cohort (IOWBC). Multivariable linear mixed models were applied to the CpGs that passed screening. To detect differentially methylated regions (DMRs), DMR enrichment analysis was conducted. Findings were further examined in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Biological relevance of the identified CpGs was assessed using gene expression data. DNA-M at eight CpGs (five CpGs with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and three CpGs with FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC)) at an earlier age was associated with lung function at a later age regardless of sex, while at 13 CpGs (five CpGs with FVC, three with FEV1 and five with FEV1/FVC), the associations were sex-specific (p FDR <0.05) in IOWBC, with consistent directions of association in ALSPAC (IOWBC-ALSPAC consistent CpGs). cg16582803 (WNT10A) and cg14083603 (ZGPAT) were replicated in ALSPAC for main and sex-specific effects, respectively. Among IOWBC-ALSPAC consistent CpGs, DNA-M at cg01376079 (SSH3) and cg07557690 (TGFBR3) was associated with gene expression both longitudinally and cross-sectionally. In total, 57 and 170 DMRs were linked to lung function longitudinally in males and females, respectively. CpGs showing longitudinal associations with lung function have the potential to serve as candidate markers in future studies on lung function deficit prediction.

17.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(4): e12040, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients at risk of severe asthma is vitally important given the disproportionate burden of disease imposed by that state. However, biomarkers to support such needs remain elusive. METHODS: In this letter, we assessed whether specific panels of circulating miRNAs (microRNAs) can differentiate between mild and severe asthma patients as well as between healthy subjects and severe asthma patients. RESULTS: To our knowledge, the miRNAs identified in our work such as miR-28-3p, miR-16-2-3p, and miR-210-3p have not been previously reported as differentially expressed in the serum of severe asthma patients. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that miRNA expression profiles may have the capability as potential biomarkers that signal the risk of having severe asthma. As such, these findings have significant novelty and merit wider dissemination to facilitate further work in this field.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037080

RESUMO

Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Enteropatias Parasitárias , Parasitos , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública
19.
BJS Open ; 5(2)2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite women constituting over half of new doctors, gender disparity remains an issue. Surgery has shown particularly slow progress towards gender parity. This study aimed to quantify gender representation within editorial boards of the highest ranking international general surgery journals. METHODS: Surgical journals were collated using two indices: SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) and Journal Impact Factor (JIF). Non-general surgery journals were excluded. Journals were contacted, requesting gender editorial team demographics. Editorial board data were collected via journal websites on 28 November 2019. RESULTS: The top 25 general surgery journals according to SJR and JIF ranking methods were determined, identifying 28 unique journals. Editorial board data were publicly available for 27 of these 28 surgical journals, and were examined. Women accounted for 20.2 per cent (568 of 2816) of total editorial board positions. Women constituted 11 per cent (4 of 36) of editor-in-chief positions, 32 per cent (29 of 92) of deputy editors, and 19.1 per cent (369 of 1935) of general editorial board positions. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrate gender disparity within editorial boards of the most prominent general surgery journals.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cirurgia Geral , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMO

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Verduras , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Paquistão , Solo
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