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1.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 375-383, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230546

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with low birth weight, shorter gestational age, and increased risk of maternal and offspring cardiovascular diseases later in life. The mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but epigenetic regulation of gene expression may play a part. We performed meta-analyses in the Pregnancy and Childhood Epigenetics Consortium to test the association between either maternal HDP (10 cohorts; n=5242 [cases=476]) or preeclampsia (3 cohorts; n=2219 [cases=135]) and epigenome-wide DNA methylation in cord blood using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In models adjusted for confounders, and with Bonferroni correction, HDP and preeclampsia were associated with DNA methylation at 43 and 26 CpG sites, respectively. HDP was associated with higher methylation at 27 (63%) of the 43 sites, and across all 43 sites, the mean absolute difference in methylation was between 0.6% and 2.6%. Epigenome-wide associations of HDP with offspring DNA methylation were modestly consistent with the equivalent epigenome-wide associations of preeclampsia with offspring DNA methylation (R2=0.26). In longitudinal analyses conducted in 1 study (n=108 HDP cases; 550 controls), there were similar changes in DNA methylation in offspring of those with and without HDP up to adolescence. Pathway analysis suggested that genes located at/near HDP-associated sites may be involved in developmental, embryogenesis, or neurological pathways. HDP is associated with offspring DNA methylation with potential relevance to development.

2.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 12(3): 302-15, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22499144

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well known that many aspects of food allergy are lacking sufficient research and publication. Practising evidence-based medicine in this field is, therefore, a particular challenge. Internationally, there is considerable variation in practices and no agreed treatment pathways. The time was right to review the evidence and seek the views of experts in the field, industry and food allergic individuals to develop guidance for clinical practice and to plan future research. The purpose of this review was to summarize points of agreement and discrepancy in the recently published Diagnosis and Rationale for Action against Cow's Milk Allergy, US NIAID and UK NICE guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: The publication of the three guideline documents on food allergies gives clinicians, scientists, industry, governments and patients the opportunity to review the information in a concise format and appreciate the role of clinical expertise in decision making. The guidelines covered all aspects of food allergy: prevalence and natural history, diagnosis, management and treatment and other aspects such as vaccinations. SUMMARY: The guidelines summarized not only our current evidence base but also gaps in our knowledge. Use of these guidelines would facilitate high quality standardized care and indicate the direction of future research.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Leite , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/terapia , National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.) , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 128(4): 753-760.e11, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21696813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common disease of children with a complex genetic origin. Understanding the genetic basis of asthma susceptibility will allow disease prediction and risk stratification. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify asthma susceptibility genes in children. METHODS: A nested case-control genetic association study of children of Caucasian European ancestry from a birth cohort was conducted. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, n = 116,024) were genotyped in pools of DNA samples from cohort children with physician-diagnosed asthma (n = 112) and normal controls (n = 165). A genomic region containing the ATPAF1 gene was found to be significantly associated with asthma. Additional SNPs within this region were genotyped in individual samples from the same children and in 8 independent study populations of Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, or other ancestries. SNPs were also genotyped or imputed in 2 consortia control populations. ATPAF1 expression was measured in bronchial biopsies from asthmatic patients and controls. RESULTS: Asthma was found to be associated with a cluster of SNPs and SNP haplotypes containing the ATPAF1 gene, with 2 SNPs achieving significance at a genome-wide level (P = 2.26 × 10(-5) to 2.2 × 10(-8)). Asthma severity was also found to be associated with SNPs and SNP haplotypes in the primary population. SNP and/or gene-level associations were confirmed in the 4 non-Hispanic populations. Haplotype associations were also confirmed in the non-Hispanic populations (P = .045-.0009). ATPAF1 total RNA expression was significantly (P < .01) higher in bronchial biopsies from asthmatic patients than from controls. CONCLUSION: Genetic variation in the ATPAF1 gene predisposes children of different ancestries to asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Asma/enzimologia , Asma/patologia , Brônquios/enzimologia , Brônquios/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , ATPases Mitocondriais Próton-Translocadoras , Chaperonas Moleculares , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 126(2): 200-9; quiz 210-1, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20688205

RESUMO

Clinical practice reminds us that there is considerable variability in the course of asthma over time. Treatment of patients with asthma would be considerably improved if one could accurately predict the likely course of disease over the life course. Recently, with the advent of the era of genome-wide association studies, there has been a monumental shift in our understanding of the genetic factors that underlie inherited susceptibility to asthma. Genes have been identified that modulate many aspects of the natural history of asthma, such as susceptibility to atopy, altered lung development, and susceptibility to more severe disease. Heritability studies have even suggested a role for genetic factors in remission of asthma. However, although the discovery of novel genetic factors underlying disease susceptibility has undoubtedly improved our understanding of disease pathogenesis, whether these advances have improved the ability to predict the natural history in individual patients is questionable, and the application of genetic testing to clinical practice remains some way off.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Educação Médica Continuada , Genética Médica , Asma/patologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Humanos
5.
Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol ; 6(1): 6, 2010 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20403202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to atopy originates from effects of the environment on genes. Birth order has been identified as a risk factor for atopy and evidence for some candidate genes has been accumulated; however no study has yet assessed a birth order-gene interaction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the interaction of IL13 polymorphisms with birth order on allergic sensitization at ages 4, 10 and 18 years. METHODS: Mother-infant dyads were recruited antenatally and followed prospectively to age 18 years. Questionnaire data (at birth, age 4, 10, 18); skin prick test (SPT) at ages 4, 10, 18; total serum IgE and specific inhalant screen at age 10; and genotyping for IL13 were collected. Three SNPs were selected from IL13: rs20541 (exon 4, nonsynonymous SNP), rs1800925 (promoter region) and rs2066960 (intron 1). Analysis included multivariable log-linear regression analyses using repeated measurements to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs). RESULTS: Of the 1456 participants, birth order information was available for 83.2% (1212/1456); SPT was performed on 67.4% at age 4, 71.2% at age 10 and 58.0% at age 18. The prevalence of atopy (sensitization to one or more food or aeroallergens) increased from 19.7% at age 4, to 26.7% at 10 and 41.1% at age 18. Repeated measurement analysis indicated interaction between rs20541 and birth order on SPT. The stratified analyses demonstrated that the effect of IL13 on SPT was restricted only to first-born children (p = 0.007; adjusted PR = 1.35; 95%CI = 1.09, 1.69). Similar findings were noted for firstborns regarding elevated total serum IgE at age 10 (p = 0.007; PR = 1.73; 1.16, 2.57) and specific inhalant screen (p = 0.034; PR = 1.48; 1.03, 2.13). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show an interaction between birth order and IL13 polymorphisms on allergic sensitization. Future functional genetic research need to determine whether or not birth order is related to altered expression and methylation of the IL13 gene.

6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 19(1): 1-4, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18199086

RESUMO

Because of scientific fraud four trials have been excluded from the original Cochrane meta-analysis on formulas containing hydrolyzed protein for prevention of allergy and food intolerance in infants. Unlike the conclusions of the revised Cochrane review the export group set up by the Section on Paediatrics, European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (SP-EAACI) do not find that the exclusion of the four trials demands a change of the previous recommendations regarding primary dietary prevention of allergic diseases. Ideally, recommendations on primary dietary prevention should be based only on the results of randomized and quasi-randomized trials (selection criteria in the Cochrane review). However, regarding breastfeeding randomization is unethical, Therefore, in the development of recommendations on dietary primary prevention, high-quality systematic reviews of high-quality cohort studies should be included in the evidence base. The study type combined with assessment of the methodological quality determines the level of evidence. In view of some methodological concerns in the Cochrane meta-analysis, particularly regarding definitions and diagnostic criteria for outcome measures and inclusion of non peer-reviewed studies/reports, a revision of the Cochrane analysis may seem warranted. Based on analysis of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies the results still indicate that breastfeeding is highly recommended for all infants irrespective of atopic heredity. A dietary regimen is effective in the prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk infants, particularly in early infancy regarding food allergy and eczema. The most effective dietary regimen is exclusively breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months or, in absence of breast milk, formulas with documented reduced allergenicity for at least the first 4 months, combined with avoidance of solid food and cow's milk for the first 4 months.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 121(2): 408-14, 2008 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18037162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GATA3 activates transcription of the T(H)2 cytokines, including IL13, an important step in the allergic inflammatory pathway. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms of the genes GATA3 and IL13 and their interactions with rhinitis and allergic sensitization during childhood. METHODS: We performed genetic association studies in a cohort of children (n = 923) who have been evaluated for the development of rhinitis and allergic sensitization by means of skin prick tests (SPTs) at age 10 years. Pyrosequencing was used to genotype 7 polymorphisms from GATA3 and 5 from IL13. A novel model-selection procedure combining logistic regression models and classification was used to study the contributions of the polymorphisms and their interactions. RESULTS: Combinations of polymorphisms and their interactions increase the risk for rhinitis and allergic sensitization at age 10 years. A model with rs1058240, rs379568, and rs4143094 (GATA3) and rs1800925 (IL13) and their interactions was selected to predict rhinitis and positive SPT responses. rs1058240 was associated with rhinitis and allergic rhinitis (P < .05), and the gene-gene interaction rs1058240:rs1800925 was associated with rhinitis (P = .043). The odds ratios for 4 genotype combinations were significant for rhinitis or SPTs (P < .044). CONCLUSION: Gene-gene interaction between GATA3 and IL13 polymorphisms can influence the risk of childhood rhinitis. Our study suggests that set associations of polymorphisms are important in studying genetic associations for complex phenotypes, such as rhinitis and atopy.


Assuntos
Fator de Transcrição GATA3/genética , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/complicações , Interleucina-13/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Rinite/etiologia , Rinite/genética , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade Imediata/diagnóstico , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Testes Cutâneos
8.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 15(4): 291-307, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15305938

RESUMO

The role of primary prevention of allergic diseases has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light on this issue, a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI reviewed critically the existing literature on the subject. An analysis of published peer-reviewed observational and interventional studies was performed following the statements of evidence as defined by WHO. The results of the analysis indicate that breastfeeding is highly recommended for all infants irrespective of atopic heredity. A dietary regimen is unequivocally effective in the prevention of allergic diseases in high-risk children. In these patients breastfeeding combined with avoidance of solid food and cow's milk for at least 4-6 months is the most effective preventive regimen. In the absence of breast milk, formulas with documented reduced allergenicity for at least 4-6 months should be used.


Assuntos
Dieta , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Lactente , Hipersensibilidade a Leite/prevenção & controle
9.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 15(3): 196-205, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15209950

RESUMO

The role of primary prevention of allergic disease has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. The design of observational and interventional studies was evaluated with relevance to the important factors influencing outcome of studies on allergy development/prevention. in this analysis the statements of evidence as defined by WHO were applied. Best evidence of recommendations are those fulfilling the criteria for statements category 1 and 2 and grade of recommendations A and B as proposed by WHO. This survey include target group for dietary prevention and methods and diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis, asthma and food allergy for prevention studies.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/prevenção & controle , Biomarcadores , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
10.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 15(2): 103-11, 2004 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15059185

RESUMO

The role of primary prevention of allergic diseases has been a matter of debate for the last 40 years. In order to shed some light into this issue, a group of experts of the Section of Pediatrics EAACI critically reviewed the existing literature on the subject. In this paper, the immunology of the fetus and newborn is reviewed as well as the post-natal development of the immune system. The influence of post-natal environment and breastfeeding on tolerance induction and sensitization are examined. Allergic diseases result from a strong relationship between genetic and environmental factors. Sensitization to food allergens occurs in the first year of life and cow's milk allergy is the first food allergy to appear in the susceptible infants. Hypoallergenicity of food formulas to be used is a critical issue both for treatment of cow's milk-allergic children and for prevention. Methods to document hypoallergenicity are discussed and evaluated in the preclinical and clinical steps.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Documentação/métodos , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez
11.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 3(2): 115-20, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12562550

RESUMO

Research evidence supports a causative relationship between indoor allergen exposure and the development of asthma. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate that exposure to indoor allergens, particularly house-dust mites and cockroaches and, to a lesser extent, animal allergens and mold, is a risk factor for the development of sensitization and perhaps respiratory symptoms. Sensitization to indoor allergen is clearly a major risk factor for the development of asthma and allergy. There is also epidemiologic and experimental evidence that, in sensitized subjects, higher exposure to indoor allergen causes morbidity. Most, but not all, prospective studies support the causative link between allergen exposure and asthma. Additional evidence comes from the prevention studies, in which reduction in indoor allergen exposure may lead to improvement in symptoms, pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and, if practiced, in early years of life, perhaps the development of asthma and allergy.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Asma/etiologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia
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