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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35564499

RESUMO

Breast cancer represents the most common cancer diagnosis among World Trade Center (WTC)-exposed community members, residents, and cleanup workers enrolled in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC). The primary aims of this study were (1) to compare blood DNA methylation profiles of WTC-exposed community members with breast cancer and WTC-unexposed pre-diagnostic breast cancer blood samples, and (2) to compare the DNA methylation differences among the WTC EHC breast cancer cases and WTC-exposed cancer-free controls. Gene pathway enrichment analyses were further conducted. There were significant differences in DNA methylation between WTC-exposed breast cancer cases and unexposed prediagnostic breast cancer cases. The top differentially methylated genes were Intraflagellar Transport 74 (IFT74), WD repeat-containing protein 90 (WDR90), and Oncomodulin (OCM), which are commonly upregulated in tumors. Probes associated with established tumor suppressor genes (ATM, BRCA1, PALB2, and TP53) were hypermethylated among WTC-exposed breast cancer cases compared to the unexposed group. When comparing WTC EHC breast cancer cases vs. cancer-free controls, there appeared to be global hypomethylation among WTC-exposed breast cancer cases compared to exposed controls. Functional pathway analysis revealed enrichment of several gene pathways in WTC-exposed breast cancer cases including endocytosis, proteoglycans in cancer, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, focal adhesion, calcium signaling, cGMP-PKG signaling, mTOR, Hippo, and oxytocin signaling. The results suggest potential epigenetic links between WTC exposure and breast cancer in local community members enrolled in the WTC EHC program.

3.
J Transl Genet Genom ; 5: 200-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622145

RESUMO

AIM: Recessive genetic variation is thought to play a role in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) etiology. Runs of homozygosity (ROH), defined based on long, continuous segments of homozygous SNPs, can be used to estimate both measured and unmeasured recessive genetic variation. We sought to examine genome-wide homozygosity and NHL risk. METHODS: We used data from eight genome-wide association studies of four common NHL subtypes: 3061 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), 3814 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 2784 follicular lymphoma (FL), and 808 marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) cases, as well as 9374 controls. We examined the effect of homozygous variation on risk by: (1) estimating the fraction of the autosome containing runs of homozygosity (FROH); (2) calculating an inbreeding coefficient derived from the correlation among uniting gametes (F3); and (3) examining specific autosomal regions containing ROH. For each, we calculated beta coefficients and standard errors using logistic regression and combined estimates across studies using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We discovered positive associations between FROH and CLL (ß = 21.1, SE = 4.41, P = 1.6 × 10-6) and FL (ß = 11.4, SE = 5.82, P = 0.02) but not DLBCL (P = 1.0) or MZL (P = 0.91). For F3, we observed an association with CLL (ß = 27.5, SE = 6.51, P = 2.4 × 10-5). We did not find evidence of associations with specific ROH, suggesting that the associations observed with FROH and F3 for CLL and FL risk were not driven by a single region of homozygosity. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the role of recessive genetic variation in the etiology of CLL and FL; additional research is needed to identify the specific loci associated with NHL risk.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300003

RESUMO

The destruction of World Trade Center on 11 September 2001 exposed local community members to a complex mixture of known carcinogens and potentially carcinogenic substances. To date, breast cancer has not been characterized in detail in the WTC-exposed civilian populations. The cancer characteristics of breast cancer patients were derived from the newly developed Pan-Cancer Database at the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC). We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program breast cancer data as a reference source. Between May 2002 and 31 December 2019, 2840 persons were diagnosed with any type of cancer at the WTC EHC, including 601 patients with a primary breast cancer diagnosis (592 women and 9 men). There was a higher proportion of grade 3 (poorly differentiated) tumors (34%) among the WTC EHC female breast cancers compared to that of the SEER-18 data (25%). Compared to that of the SEER data, female breast cancers in the WTC EHC had a lower proportion of luminal A (88% and 65%, respectively), higher proportion of luminal B (13% and 15%, respectively), and HER-2-enriched (5.5% and 7%, respectively) subtypes. These findings suggest considerable differences in the breast cancer characteristics and distribution of breast cancer intrinsic subtypes in the WTC-exposed civilian population compared to that of the general population. This is important because of the known effect of molecular subtypes on breast cancer prognosis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinógenos , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Sobreviventes
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(9): 1652-1659, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34244157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolactin is synthesized in the ovaries and may play a role in ovarian cancer etiology. One prior prospective study observed a suggestive positive association between prolactin levels and risk of ovarian cancer. METHODS: We conducted a pooled case-control study of 703 cases and 864 matched controls nested within five prospective cohorts. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk. We examined heterogeneity by menopausal status at blood collection, body mass index (BMI), age, and histotype. RESULTS: Among women with known menopausal status, we observed a positive trend in the association between prolactin and ovarian cancer risk (P trend = 0.045; OR, quartile 4 vs. 1 = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.97-1.85), but no significant association was observed for premenopausal or postmenopausal women individually (corresponding OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 0.74-2.58; P trend = 0.32 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 0.93-2.13; P trend = 0.08, respectively; P heterogeneity = 0.91). In stratified analyses, we observed a positive association between prolactin and risk for women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, but not BMI < 25 kg/m2 (corresponding OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.56-4.59; P trend < 0.01 and OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.58-1.40; P trend = 0.98, respectively; P heterogeneity < 0.01). Associations did not vary by age, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, histotype, or time between blood draw and diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We found a trend between higher prolactin levels and increased ovarian cancer risk, especially among women with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. IMPACT: This work supports a previous study linking higher prolactin with ovarian carcinogenesis in a high adiposity setting. Future work is needed to understand the mechanism underlying this association.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Causalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1408-1417, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have suggested positive associations for iron and red meat intake with risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Inherited pathogenic variants in genes involved in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway are known to cause iron overload and hemochromatosis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether common genetic variation in the hepcidin-regulating iron metabolism pathway is associated with PDAC. METHODS: We conducted a pathway analysis of the hepcidin-regulating genes using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) summary statistics generated from 4 genome-wide association studies in 2 large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method. Our population consisted of 9253 PDAC cases and 12,525 controls of European descent. Our analysis included 11 hepcidin-regulating genes [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), ferritin heavy chain 1 (FTH1), ferritin light chain (FTL), hepcidin (HAMP), homeostatic iron regulator (HFE), hemojuvelin (HJV), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), ferroportin 1 (SLC40A1), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2)] and their surrounding genomic regions (±20 kb) for a total of 412 SNPs. RESULTS: The hepcidin-regulating gene pathway was significantly associated with PDAC (P = 0.002), with the HJV, TFR2, TFR1, BMP6, and HAMP genes contributing the most to the association. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that genetic susceptibility related to the hepcidin-regulating gene pathway is associated with PDAC risk and suggest a potential role of iron metabolism in pancreatic carcinogenesis. Further studies are needed to evaluate effect modification by intake of iron-rich foods on this association.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genótipo , Hepcidinas/genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13805, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226613

RESUMO

Imbalances of blood biomarkers are associated with disease, and biomarkers may also vary non-pathologically across population groups. We described variation in concentrations of biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism, vitamin status, inflammation including tryptophan metabolism, and endothelial and renal function among cancer-free older adults. We analyzed 5167 cancer-free controls aged 40-80 years from 20 cohorts in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium (LC3). Centralized biochemical analyses of 40 biomarkers in plasma or serum were performed. We fit multivariable linear mixed effects models to quantify variation in standardized biomarker log-concentrations across four factors: age, sex, smoking status, and body mass index (BMI). Differences in most biomarkers across most factors were small, with 93% (186/200) of analyses showing an estimated difference lower than 0.25 standard-deviations, although most were statistically significant due to large sample size. The largest difference was for creatinine by sex, which was - 0.91 standard-deviations lower in women than men (95%CI - 0.98; - 0.84). The largest difference by age was for total cysteine (0.40 standard-deviation increase per 10-year increase, 95%CI 0.36; 0.43), and by BMI was for C-reactive protein (0.38 standard-deviation increase per 5-kg/m2 increase, 95%CI 0.34; 0.41). For 31 of 40 markers, the mean difference between current and never smokers was larger than between former and never smokers. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) association with time since smoking cessation was observed for 8 markers, including C-reactive protein, kynurenine, choline, and total homocysteine. We conclude that most blood biomarkers show small variations across demographic characteristics. Patterns by smoking status point to normalization of multiple physiological processes after smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Carbono/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Rim/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Vitaminas/sangue
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800009

RESUMO

The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 11 September 2001 resulted in acute and chronic dust and fume exposures to community members, including local workers and residents, with well-described aerodigestive adverse health effects. This study aimed to characterize lung cancer in the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) focusing on gender and smoking history. WTC EHC patients undergo an initial evaluation that includes WTC exposure information, demographics, and tobacco use. Detailed cancer characteristics are recorded from pathology reports. As of 31 December 2019, 248 WTC EHC patients had a diagnosis of lung cancer. More patients with lung cancer were women (57%) compared to men (43%). Many cases (47% women, 51% men) reported acute dust cloud exposure. Thirty-seven percent of lung cancer cases with available smoking history were never-smokers (≤1 pack-years) and 42% had a ≤5 pack-year history. The median age of cancer diagnosis in never-smoking women was 61 years compared to 66 years in men. Adenocarcinoma was more common in never-smokers compared to ever-smokers (72% vs. 65%) and in women compared to men (70% vs. 65%). We provide an initial description of lung cancers in local community members with documented exposure to the WTC dust and fumes.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Poeira , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque
9.
Cancer Res ; 81(11): 3134-3143, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine whether there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P < 5 × 10-8 was considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region that included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 [per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95% CI, 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.40, P interaction = 3.08 × 10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high linkage disequilibrium with rs1818613 (r 2 = 0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings. SIGNIFICANCE: This large genome-wide interaction study identifies a susceptibility locus on 2q21.3 that significantly modified PDAC risk by smoking status, providing insight into smoking-associated PDAC, with implications for prevention.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/etiologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Ciclina T/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572220

RESUMO

(1) Background: Recent studies have reported elevated risks of multiple cancers in the World Trade Center (WTC) affected community members (also called WTC "Survivors"). The large variety of WTC-cancers created a need to develop a comprehensive cancer database. This paper describes the development of a pan-cancer database at the WTC Environmental Health Center (EHC) Data Center. (2) Methods: A new REDCap-based pan-cancer database was created using the pathology reports and available biomarker data of confirmed cancer cases after review by a cancer epidemiologist, a pathologist, physicians and biostatisticians. (3) Results: The WTC EHC pan-cancer database contains cancer characteristics and emerging biomarker information for cancers of individuals enrolled in the WTC EHC and diagnosed after 11 September 2001 and up to 31 December 2019 obtained from WTC EHC clinical records, pathological reports and state cancer registries. As of 31 December 2019, the database included 3440 cancer cases with cancer characteristics and biomarker information. (4) Conclusions: This evolving database represents an important resource for the scientific community facilitating future research about the etiology, heterogeneity, characteristics and outcomes of cancers and comorbid mental health conditions, cancer economics and gene-environment interaction in the unique population of WTC survivors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Bases de Dados Factuais , Saúde Ambiental , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Sobreviventes
11.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 15, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a complex disease in which both non-genetic and genetic factors interplay. To date, 40 GWAS hits have been associated with PC risk in individuals of European descent, explaining 4.1% of the phenotypic variance. METHODS: We complemented a new conventional PC GWAS (1D) with genome spatial autocorrelation analysis (2D) permitting to prioritize low frequency variants not detected by GWAS. These were further expanded via Hi-C map (3D) interactions to gain additional insight into the inherited basis of PC. In silico functional analysis of public genomic information allowed prioritization of potentially relevant candidate variants. RESULTS: We identified several new variants located in genes for which there is experimental evidence of their implication in the biology and function of pancreatic acinar cells. Among them is a novel independent variant in NR5A2 (rs3790840) with a meta-analysis p value = 5.91E-06 in 1D approach and a Local Moran's Index (LMI) = 7.76 in 2D approach. We also identified a multi-hit region in CASC8-a lncRNA associated with pancreatic carcinogenesis-with a lowest p value = 6.91E-05. Importantly, two new PC loci were identified both by 2D and 3D approaches: SIAH3 (LMI = 18.24), CTRB2/BCAR1 (LMI = 6.03), in addition to a chromatin interacting region in XBP1-a major regulator of the ER stress and unfolded protein responses in acinar cells-identified by 3D; all of them with a strong in silico functional support. CONCLUSIONS: This multi-step strategy, combined with an in-depth in silico functional analysis, offers a comprehensive approach to advance the study of PC genetic susceptibility and could be applied to other diseases.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução de Sinais/genética
12.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 153(2): 330-334, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the contemporary incidence of cancers using American Samoa as a learning set for insights into similar populations. METHODS: A retrospective observational analysis of de-identified data held in public-access databases (2004-2014) and data on uterine cancer from a hospital, both in American Samoa (2015-2016). RESULTS: There were 341 new cases of cancer in 2004-2014 (111 per 100 000 women/year), including breast (20.2%), uterine (19.4%), and cervical (5.0%); and 287 in 2011-2015 (103 per 100 000 women/year), including uterine (24.0%), breast (18.5%), and cervical (5.2%). Uterine cancer increased from 21.4 to 60.3 per 100 000 women/year, becoming the most common cancer in American Samoa. In 2011-2015, the incidence-rate ratio of uterine cancer to other cancers in American Samoa was 1.3-, 3.8-, 4.6-, 7.7-, and 23-fold higher than breast, colon, cervical, ovarian, and lung cancer, respectively. Among the most recent cases (n=33), median age was 55 years (10 [30.3%] <50 years), median BMI was 38.2; and 11 (33.3%) cases had grade 3 histology. CONCLUSION: The pattern of cancers in American Samoa differs from that in the US mainland. The findings reflect significant changes in cancer incidence. Cancer control programs should evaluate the potential of uterine screening in accordance with their community's needs and characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Samoa/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019547

RESUMO

The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) towers on 11 September 2001 released many tons of aerosolized dust and smoke with potential for carcinogenic exposures to community members as well as responders. The WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) is a surveillance and treatment program for a diverse population of community members ("Survivors"), including local residents and workers, present in the NYC disaster area on 9/11 or in the days or weeks following. We report a case series of cancers identified in the WTC EHC as of 31 December 2019. Descriptive characteristics are presented for 2561 cancer patients (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) and 5377 non-cancer WTC-EHC participants who signed informed consent. We identified a total of 2999 cancer diagnoses in 2561 patients: 2534 solid tumors (84.5%) and 465 lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue cancers (15.5%) with forty-one different cancer types. We describe the distribution, frequency, median age of cancer diagnosis and median latency from 9/11 by cancer site. In addition to common cancer types, rare cancers, including male breast cancers and mesotheliomas have been identified. The current study is the first report on cancer characteristics of enrollees at WTC EHC, a federally designated treatment and surveillance program for local community members affected by the 9/11 terrorist attack on the WTC.


Assuntos
Desastres , Neoplasias , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Adulto , Poeira , Saúde Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32751422

RESUMO

The primary goal of this pilot study was to assess feasibility of studies among local community members to address the hypothesis that complex exposures to the World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes resulted in long-term epigenetic changes. We enrolled 18 WTC-exposed cancer-free women from the WTC Environmental Health Center (WTC EHC) who agreed to donate blood samples during their standard clinical visits. As a reference WTC unexposed group, we randomly selected 24 age-matched cancer-free women from an existing prospective cohort who donated blood samples before 11 September 2001. The global DNA methylation analyses were performed using Illumina Infinium MethylationEpic arrays. Statistical analyses were performed using R Bioconductor package. Functional genomic analyses were done by mapping the top 5000 differentially expressed CpG sites to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway database. Among cancer-free subjects, we observed substantial methylation differences between WTC-exposed and unexposed women. The top 15 differentially methylated gene probes included BCAS2, OSGIN1, BMI1, EEF1A2, SPTBN5, CHD8, CDCA7L, AIDA, DDN, SNORD45C, ZFAND6, ARHGEF7, UBXN8, USF1, and USP12. Several cancer-related pathways were enriched in the WTC-exposed subjects, including endocytosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), viral carcinogenesis, as well as Ras-associated protein-1 (Rap1) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. The study provides preliminary data on substantial differences in DNA methylation between WTC-exposed and unexposed populations that require validation in further studies.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Poluentes Ambientais , Ataques Terroristas de 11 de Setembro , Poeira , Exposição Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fator 1 de Elongação de Peptídeos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Troca de Nucleotídeo Guanina Rho
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(10): 2010-2018, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers have shared developmental pathways. Few studies have prospectively examined heterogeneity in risk factor associations across these three anatomic sites. METHODS: We identified 3,738 ovarian, 337 peritoneal, and 176 fallopian tube incident cancer cases in 891,731 women from 15 prospective cohorts in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium. Associations between 18 putative risk factors and risk of ovarian, peritoneal, and fallopian tube cancer, overall and for serous and high-grade serous tumors, were evaluated using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity was assessed by likelihood ratio tests. RESULTS: Most associations did not vary by tumor site (P het ≥ 0.05). Associations between first pregnancy (P het = 0.04), tubal ligation (P het = 0.01), and early-adult (age 18-21 years) body mass index (BMI; P het = 0.02) and risk differed between ovarian and peritoneal cancers. The association between early-adult BMI and risk further differed between peritoneal and fallopian tube cancer (P het = 0.03). First pregnancy and tubal ligation were inversely associated with ovarian, but not peritoneal, cancer. Higher early-adult BMI was associated with higher risk of peritoneal, but not ovarian or fallopian tube, cancer. Patterns were generally similar when restricted to serous and high-grade serous cases. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers appear to have both shared and distinct etiologic pathways, although most risk factors appear to have similar associations by anatomic site. IMPACT: Further studies on the mechanisms underlying the differences in risk profiles may provide insights regarding the developmental origins of tumors arising in the peritoneal cavity and inform prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença Celíaca/genética , Colangite Esclerosante/genética , Doença Crônica , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pancreatite Crônica/genética
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Obesidade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Humanos
20.
Cancer Res ; 80(5): 1210-1218, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932455

RESUMO

Repeated exposure to the acute proinflammatory environment that follows ovulation at the ovarian surface and distal fallopian tube over a woman's reproductive years may increase ovarian cancer risk. To address this, analyses included individual-level data from 558,709 naturally menopausal women across 20 prospective cohorts, among whom 3,246 developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (2,045 serous, 319 endometrioid, 184 mucinous, 121 clear cell, 577 other/unknown). Cox models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted HRs between lifetime ovulatory cycles (LOC) and its components and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Women in the 90th percentile of LOC (>514 cycles) were almost twice as likely to be diagnosed with ovarian cancer than women in the 10th percentile (<294) [HR (95% confidence interval): 1.92 (1.60-2.30)]. Risk increased 14% per 5-year increase in LOC (60 cycles) [(1.10-1.17)]; this association remained after adjustment for LOC components: number of pregnancies and oral contraceptive use [1.08 (1.04-1.12)]. The association varied by histotype, with increased risk of serous [1.13 (1.09-1.17)], endometrioid [1.20 (1.10-1.32)], and clear cell [1.37 (1.18-1.58)], but not mucinous [0.99 (0.88-1.10), P-heterogeneity = 0.01] tumors. Heterogeneity across histotypes was reduced [P-heterogeneity = 0.15] with adjustment for LOC components [1.08 serous, 1.11 endometrioid, 1.26 clear cell, 0.94 mucinous]. Although the 10-year absolute risk of ovarian cancer is small, it roughly doubles as the number of LOC rises from approximately 300 to 500. The consistency and linearity of effects strongly support the hypothesis that each ovulation leads to small increases in the risk of most ovarian cancers, a risk that cumulates through life, suggesting this as an important area for identifying intervention strategies. SIGNIFICANCE: Although ovarian cancer is rare, risk of most ovarian cancers doubles as the number of lifetime ovulatory cycles increases from approximately 300 to 500. Thus, identifying an important area for cancer prevention research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Ovário/imunologia , Ovulação/imunologia , Idoso , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Tubas Uterinas/imunologia , Tubas Uterinas/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Ovário/patologia , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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