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1.
Acta Radiol ; : 284185120930642, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Degenerative change in articular cartilage is one of the most important factors in the development of osteoarthritis. Shear wave elastography can be used to identify pathologic cartilage. PURPOSE: To evaluate distal femoral cartilage by shear wave elastography in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis (study group) and 20 volunteers with the same demographic characteristics but without symptomatic knee pain (control group) were included in the study. A total of 80 knee joints of 40 individuals were evaluated. At the medial, intercondylar, and lateral condylar levels distal femoral cartilage thickness was measured by B-mode ultrasonography and stiffness was measured by shear wave elastography. RESULTS: The medial, intercondylar, and lateral cartilage thickness measurements were similar between the two groups and no statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.711, P = 0.766, and P = 0.575, respectively). The shear wave velocity values in the medial and intercondylar cartilage were significantly higher in the study group (P = 0.002). Shear wave velocity values measured from lateral cartilage were higher in the study group and the difference between the groups had a borderline statistical significance (P = 0.053). CONCLUSION: Shear wave elastography seems to be a reliable, non-invasive, and acceptable method for the assessment of pathologic cartilage.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6103-6111, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863384

RESUMO

The extensive use of copper-based nanopesticides in agriculture has led to their release into the aquatic environment and causes a potential risk to aquatic biota. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the possible toxic effect of these nanopesticides on non-target aquatic organisms including invertebrates. Therefore, in this study, effects of commonly used copper-based nanopesticide "Kocide 3000" on gene expression related to detoxification (cyp360a8, gst, P-gp, and hr96) and reproductive system (cut, cyp314, dmrt93, and vtg) in Daphnia magna was investigated through an acute toxicity test. In general, exposure to the nanopesticide caused significant down-regulation of detoxification genes after 24 h and then significant up-regulation after 48 h. Exposure to the nanopesticide, however, significantly induced cut expression after 24 h. Moreover, dmrt93 and vtg genes were up-regulated after 48 h exposure to the nanopesticide. On the other hand, the expression of dmrt93 and vtg down-regulated at high concentration of Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide (1.5 ppm) after 96 h. The results of this study provide first evidence into the crucial role of genes related to detoxification and reproductive system in response to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide. The use of physiological, biochemical bioassays, as well as gene expression, can help explain the toxic effect of copper-based nanopesticides and provide more insight into the exact mechanism of toxicity in non-target aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Daphnia/fisiologia , Hidróxidos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cladóceros , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/genética , Genitália , Inativação Metabólica
3.
J Ultrasound ; 22(4): 447-452, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482292

RESUMO

In this study, a comparison is made of the findings of B-mode ultrasound and ultrasound elastography with the Lens Opacities Classification (LOCS) grade in patients with senile cataracts. A total of 74 patients with cataracts and 32 age-matched healthy volunteers as the control group were evaluated in the departments of ophthalmology and radiology between 2016 and 2017. In the patient group, cataracts were graded according to LOCS, and B-mode sonographic appearance and elasticity measurements were recorded, after which the cataract grade and sonoelastography/B-mode ultrasound findings were compared using statistical methods. Among the 74 patients with cataracts, 38 were females (51.4%) and 36 were males (48.6%), and the mean age was 62.05 ± 7.95 (43-78) years. A Chi-square test revealed a significant relationship between ultrasound echogenicity of cataract and grade of cataract (p < 0.005). The ultrasound elastography revealed a mean shear-wave velocity of 2.90 m/s ± 0.371 (2.13-3.53) among patients with grade 3 cataracts, 3.1 m/s ± 0.45 (2.26-3.98) among patients with grade 4, 3 m/s ± 0.58 (2.35-4.60) among patients with grade 5 and 3 m/s ± 0.528 (2.31-4.50) among patients with grade 6 cataracts, and 3 m/s ± 0.258 (2.36-3.58) among the normal subjects. No statistically significant difference was noted in the analysis of variance (p > 0.005). While cataract grade and B mode echogenicity were directly proportional, there was no significant difference in lens elasticity.


Assuntos
Catarata/classificação , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Feminino , Humanos , Cristalino/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ultrassonografia
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422162

RESUMO

Deltamethrin (DMN) exposure causes severe damage to the gill and liver tissues of aquatic organisms, as well as neurotoxic effects and metabolic disorders. The goal of the present study was to assess the impacts of DMN toxicity on blood biochemistry, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT) levels, behavior disorder, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, histopathology and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario). Acute concentrations (1.0 and 2.0µg/L) of DMN caused behavioral disorder such as rapid swimming, loss of balance, aggressiveness and increasing in the surface activity and inactivity in brown trout. A significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and a significant decrease in CAT, AChE, blood albumin, and blood total protein content were observed. Histopathologically, both doses of DMN have caused steatosis, necrosis, and degeneration in hepatocytes and hyperemia in the liver. Also, they led to inflammation, adhesion and fusion depending on severe hyperplasia in secondary lamellae, hyperemia and lamellar edema in gill tissues when compared to control group. Additionally, 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8 OHdG) levels at 2.0 µg/L dose of DMN in liver tissues were more severe according to 1.0 µg/L dose of DMN. Finally, different concentrations of DMN led to changes of the histopathology, 8OHdG, the CAT levels, plasma AChE activity, and the serum metabolites, as well as behavioral disorder in brown trout.


Assuntos
Brânquias/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Truta/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/sangue , Animais , Catalase/sangue , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo
5.
Ultrasound Q ; 35(2): 164-168, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724867

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in the differentiation of transudative and exudative pleural effusions. This monocentric study comprised 60 cases (17 transudative, 43 exudative).Transthoracic SWE was performed in 60 cases for whom to use thoracentesis for the pleural fluid analysis was planned. The mean SWE values of each patient were recorded, and the correlation between the biochemical analysis results of pleural fluid after thoracentesis and SWE findings was evaluated. The effusion SWE values and biochemical analysis results were compared. Of the 60 patients who participated in this study, 32 (53.4) were male and 28 (46.6%) were female. The mean ± SD age was 59 ± 17.09 years (range = 21-89 years). Simultaneous serum biochemical analysis was performed for the patients with PE. The mean ± SD shear-wave velocity value of the transudative fluid was calculated 2.29 ± 0.41 (1.6-2.94), whereas the mean ± SD shear-wave velocity value of the exudative pleural fluid was calculated as 3.29 ± 0.63 (2.01-4.88) (P < 0.001). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that sensitivity and specificity were found as 91% and 76.5%, respectively, when the cutoff value was selected as 2.52 m/s in the differentiation of the transudative and exudative effusions.Shear-wave elastography may help in the differentiation of transudative and exudative of the pleural effusions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Derrame Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cavidade Pleural/diagnóstico por imagem , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 32(15): 2481-2485, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480138

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the elasticities of fetal placentas with a single umbilical artery using the Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTTQ) technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant women with fetuses with a single umbilical artery (SUA) and pregnant women with fetuses having three vessel cord (3VC) at 18-22 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the research. The placentas were evaluated and divided into three equal parts as the inner 1/3 of the placenta (fetal edge), the outer 1/3 of the placenta (maternal edge) and the central 1/3 of the placenta (central part). Shear-wave velocity (SWV) measurements were used in the elastographic evaluation of placentas by VTTQ. RESULTS: Forty pregnant women were included in the study (n = 20 SUA, n = 20 three vessel cord pregnant women). The placental Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (VTTQ) of the placenta regarding SWV measurement values of the fetal edge of the placenta in the fetuses with SUA and the control group were 0.876 and 0.957 m/sec, respectively. A significant statistical difference was found between the groups regarding the measurement of the stiffness of fetal placenta (p = 0.021). There was no significant difference between the measured stiffness values of the central or outer region of the placentas. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found lower SWV scores for the fetal edge of the placenta with SUA. This finding may reflect tissue elasticity level, and we hope that the use of the VTTQ technique may contribute to predicting the pregnancy-related morbidities of fetuses with SUA in the future.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Umbilical Única/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Ultrasound Q ; 34(4): 233-237, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169488

RESUMO

In this study, the effectiveness of transthoracic ultrasound elastography in the benign and malign distinction of subpleural/pleural solid lesions was investigated.Between July 2015 and December 2016, 33 consecutive patients with subpleural solid lesions detected via computed tomography (CT) of the thorax were identified and prospectively included in this study. The average for each lesion's shear wave velocity (SWV) value was detected, and benign and malignant lesions' SWV values are statistically compared. The CT and pathology results were used as a reference to compare these values. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the cutoff value for benign/malignant neoplasms.The 33 patients (10 female, 23 male) included in the study had a mean age of 56.2 ± 15.40 years (range, 17-84 years), and the mean SWV value of the lesions in 13 (39%) cases evaluated benign after a CT scan, histopathological examination, or both 2.18 ± 0.49 m/s. The mean SWV value of the lesions which were histopathologically diagnosed as malign in 23 (61%) cases was 3.50 ± 0.69 m/s. (P < 0.001). When the cutoff value was set as 2.47 m/s for the SVW value, sensitivity and specificity were determined to be 97.7%.The present study has shown that transthoracic ultrasound shear wave elastography can be an effective radiological examination method in the benign and malign differentiation of subpleural lesions and has the potential for use in the routine clinical application of transthoracic ultrasound elastography, a noninvasive method for evaluating the malignancy potentials of such lesions.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Grandes/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Med Ultrason ; 20(2): 141-147, 2018 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730678

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the reliability of testicular stiffness quantification using shear wave elastography in predicting the fertility potential of males and for the pre-diagnosis of disorders based upon sperm quantification. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred males between the ages of 19-49 years (mean age of 28.77±6.11), ninety of whom with complaints of infertility, were enrolled in this prospective study. Scrotal grey-scale, Doppler ultrasound (US), and mean testicular shear wave velocity quantifications (SWVQs) were performed. The volumes of testes, as well as the grade of varicocele if present, were recorded. The mean shear wave velocity values (SWVVs) of each testis and a mean testicular SWVV for each patient were calculated. The semen-analyses of patients were consecutively performed. RESULTS: There were significant negative correlations between the mean testicular SWVVs of patients and their sperm counts or the testis volumes (r=-0.399, r=-0.565; p<0.01, respectively). A positive correlation was found between testicular volumes and sperm counts (r=0.491, p<0.01). The cut-off values regarding mean testicular SWVV to distinguish normal sperm count from azoospermia and oligozoospermia were 1.465 m/s (75.0% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity) and 1.328 m/s (64.3% sensitivity and 68.2% specificity), respectively, and the value to distinguish oligozoospermia from azoospermia was 1.528 m/s (66.7% sensitivity, 60.7% specificity). CONCLUSION: The mean testicular SWVQ using the ARFI shear wave technique was a reliable, non-invasive and acceptably stable method for predicting male infertility, especially related to sperm count issues.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Infertilidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Infertilidade/patologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/patologia , Adulto , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho do Órgão , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia Doppler , Varicocele/complicações , Varicocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Varicocele/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
World Neurosurg ; 118: 86-87, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705229

RESUMO

A 55-year-old male who complained of frequent back pain accompanied by increasing weakness in the lower extremities was admitted to our hospital's Neurosurgery Department. No additional disease was in his history. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic area, anterior epidural space, and paravertebral area revealed an approximately 55 × 9 mm lymphoma pressuring the spinal cord from the anterior. It was fusiformed with a dural tail, hypointense on sagittal T1-weighted imaging series, and hypointense on sagittal T2-weighted imaging series compared with the spinal cord, showing contrast enhancement. After gadolinium application, an extra-axial mass lesion was detected. The lesion was surgically removed from the patient, whom we thought had meningioma on the basis of radiology. However, histopathology resulted in the diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meningioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningioma/cirurgia , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Meninges/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Vértebras Torácicas/patologia
10.
Chemosphere ; 203: 318-326, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626809

RESUMO

The aim of the present study is to investigate the toxicity effects of frequently used pesticides, involving cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid, on the expression of bdnf and c-fos genes in zebrafish brain tissues. Therefore, brain tissues exposed to intoxication was primarily analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Afterwards, the mRNA transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The data of the immunofluorescence assay revealed intensive immunopositivity for bdnf and c-fos genes in the tissues exposed to pesticide intoxication in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Moreover, the transcription levels of BNDF and c-fos genes, and protein levels were elevated following the intoxication (p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001, respectively). These results showed that the exposure to the acute cypermethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid intoxication disrupted the normal neuronal activity, resulting in neurotoxic effect, also DNA-binding Increasing c-fos activation, an oncoprotein from the family of the Nuclear Proteins, is also true of the knowledge that these chemicals are oncogenic in zebrafish brain tissues. Thus, the use of these pesticides poses a potential neuronal and oncogenic risk to the non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Obstet Gynaecol ; 38(7): 911-915, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564950

RESUMO

We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of placental elasticity in predicting a placental invasion anomaly with the Virtual Touch Quantification (VTQ) technique. Pregnant women in the third trimester with suspected placental invasion anomaly were enrolled into the research (n = 58). The placenta was evaluated and divided into three equal parts as foetal edge (inner 1/3 of placenta), maternal edge (outer 1/3 of placenta) and the central part (central 1/3 of placenta). Shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements were used in the elastographic evaluation of placentas by VTQ. We performed the measurements at the different regions of placenta for sampling the variety areas of the placenta. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) Elastography scores were significantly higher in the group in which an invasion was detected during the surgery of patients with preoperative placental invasion suspicion. A significant difference in the measurements of the inner, central and outer third of the placenta between the groups was found (p < .001). In this study, we have shown higher SWV scores of placental measurements of the patients with preoperative suspected anomalies and an invasion detected during their surgery. These findings may reflect an event at the tissue elasticity level and we hope that the use of the VTQ technique may contribute to an early prediction of placental invasions before surgery in the future via new research. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Placenta invasion anomalies (PIA's) are characterized by haemorrhages which can threat the mother's life. Placental invasion anomalies are among the most important causes of maternal mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis is very important condition in reducing the mortality and morbidity. Gray scale ultrasonography (US) is mostly used in early diagnosis of PIA's. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) is a new elastographic ultrasonography technic. We aimed to evaluate a new method in the early diagnosis of PIA's using ARFI technique. There is no study in the diagnosis of PIA's by ARFI in the literature to our knowledge. We think that this original study will contribute to the literature. What do the results of this study add? We showed the accuracy of ARFI in determination of PIA's. ARFI scores were significantly higher in the group in which invasion was detected during surgery of patients with preoperative placental invasion suspicion. What are the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Our findings may reflect an event at the tissue elasticity level and we hope that the use of VTQ technique may contribute to early predict of placental invasions before surgery in the future via new researches. Early diagnosis of placental invasion anomalies may reduce mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Elasticidade , Placenta Acreta/diagnóstico , Placenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 24: 855-862, 2018 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND In the present study, the role and efficiency of strain elastography (SE) were evaluated in diagnosis and staging of acute appendicitis in pediatric patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 225 pediatric patients with suspected clinical and laboratory findings of acute appendicitis. Gray-scale sonographic findings were recorded and staging was made by the colorization method of SE imaging. Appendectomy was performed in all patients and the results of the surgical pathology were compared with the imaging findings. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SE imaging were determined in terms of evaluating the "acute appendicitis". RESULTS Sonographic evaluation revealed acute appendicitis in 100 patients. Regarding the SE analysis, cases with appendicitis were classified into 3 groups as: mild (n=17), moderate (n=39), and severe (n=44). The pathological evaluation revealed 95 different stages of appendicitis and normal appendix in 5 cases: acute focal (n=10), acute suppurative (n=46), phlegmonous (n=27), and perforated (n=12), regarding the results of surgical pathology. Five patients with pathologically proven "normal" appendix were noted as "mild stage appendicitis" based on gray scale and SE analysis. In total, when gray-scale and SE results were compared with pathology results regardless of the stage of appendicitis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy rates were 96%, 96%, 95%, 96.8%, and 96%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected between other groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In acute appendicitis, the use of SE imaging as a supportive method for the clinical approach can be useful in diagnosis, and its results are closely correlated with the histopathologic stage of appendix inflammation.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico , Apendicite/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Apêndice/diagnóstico por imagem , Apêndice/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
13.
Toxicol Rep ; 5: 125-133, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321977

RESUMO

Imidacloprid (IMI) is a neonicotinoid that is widely used for the protection of crops and carnivores from insects and parasites, respectively. It is well known that imidacloprid exposure has a harmful effect on several organisms. However, there is little information about imidacloprid toxicity in aquatic animals, particularly fish. Thus, in the current study, we assessed the histopathological changes; activation of iNOS, 8-OHdG and TNF-α; and expression levels of caspase 3, iNOS, CYP1A and MT1 genes in the common carp exposed to imidacloprid. For this purpose, fish were exposed to either a low dose (140 mg/L) or a high dose (280 mg/L) of imidacloprid for 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After IMI exposure, we detected hyperplasia of secondary lamellar cells and mucous cell hyperplasia in the gills, as well as hydropic degeneration in hepatocytes and necrosis in the liver. Moreover, 8-OHdG, iNOS and TNF-α activation was found particularly in the gills and liver but also moderately in the brain. Transcriptional analysis showed that caspase 3 expression was altered low dose and high doses of IMI for 72 h and 96 h exposure (p < 0.05), iNOS expression was up-regulated with both low and high doses of IMI and in a time-dependent manner (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001), CYP1A expression was not significantly changed regardless of the dose of IMI and exposure time (p > 0.05) except with low and high doses of IMI for 96 h (p < 0.05), and lastly, MT1 gene expression was up-regulated only in the brain with low doses of IMI for 96 h and high doses of IMI for 48 h, 72 h and 96 h exposure (p < 0.05, p < 0.01). Our results indicated that acute IMI exposure moderately induce apoptosis in the brain but caused severe histopathological lesions, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the gills, liver, and brain of the common carp.

14.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 45(3): 453-459, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to quantify the stiffness of the median nerve (MN) at the carpal tunnel inlet by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and to evaluate whether ARFI can be used in diagnosis and staging of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). METHODS: Sonographic examinations of 96 wrists in 50 patients were included in the study. The cross-sectional area and stiffness of the MN were quantitatively measured by B-mode ultrasonography (USG) and ARFI. The findings of CTS were assigned to four groups: (I) normal (n = 21), (II) mild (n = 39), (III) moderate (n = 38), and (IV) severe (n = 19). The differences between CTS patients and controls and the differences in electrodiagnostic tests among subgroups were statistically compared. ROC analysis was performed to determine the cut-off values between subgroups. RESULTS: Bilateral CTS was present in 46 patients (92 wrists) and unilateral CTS in four patients. Of the 96 nerves in the 50 symptomatic "idiopathic CTS" patients (48 women, 2 men; mean age 45.9 years, range 23-73 years), 39 (40.4%) were mild, 38 (39.8%) were moderate, and 19 (19.8%) were severely affected. When compared to controls, MN stiffness was significantly higher in the CTS group (P < 0.001); furthermore, it was higher in the severe or extreme severity group than the mild or moderate severity group (P < 0.001). A 3.250 m/s cut-off value on ARFI revealed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of 81, 82, 95.1, 50, and 82%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The MN stiffness measured by ARFI elastography is significantly higher in patients with CTS then in controls. ARFI elastography appears to be a highly efficient imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of these patients.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/diagnóstico por imagem , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Adulto , Idoso , Elasticidade , Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade/métodos , Eletrodiagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Punho/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 52(1): 107-111, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29162292

RESUMO

IgA vasculitis (IgAV) is a leukocytoclastic vasculitis and characterized by involvement of small vessels in skin, gastrointestinal system, joints, kidneys, and less frequently other organs. It is the commonest vasculitis in childhood and etiology is not completely known. Neurological manifestations of IgAV are very rare and usually seen in patients with severe hypertension or as an uncommon feature such as peripheral neuropathy. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinic-radiologic entity characterized with temporary vasogenic edema developing typically in posterior circulation of the brain and has been reported as a rare manifestation of IgAV. In this paper, a PRES case of 14-year-old male with IgAV is reported and etiopathogenesis was discussed with literature. Diagnosis was made by magnetic resonance imaging because of the existence of neurological symptoms (headache and visual loss) during the course of disease. His radiological findings have resolved with therapy. Although neurological involvement is a rare manifestation in IgAV, we recommend magnetic resonance imaging in such patients for diagnosis and evaluation of complications.


Assuntos
Síndrome da Leucoencefalopatia Posterior , Vasculite , Adolescente , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem
16.
J Trauma Dissociation ; 19(1): 108-125, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28281921

RESUMO

This study inquires into neurobiological response to stress and its clinical correlates among adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of cerebral anatomy were carried out on 23 female adolescents with PTSD related to severe childhood sexual abuse and 21 matched healthy controls. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents, Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children, Beck Depression Scale, and a set of neuro-cognitive tests were administered to all participants. Compared to controls, PTSD group bilaterally had smaller amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, and thinner prefrontal cortex but normal thalamus. Further analyses within the PTSD group suggested an association between symptoms of PTSD and sizes of right brain structures including smaller amygdala but larger hippocampus and anterior cingulate. Thinner right prefrontal cortex and larger right thalamus seemed to be related to denial and response prevention, respectively. Being related to both hemispheres, dissociative amnesia was negatively associated with proportion of the right amygdala to right thalamus and to both left and right prefrontal cortex. Suggesting a neuro-protective effect against traumatic stress at least through adolescence, depersonalization-derealization and identity alteration were correlated with thicker left prefrontal cortex. Unlike the lateralization within PTSD group, correlations between regions of interest were rather symmetrical in controls. The graded response to stress seemed to be aimed at mental protection by lateralization of brain functions and possibly diminished connection between two hemispheres. A Tri-Modal Reaction (T-MR) Model of protection is proposed.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Lateralidade Funcional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/patologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Tamanho do Órgão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
17.
World Neurosurg ; 109: e33-e42, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal bone metastases are common. They are mostly localized to the lumbar, thoracic, and cervical spine. The most common primaries to result in spinal metastases include lung, breast, and prostate carcinomas in adults as opposed to leukemia, Ewing sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neuroblastoma in children. In patients diagnosed with cancer, bone metastases are found in 40% and spinal metastases in 10%. In this study, we reviewed 25 patients diagnosed with a spinal metastasis of unknown primary who presented with low back pain or acute-onset neurologic deficits and underwent operative treatment. METHODS: The retrospective study included 25 patients with a spinal metastasis of unknown primary who presented to our clinic with acute-onset vertebral fracture or neurologic deficit. Statistical descriptions were obtained for each patient. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The 25 patients included 17 men (68%) and 8 women (32%), with a mean age of 55 years (range, 14-81 years). Eleven patients (44%) presented with varying degrees of motor deficits ranging from flaccid paralysis to paraplegia. Motor deficits were completely reversed in 4 patients postoperatively. The tumors were localized to the upper thoracic spine (T1-4) in 2 patients, in the midthoracic spine (T5-8) in 2 patients, in the lower thoracic spine (T9-12) in 8 patients, in the cervical 7 in 1 patient, and in the lumbar spine in 12 patients. In 10 patients, the tumor affected multiple spinal regions. Nonosseous tumors were not present in 10 patients. Ten patients had an extradural tumor. Costal involvement was detected in 2 patients. The tumors were pathologically identified as lung cancer (n = 3), lymphoma (n = 5), breast cancer (n = 3), gastric cancer (n = 2), liver cancer (n = 2), prostate cancer (n = 2), renal cell carcinoma (n = 2), malignant melanoma (n = 1), plasmacytoma (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), paraganglioma (n = 1), Ewing sarcoma (n = 1), and yolk sac carcinoma (n = 1). Posterior instrumentation was performed in patients with instability. In addition, decompression was performed in patients with neurologic deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Considering that 10% of patients with cancer are diagnosed by vertebral metastasis, presence of malignancy should be suspected and a detailed examination should be performed in patients presenting with vertebral fractures caused by no or minor trauma. Moreover, in patients presenting with neurologic deficit, soft tissue metastases leading to spinal cord compression should be kept in mind and further examinations should be promptly administered.

18.
Environ Pollut ; 230: 432-443, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28675853

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to identify the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos exposure on the tissues of common carp. For this purpose, we evaluated histopathological changes in the brain, gills, liver, kidney, testis, and ovaries after 21 days of chlorpyrifos exposure. Activation of 8-OHdG, cleaved caspase-3, and iNOS were assesed by immunofluorescence assay in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain and liver tissue. Additionally, we measured the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, iNOS, MT1, CYP1A, and CYP3A genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed brain tissue, as well as the expression levels of FSH and LH genes in chlorpyrifos-exposed ovaries, using qRT-PCR. We observed severe histopathological lesions, including inflammation, degeneration, necrosis, and hemorrhage, in the evaluated tissues of common carp after both high and low levels of exposure to chlorpyrifos. We detected strong and diffuse signs of immunofluorescence reaction for 8-OHdG, iNOS, and cleaved caspase-3 in the chlorpyrifos-exposed brain and liver tissues. Furthermore, we found that chlorpyrifos exposure significantly upregulated the expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, iNOS, and MT1, and also moderately upregulated CYP1A and CYP3A in the brain tissue of exposed carp. We also noted downregulation of FSH and LH gene expressions in chlorpyrifos-exposed ovary tissues. Based on our results, chlorpyrifos toxication caused crucial histopathological lesions in vital organs, induced oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in liver and brain tissues, and triggered reproductive sterility in common carp. Therefore, we can propose that chlorpyrifos toxication is highly dangerous to the health of common carp. Moreover, chlorpyrifos pollution in the water could threaten the common carp population. Use of chlorpyrifos should be restricted, and aquatic systems should be monitored for chlorpyrifos pollution.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Carpas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Expressão Gênica , Genitália , Brânquias/metabolismo , Inflamação , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Chemosphere ; 180: 491-499, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431387

RESUMO

Cypermethrin (Cyp), a known neurotoxic pesticide, is widely used in agricultural applications. In the present study, the aim was to determine the histopathological effects of Cyp toxication and evaluate the activation of inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) using an immunofluorescence assay. Thereafter, we identified the expressions of caspase 3, capsase 8, iNOS, and metallothionein 1 (MT1) genes in common carp using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). High and low doses of Cyp were administered to experimental groups for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. As a result, necrotic neurons in different stages and desquamation of ependymal cells due to necrosis were detected in the brain. Histopathological changes, including hyperplasia of lamellar cells, telangiectasia of lamellae and thickening due to cellular infiltration in gills, hemorrhage, diffuse hydropic degeneration, and focal necrosis in the liver were observed in the experimental groups. Immunopositive reactions of 8-OHdG were clearly observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of neurons, and positive reactions for iNOS were detected in the cytoplasm of neurons and in the glial cells of the experimental groups. Furthermore, we found that caspase 3, capsase 8, iNOS, and MT1 genes were up-regulated in the brain when exposed to both high and low doses of Cyp. In conclusion, our findings revealed that Cyp toxication harms the organs of common carp, particularly the brain, and also gives rise to inflammation, DNA damage, and apoptosis. Therefore, the use of Cyp should be restricted to protect the health of aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Carpas/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Dano ao DNA , Brânquias/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo
20.
Aquat Toxicol ; 187: 90-99, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399480

RESUMO

Deltamethrin is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid pesticide that protects agricultural yields, including crops, fruits, and vegetables from insect-pests. It is known that deltamethrin toxication leads to metabolic disorders and has detrimental effects on the brain and liver in different organisms. However, the harmful effects of deltamethrin toxication on aquatic animals remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of deltamethrin toxication by performing a histopathological examination, an immunofluorescence assay, and a qRT-PCR on common carp. We observed that a low-dose (0.04µM) and a high-dose (0.08µM) of deltamethrin exposure caused lamellar cells hyperplasia and inflammatory cells infiltration in the gills, hyperemia, diffuse hydropic degenerations and focal necrosis in the hepatocytes, necrotic changes in the neurons, and also induced activation of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the gills, liver, and brain depending on the exposure time (24h, 48h, 72h and 96h). In addition, deltamethrin toxication caused the up-regulation of caspase-3 and the inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) of the gene expression depending on the dose (0.04µM and 0.08µM) and the exposure time in the brain (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001). Our results indicated that long-term deltamethrin exposure could lead to inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis on the different organs in common carp. Thus, deltamethrin toxication is dangerous for common carp populations, and the usage of deltamethrin should be controlled and restricted in agricultural areas.


Assuntos
Carpas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Carpas/genética , Caspase 3/genética , Dano ao DNA , Desoxiguanosina/genética , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
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