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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(9): e015060, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340520

RESUMO

Background Acute type A aortic dissection presents with abrupt onset of pain that requires emergency surgery. However, minimal research exists on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. We aimed to quantify the prevalence and describe characteristics of PTSD in patients following dissection. Methods and Results A total of 295 adult survivors of surgical dissection with an email on file were administered a cross-sectional online survey about their dissection experience; 137 returned questionnaires, and 129 (94%) responded to the 4-item Primary Care PTSD portion of the survey that was part of a larger lifestyle survey designed to study survivors of aortic dissection and surgery. In addition to the PTSD screening, it inquired about current sexual activity, exercise habits, and employment within the preceding 30 days. At a median of 6.8 years (quartile 1=2.6, quartile 3=8.9 years) after dissection, 23% of patients (30/129) screened positive for PTSD, with 44% (57/129) stating that within the past month they felt constantly on guard or watchful or were easily startled. Of those who screened positive and matched to their electronic medical record (n=27), only 2 (7.4%) had been tested and clinically diagnosed with PTSD. Patients who screened positive for PTSD were more likely to report limited current sexual activity than those who did not (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% CI, 1.9-15 [P=0.0006]). Conclusions PTSD is an important mental health consideration in aortic dissection survivors. Physicians should screen these patients for PTSD at follow-up visits to identify those who test positive and refer them for further testing and treatment, such as trauma-focused psychotherapy or medication.

2.
J Clin Anesth ; 62: 109729, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood and adolescent obesity increased in recent decades, and caregivers face an increasing number of obese pediatric surgical patients. Some clinical and pharmacogenetic data suggest that obese patients have altered pain sensitivity and analgesic requirements. OBJECTIVE: To test the primary hypothesis that increased BMI in pediatric patients is associated with increased pain during the initial 48 postoperative hours. Secondarily, we tested whether BMI is associated with increased opioid consumption during the same period. DESIGN: Retrospective single-center cohort study. SETTING: Pediatric surgical wards in a tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: A total of 808 opioid naïve patients aged 8 to 18 years having elective non-cardiac surgery with hospital stay of at least 48 h in the Cleveland Clinic between 2010 and 2015. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS: Using U.S. Centers for Disease Control definitions for childhood weight classifications, we retrospectively evaluated the association between body mass index (BMI) percentile and time-weighted average pain scores and opioid consumption. We used multivariable linear regression to test for an association with postoperative pain scores, and multivariable gamma regression to test for an association with postoperative opioid consumption (in mg morphine equivalents Kg-1). RESULTS: BMI was not associated with postoperative pain after general, orthopedic, or neuro-spinal surgeries. Pain increased by 0.07 [98.75% CI: (0.01, 0.13), Padj < 0.05] points per 5 percentile increase in BMI after neuro-cranial surgery. Higher BMI was associated with a decrease in postoperative opioid consumption (mean change [95% CI] -2.12% [-3.12%, -1.10%] in morphine equivalents Kg-1 per 5 percentile increase in BMI, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We found no clinically important increase in pain scores or opioid consumption in association with higher BMI in patients 8 to 18 years of age recovering from elective non-cardiac surgery.

3.
Anesth Analg ; 130(5): 1396-1406, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation with low tidal volumes appears to provide benefit in patients having noncardiac surgery; however, whether it is beneficial in patients having cardiac surgery is unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients having elective cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass through a median sternotomy approach who received mechanical ventilation with a single lumen endotracheal tube from January 2010 to mid-August 2016. Time-weighted average tidal volume (milliliter per kilogram predicted body weight [PBW]) during the duration of surgery excluding cardiopulmonary bypass was analyzed. The association between tidal volumes and postoperative oxygenation (measured by arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio [PaO2/FIO2]), impaired oxygenation (PaO2/FIO2 <300), and clinical outcomes were examined. RESULTS: Of 9359 cardiac surgical patients, larger tidal volumes were associated with slightly worse postoperative oxygenation. Postoperative PaO2/FIO2 decreased an estimated 1.05% per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume (97.5% confidence interval [CI], -1.74 to -0.37; PBon = .0005). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with increased odds of impaired oxygenation (odds ratio [OR; 97.5% CI]: 1.08 [1.02-1.14] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PBon = .0029), slightly longer intubation time (5% per 1 mL/kg increase in tidal volume (hazard ratio [98.33% CI], 0.95 [0.93-0.98] per 1 mL/kg PBW; PBon < .0001), and increased mortality (OR [98.33% CI], 1.34 [1.06-1.70] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0144). An increase in intraoperative tidal volumes was also associated with acute postoperative respiratory failure (OR [98.33% CI], 1.16 [1.03-1.32] per 1 mL/kg PBW increase in tidal volume; PHolm = .0146), but not other pulmonary complications. CONCLUSIONS: Lower time-weighted average intraoperative tidal volumes were associated with a very modest improvement in postoperative oxygenation in patients having cardiac surgery.

4.
Anesthesiology ; 132(1): 121-130, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with cardiovascular, renal, and infectious risks. Postsurgical patients are susceptible to similar complications, but whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to postoperative complications remains unclear. We tested whether low preoperative vitamin D is associated with cardiovascular events within 30 days after noncardiac surgery. METHODS: We evaluated a subset of patients enrolled in the biobank substudy of the Vascular events In noncardiac Surgery patIents cOhort evaluatioN (VISION) study, who were at least 45 yr with at least an overnight hospitalization. Blood was collected preoperatively, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in stored samples. The primary outcome was the composite of cardiovascular events (death, myocardial injury, nonfatal cardiac arrest, stroke, congestive heart failure) within 30 postoperative days. Secondary outcomes were kidney injury and infectious complications. RESULTS: A total of 3,851 participants were eligible for analysis. Preoperative 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 70 ± 30 nmol/l, and 62% of patients were vitamin D deficient. Overall, 26 (0.7%) patients died, 41 (1.1%) had congestive heart failure or nonfatal cardiac arrest, 540 (14%) had myocardial injury, and 15 (0.4%) had strokes. Preoperative vitamin D concentration was not associated with the primary outcome (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.93 [0.85, 1.01] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P = 0.095). However, it was associated with postoperative infection (average relative effect odds ratio [95% CI]: 0.94 [0.90, 0.98] per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.005) and kidney function (estimated mean change in postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [95% CI]: 0.29 [0.11, 0.48] ml min 1.73 m per 10 nmol/l increase in preoperative vitamin D, P adjusted value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative vitamin D was not associated with a composite of postoperative 30-day cardiac outcomes. However, there was a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and a composite of infectious complications and decreased kidney function. While renal effects were not clinically meaningful, the effect of vitamin D supplementation on infectious complications requires further study.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pré-Operatório , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis/sangue , Comorbidade , Feminino , Cardiopatias/sangue , Humanos , Nefropatias/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
5.
JAMA Surg ; 152(2): 192-198, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27806151

RESUMO

Importance: Studies demonstrate that use of prostate-specific antigen screening decreased significantly following the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation against prostate-specific antigen screening in 2012. Objective: To determine downstream effects on practice patterns in prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment following the 2012 USPSTF recommendation. Design, Setting, and Participants: Procedural volumes of certifying and recertifying urologists from 2009 through 2016 were evaluated for variation in prostate biopsy and radical prostatectomy (RP) volume. Trends were confirmed using the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System and Nationwide Inpatient Sample. The study included a representative sample of urologists across practice settings and nationally representative sample of all RP discharges. We obtained operative case logs from the American Board of Urology and identified urologists performing at least 1 prostate biopsy (n = 5173) or RP (n = 3748), respectively. Exposures: The 2012 USPSTF recommendation against routine population-wide prostate-specific antigen screening. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in median biopsy and RP volume per urologist and national procedural volume. Results: Following the USPSTF recommendation, median biopsy volume per urologist decreased from 29 to 21 (interquartile range [IQR}, 12-34; P < .001). After adjusting for physician and practice characteristics, biopsy volume decreased by 28.7% following 2012 (parameter estimate, -0.25; SE, 0.03; P < .001). Similarly, following the USPSTF recommendation, median RP volume per urologist decreased from 7 (IQR, 3-15) to 6 (IQR, 2-12) (P < .001), and in adjusted analyses, RP volume decreased 16.2% (parameter estimate, -0.15; SE, 0.05; P = .003). Conclusions and Relevance: Following the 2012 USPSTF recommendation, prostate biopsy and RP volumes decreased significantly. A panoramic vantage point is needed to evaluate the long-term consequences of the 2012 USPSTF recommendation.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prostatectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Urologia/tendências , Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , New York , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Próstata/patologia , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/tendências , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Estados Unidos
6.
Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) ; 86(3): 361-366, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988942

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: South Asians have higher rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease compared to most other racial/ethnic groups. Increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in response to dietary sugar may accelerate the development of these chronic diseases in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Hepatic DNL in response to a calorically sweetened beverage was measured in an outpatient setting in 15 South Asians and 15 Caucasians with similar and normal body mass indexes, waist circumferences, glucose tolerance and lipid profiles. Blood was sampled before and hourly for 4 h after the ingestion of a single beverage made with glucose (1·5 g/kg) and fructose (1·5 g/kg). The main outcome, DNL, was measured as the increase in %palmitate (16:0) in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG) over 4 h. RESULTS: After the sugar dose, the increase in %16:0 in VLDL TG was significantly greater in South Asians vs Caucasians (P = 0·01). VLDL and total TG also increased to a significantly greater extent in South Asians (P = 0·04 and <0·001, respectively). Although the fasting and postsugar levels of insulin and glucose did not differ between groups, the DNL response significantly correlated with the insulin response to sugar in South Asians (r = 0·56, P = 0·03). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic DNL in response to a sugar challenge was greater in healthy, young South Asians compared to Caucasians despite normal indices of insulin sensitivity, and it correlated with the insulin response. These findings suggest an early, insulin-related, gene-nutrient interaction contributing to the high prevalence of diabetes and coronary disease in this population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Sacarose na Dieta/farmacologia , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/farmacologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Lipoproteínas VLDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Palmitatos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Carcinogenesis ; 32(3): 312-7, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21115650

RESUMO

Lung cancer continues to be the leading cause of cancer death in the USA and the best example of a cancer with undisputed evidence of environmental risk. However, a genetic contribution to lung cancer has also been demonstrated by studies of familial aggregation, family-based linkage, candidate gene studies and most recently genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The African-American population has been underrepresented in these genetic studies and has patterns of cigarette use and linkage disequilibrium that differ from patterns in other populations. Therefore, studies in African-Americans can provide complementary data to localize lung cancer susceptibility genes and explore smoking dependence-related genes. We used admixture mapping to further characterize genetic risk of lung cancer in a series of 837 African-American lung cancer cases and 975 African-American controls genotyped at 1344 ancestry informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Both case-only and case-control analyses were conducted using ADMIXMAP adjusted for age, sex, pack-years of smoking, family history of lung cancer, history of emphysema and study site. In case-only analyses, excess European ancestry was observed over a wide region on chromosome 1 with the largest excess seen at rs6587361 for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (Z-score = -4.33; P = 1.5 × 10⁻5) and for women with NSCLC (Z-score = -4.82; P = 1.4 × 10⁻6). Excess African ancestry was also observed on chromosome 3q with a peak Z-score of 3.33 (P = 0.0009) at rs181696 among ever smokers with NSCLC. These results add to the findings from the GWAS in Caucasian populations and suggest novel regions of interest.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Carcinoma de Pequenas Células do Pulmão/genética , Fumar/genética
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