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Cytogenet Genome Res ; 161(5): 249-256, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433167


B chromosomes occur in different species of the small characid fishes of the genus Moenkhausia. These supernumerary elements, that do not recombine with chromosomes of the standard A complement and follow their own evolutionary mechanism vary in number, morphology, and distribution. Here, we show karyotypic data of individuals of 2 populations of Moenkhausia oligolepis of the Brazilian Amazon (Pedro Correia and Taboquinha streams, Tocantins river basin), both with a diploid number of 50 chromosomes and karyotypic formula of 10m + 32sm + 8a. In addition to the normal complement, we also observed the occurrence of B chromosomes in the 2 populations with intra- and interindividual variation ranging from 0 to 10 Bs, independent of sex. The C-banding pattern evidenced heterochromatic blocks located mainly in the pericentromeric region of the chromosomes, while the B chromosomes appeared euchromatic. Silver-stained nucleolus organizer regions were identified in multiples sites, and some of these blocks were positive when stained with chromomycin A3. The karyotype analysis and the application of whole-chromosome painting in populations of M. oligolepis reinforce the conservation of the basal diploid number for the genus, as well as the evolutionary tendency in these fishes to carry B chromosomes. Both populations turned out to be in different stages of stability and expansion of their B chromosomes. We further suggest that the origin of these chromosomes is due to the formation of isochromosomes. Here, we identified a pair of complement A chromosomes involved in this process.

Characidae/genética , Instabilidade Cromossômica , Cromossomos/química , Cariotipagem/métodos , Animais , Brasil , Cromomicina A3/química , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Mitose , Ploidias
J Fish Biol ; 97(3): 686-690, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506578


Opsanus beta is endemic to the Gulf of Mexico and has recently been introduced to the Brazilian coast; probably the introduction is via ballast water and/or oil rigs. In this study, the presence of the species is recorded for the first time in Guaratuba Bay, on the southern coast of Brazil. In this region there are no port terminals, which suggests that O. beta used a different mode of human-facilitated transport to colonize Guaratuba Bay.

Distribuição Animal , Batracoidiformes/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Baías , Brasil , Humanos
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(4): 214-223, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369805


Coleoptera is a mega-diverse order, but only about 1% of its species have been analyzed cytogenetically. In this order, the subfamily Alticinae presents many identification problems, mainly due to the occurrence of mimicry. The objective of this work was to cytogenetically characterize 3 very similar species of the genus Alagoasa (A. pantina, A.areata, and A.scissa). We used classical and molecular cytogenetic as well as molecular genetic techniques. All 3 species showed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 22 (20+X+y), but differences in the morphology of the chromosomes. All had a meiotic formula of 2n = 10II+X+y and an X+y sex determination system with giant, fully asynaptic sex chromosomes, concordant characteristics observed in the subtribe Oedionychina. FISH demonstrated the presence of 18S and 5S rDNA clusters in 1 pair of autosomes, syntenic and colocalizing in the 3 analyzed species. However, in A. areata, heteromorphism between the cistrons was observed. The telomeric (TTAGG)n probe showed signals in all 3 species, with proximal signals in the X and dispersed signals in the y chromosome of A. areata, and 2 proximal signals in the X chromosome of A. scissa. Molecular analysis of the COI gene indicated that they are 3 distinct species, corroborating the observed cytogenetic characteristics.

Mimetismo Biológico , Besouros/classificação , Besouros/genética , Citogenética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Meiose/genética , Filogenia , Clima Tropical
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 159(4): 208-214, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846969


The karyotypes and other chromosomal markers of 4 catfish species, namely Lasiancistrus schomburgkii, Lasiancistrus sp., Araichthysloro, and Megalancistrus sp., members of a taxonomically complex and speciose tribe of catfishes Ancistrini, Hypostominae, were examined using conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR, and C-banding) and molecular cytogenetic protocols (FISH) and DNA barcoding. In L. schomburgkii, Lasiancistrus sp., and A.loro a diploid number 2n = 54 was observed, with karyotypes composed of 28m + 16sm + 10st, 36m + 12sm + 6st chromosomes, while Megalancistrus sp. had 2n = 52, with the karyotype composed of 28m + 16sm + 8st chromosomes. The Ag-NOR phenotypes were simple in all 4 species, which was confirmed by FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. However, the positive 5S rDNA sites varied among species: 2 chromosome pairs in L. schomburgkii, Lasiancistrus sp., and A. loro, and only 1 pair in Megalancistrus sp. The blocks of constitutive heterochromatin were poorly visible in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes of the examined species by C-banding. The genetic distance analysis, based on mtDNA COI gene sequences (DNA barcoding), confirmed the species as 4 taxonomic units. Ours and other published data indicate that karyotype differentiation among Ancistrini is complex and divergent and indicates the occurrence of common chromosomal rearrangements, such as pericentric inversions conserving the diploid number, and other rearrangements that are more frequent in some genera, such as centric fusions in Ancistrus.

Peixes-Gato/genética , Animais , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Citogenética/métodos , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Diploide , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Telômero/genética
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025386


The chromosomes of 2 flea beetle species from central Amazonia, Omophoita abbreviata and O. aequinoctialis (Alticini), were investigated through analysis of meiotic and mitotic cells. These species belong to the subtribe Oedionychina, a taxon that has unique cytogenetic features, such as giant sex chromosomes which are aligned at a distance during meiosis I (asynaptic). O. abbreviata and O. aequinoctialis have a meiotic formula of 10II + X + y, which is predominant in this subtribe. While the species of the genus Omophoita possess a relatively stable karyotype, a typical feature for Oedionychina, the present study identified inter- and intrapopulational variation in chromosome morphology, constitutive heterochromatin, and the presence and number of B chromosomes in O. aequinoctialis. In addition, FISH mapping of telomeric sequences revealed signals in the collochores, raising several questions on the chromosomal evolution in this group.

Comp Cytogenet ; 12(2): 145-162, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675141


Representatives of the order Labriformes show karyotypes of extreme conservatism together with others with high chromosomal diversification. However, the cytological characterization of epigenetic modifications remains unknown for the majority of the species. In the family Labridae, the most abundant fishes on tropical reefs, the genomes of the genus Bodianus Bloch, 1790 have been characterized by the occurrence of a peculiar chromosomal region, here denominated BOD. This region is exceptionally decondensed, heterochromatic, argentophilic, GC-neutral and, in contrast to classical secondary constrictions, shows no signals of hybridization with 18S rDNA probes. In order to characterize the BOD region, the methylation pattern, the distribution of Alu and Tol2 retrotransposons and of 18S and 5S rDNA sites, respectively, were analyzed by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) on metaphase chromosomes of two Bodianus species, B. insularis Gomon & Lubbock, 1980 and B. pulchellus (Poey, 1860). Immunolocalization of the 5-methylcytosine revealed hypermethylated chromosomal regions, dispersed along the entire length of the chromosomes of both species, while the BOD regions exhibited a hypomethylated pattern. Hypomethylation of the BOD region is associated with the precise co-location of Tol2 and Alu elements, suggesting their active participation in the regulatory epigenetic process. This evidence underscores a probable differential methylation action during the cell cycle, as well as the role of Tol2/Alu elements in functional processes of fish genomes.

Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(1): e170092, 2018. graf
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-895134


Astyanax is one of the most abundant and diverse taxa of fishes in the Neotropical region. In order to increase the amount of cytogenetic information for Astyanax as well as to exhibit data to subsidize future taxonomic studies, this work analyzed three species of Astyanax: two species are cryptic, and are here reported to live in syntopy (A. abramis and A. lacustris); the first karyotype description for A. pirapuan is also presented. Cytogenetic analyzes reveal a diploid number of 2n=50 chromosomes for three species, yet with differences in their karyotype morphology. The physical mapping of 18S rDNA showed up to thirteen sites in A. pirapuan and two in A. abramis and A. lacustris. The physical mapping of 5S rDNA has proven to be an effective marker for the characterization of species of Astyanax studied in this work.(AU)

Astyanax é um dos táxons mais representados e diversos na região Neotropical. Com o intuito de aumentar as informações citogenéticas para Astyanax e apresentar dados que possam subsidiar estudos taxonômicos futuros, este trabalho traz uma análise citogenética de três espécies de Astyanax: duas espécies consideradas crípticas, aqui reportadas em sintopia (A. abramis e A. lacustris) e a primeira descrição cariotípica de A. pirapuan. As análises citogenéticas revelaram 2n=50 cromossomos para as três espécies, com diferença na morfologia cariotípica de cada uma. Foram observados apenas dois sítios de rDNA 18S em A. abramis e A. lacustris e até 13 para A. pirapuan. O mapeamento físico do rDNA 5S se mostrou como um marcador efetivo para a caracterização das espécies de Astyanax abordadas neste estudo.(AU)

Animais , Characidae/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citogenética/classificação
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(1): e160056, 2017. tab, graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | ID: biblio-841876


The genus Corydoras comprises a diversity of species with different diploid numbers. We compared cytogenetic data among Corydoras species from different rivers of the Ponta Grossa Arch region in southern Brazil. Corydoras ehrhardti and C. aff. paleatus have a similar karyotype formula and the same diploid number (2n = 44). Corydoras lacrimostigmata has a higher diploid number, with 2n = 58 chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using 5S and 18S ribosomal DNA probes suggests that these ribosomal DNA sequences are involved in chromosomal rearrangements in these Corydoras species. 5S rDNA is a chromosomal marker that is considered to be unique to the species analyzed in this study. Signals of interstitial telomeric sites are seen in a chromosome pair of C. lacrimostigmata, suggesting chromosomal rearrangements via fusions or translocations. This study revealed that C. ehrhardti and C. aff. paleatus have exclusive chromosomal markers associated with chromosome differentiation, which we speculate to prevent genetic introgression.(AU)

Corydoras compreende um gênero diversificado com espécies de diferentes números diploides. Nós comparamos dados citogenéticos de espécies de Corydoras de diferentes rios da região do Arco de Ponta Grossa no sul do Brasil. Corydoras ehrhardti e C. aff. paleatus tem fórmula cariotípica similar e o mesmo número diploide (2n = 44). Corydoras lacrimostigmata tem um número diploide maior, com 2n= 58 cromossomos. A hibridação in situ fluorescente (FISH) com sondas de DNA ribossomal 5S e 18S sugere que estas sequências de DNA ribossomal estão envolvidas em rearranjos cromossômicos nestas espécies de Corydoras. A marcação do DNAr 5S foi considerada espécie-específico para as espécies analisadas neste estudo. Sinais de sítios teloméricos intersticiais foram vistos em um par de cromossomos de C. lacrimostigmata sugerindo a ocorrência de rearranjos cromossômicos como fusões ou translocações. Este estudo revelou que as espécies C. ehrhardti e C. aff. paleatus têm marcadores cromossômicos exclusivos associados à diferenciação cromossômica, os quais, em nossa hipótese, podem prevenir a introgressão gênica.(AU)

Animais , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Peixes-Gato/genética , Hibridização Genética , Cariotipagem/classificação
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 149(4): 297-303, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27750255


Gymnotidae is a family of electric fish endemic to the Neotropics consisting of 2 genera: Electrophorus and Gymnotus. The genus Gymnotus is widely distributed and is found in all of the major Brazilian river systems. Physical and molecular mapping data for the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in this genus are still scarce, with its chromosomal location known in only 11 species. As other species of Gymnotus with 2n = 54 chromosomes from the Paraná-Paraguay basin, G. mamiraua was found to have a large number of 5S rDNA sites. Isolation and cloning of the 5S rDNA sequences from G. mamiraua identified a fragment of a transposable element similar to the Tc1/mariner transposon associated with a non-transcribed spacer. Double fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of this element and the 5S rDNA showed that they were colocalized on several chromosomes, in addition to acting as nonsyntenic markers on others. Our data show the association between these sequences and suggest that the Tc1 retrotransposon may be the agent that drives the spread of these 5S rDNA-like sequences in the G. mamiraua genome.

DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Gimnotiformes/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Genoma/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Masculino
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 149(3): 182-190, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27504623


Sex chromosome evolution involves the accumulation of repeat sequences such as multigenic families, noncoding repetitive DNA (satellite, minisatellite, and microsatellite), and mobile elements such as transposons and retrotransposons. Most species of Characidium exhibit heteromorphic ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes; the W is characterized by an intense accumulation of repetitive DNA including dispersed satellite DNA sequences and transposable elements. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution pattern of 18 different tandem repeats, including (GATA)n and (TTAGGG)n, in the genomes of C. zebra and C. gomesi, especially in the C. gomesi W chromosome. In the C. gomesi W chromosome, weak signals were seen for (CAA)10, (CAC)10, (CAT)10, (CGG)10, (GAC)10, and (CA)15 probes. (GA)15 and (TA)15 hybridized to the autosomes but not to the W chromosome. The (GATA)n probe hybridized to the short arms of the W chromosome as well as the (CG)15 probe. The (GATA)n repeat is known to be a protein-binding motif. GATA-binding proteins are necessary for the decondensation of heterochromatic regions that hold coding genes, especially in some heteromorphic sex chromosomes that may keep genes related to oocyte development. The (TAA)10 repeat is accumulated in the entire W chromosome, and this microsatellite accumulation is probably involved in the sex chromosome differentiation process and crossover suppression in C. gomesi. These additional data on the W chromosome DNA composition help to explain the evolution of sex chromosomes in Characidium.

Caraciformes/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , Masculino , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(2)2016. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-796528


Trichomycterus is a specious fish genus within Trichomycterinae and displays remarkable karyotype diversity. However, knowledge about their genomic structure and location of repetitive sequence is still limited. In order to better understand the karyotype diversification, we analyzed nine species of Trichomycterus using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques. Results revealed a conserved diploid chromosome number of 2n=54 chromosomes in all analyzed species, although remarkable differences on the constitutive heterochromatin distribution were observed. In addition, while the 18S rDNA showed a conserved distribution pattern, the 5S rDNA sites showed a quite diverse location considering the analyzed species. Remarkably, both ribosomal genes were co-located in all species, except in T . iheringi , suggesting that co-localization is probably an ancestral condition in Trichomycterus . Finally, three analyzed species showed heterochromatic B chromosomes, reinforcing the intense genomic reorganization occurring in Trichomycterus . Our results showed that chromosomal variations are not restricted to differences in karyotype formula as previously proposed, but also to modifications on the microstructural level of resolution.

Trichomycterus é um especioso gênero dentro de Trichomycterinae e exibe marcante diversidade cariotípica. No entanto, o conhecimento sobre sua estrutura genômica e localização de seqüências repetitivas ainda é restrita. Para um melhor conhecimento sobre a sua diversificação cariotípica, nós analisamos nove especies de Trichomycterus usando técnicas de citogenética clássica e molecular. Os resultados revelaram um conservado número diploide de 2n = 54 cromossomos em todas as espécies analisadas, embora diferentes marcações na distribuição da heterocromatina constitutiva tenham sido observadas. Além disso, enquanto o DNAr 18S mostrou um padrão de distribuição conservado, os sítios de DNAr 5S mostraram uma localização bastante diversa, considerando as espécies analisadas. Ambos os genes ribossomais foram co-localizados em todas as espécies, exceto em T. iheringi , sugerindo que a co-localização é provavelmente uma condição ancestral em Trichomycterus . Finalmente, três espécies analisadas mostraram cromossomos B heterocromáticos, reforçando uma intensa reoganização genômica ocorrendo em Trichomycterus . Nossos resultados mostraram que variações cromossômicas não estão restritas à diferenças na fórmula cariotípica, como proposto anteriormente, mas também às alterações a níveis de resolução estrutural.

Animais , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Peixes-Gato/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 146(2): 136-43, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26277929


The speciose neotropical genus Characidium has proven to be a good model for cytogenetic exploration. Representatives of this genus often have a conserved diploid chromosome number; some species exhibit a highly differentiated ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, while others do not show any sex-related chromosome heteromorphism. In this study, chromosome painting using a W-specific probe and comparative chromosome mapping of repetitive sequences, including ribosomal clusters and 4 microsatellite motifs - (CA)15, (GA)15, (CG)15, and (TTA)10 -, were performed in 6 Characidium species, 5 of which possessed a heteromorphic ZW sex chromosome system. The W-specific probe showed hybridization signals on the W chromosome of all analyzed species, indicating homology among the W chromosomes. Remarkably, a single major rDNA-bearing chromosome pair was found in all species. The 18S rDNA localized to the sex chromosomes in C. lanei, C. timbuiense and C. pterostictum, while the major rDNA localized to one autosome pair in C. vidali and C. gomesi. In contrast, the number of 5S rDNA-bearing chromosomes varied. Notably, minor ribosomal clusters were identified in the W chromosome of C. vidali. Microsatellites were widely distributed across almost all chromosomes of the karyotypes, with a greater accumulation in the subtelomeric regions. However, clear differences in the abundance of each motif were detected in each species. In addition, the Z and W chromosomes showed the differential accumulation of distinct motifs. Our results revealed variability in the distribution of repetitive DNA sequences and their possible association with sex chromosome diversification in Characidium species.

Caraciformes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , Coloração Cromossômica , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genoma/genética , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Especificidade da Espécie
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 146(1): 64-70, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25997861


The organization and mapping of multigene families can produce useful genetic markers, and its use may elucidate the mechanisms of karyotype variation and genomic organization in different groups of eukaryotes. To date, few species of Coleoptera have been analyzed using FISH for the location of multigene families. The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution chromosome mapping to establish the genomic organization of the 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA and histone H3 gene families in Lagria villosa. FISH was performed using 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA and histone H3 probes prepared via PCR labeling. Fiber-FISH for 18S and 5S rDNA indicated that both ribosomal elements are colocalized in the short arm of chromosome 4. Additionally, FISH, using the histone H3 probe, revealed that this sequence is found in only one autosomal pair and did not colocalize with rDNA. Fiber-FISH with 5S and 18S probes, used to improve the mapping resolution of these regions, showed that both genes are closely interspersed with varying amounts of both DNA classes.

Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Besouros/genética , Genes de Insetos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Histonas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 87(1): 437-45, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25651154


The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between triglyceride (TG) serum levels in obese and non-obese patients in a simulated postprandial state. Both groups showed TG levels < 150 mg/dL when fasting. After 12 h fasting, the subjects ingested a lipid overload diet and blood samples were collected. The variation between fasting and the postprandial TG peak levels were analyzed. The peak of postprandial TG levels occurred 4 h after the lipid overload in both groups. When the subjects were not fasting, the majority of non-obese subjects remained within the range of normal TG values, but the values for the obese group remained elevated. There was a significant correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI) and TG at each time point until 2 h after the meal, but the data did not show a correlation after 3 h. According to the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve, postprandial TG values were not a good predictor of obesity (based on BMI), but they were a predictor of non-obesity. This study reinforces the importance of measuring non-fasting TG levels in obese and non-obese subjects, because some non-obese patients probably had altered fat metabolism, indicating that this examination could be an indicator of metabolic risk.

Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Fatores de Tempo
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 12(2): 429-438, Apr-Jun/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-716324


Two populations of the Astyanax scabripinnis complex, isolated by a waterfall with over 100 meters depth and inhabiting different altitudes of the same river (1850 m a.s.l. and 662 m a.s.l.) were compared in reproductive data, geometric morphometry, tooth morphology, anal-fin rays counts, and karyotype, in order to test the hypothesis of speciation between the two populations. The results in the geometric morphometry analysis showed differences between the populations. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and canonical variance analysis revealed sexual dimorphism. Secondary sexual characters, such as hooks in the anal fin rays of the males are absent in the lower altitude population. Both populations had the same macro karyotype structure, except for the absence of B chromosomes in the lower altitude population. The fluorescence in situ hybridization showed differences for both markers (18S rDNA and 5S rDNA), and reproductive data suggests pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among the two populations. The data showed the absence of gene flow, indicating that an incipient speciation process has occurred, which leads the two populations to follow independent evolutionary pathways.

Duas populações do complexo Astyanax scabripinnis isoladas por uma queda d´água de mais de 100 metros de altura e localizadas em diferentes altitudes do mesmo rio (662 m e 1850 m a.s.l.) foram comparadas através de dados de reprodução, cariótipo, morfometria geométrica, morfologia dentária, e número de raios da nadadeira anal, de modo a testar a hipótese de especiação entre as duas populações. Os resultados de morfometria geométrica mostraram diferenças entre as populações. A análise da função discriminante (DFA) e a análise de variância canônica (CVA) demonstraram a presença de dimorfismo sexual. Caracteres sexuais secundários, como ganchos em raios da nadadeira anal dos machos, estão ausentes na população de menor altitude. Ambas as populações têm a mesma macro estrutura cariotípica, exceto pela ausência de cromossomos B na população de menor altitude. A hibridação in situ mostrou diferenças para ambos os marcadores (rDNA 18S e rDNA 5S), e os dados de reprodução sugerem isolamento reprodutivo pré-zigótico entre as duas populações. Os dados mostram ausência de fluxo gênico, indicando que ocorreu um processo de especiação incipiente, o que leva as duas populações seguirem vias evolutivas independentes.

Animais , Evolução Biológica , Citogenética/instrumentação , Morfogênese , Especificidade da Espécie , Peixes/classificação
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 144(4): 325-32, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25662193


The family Parodontidae presents a conserved diploid number of 54 chromosomes and different stages associated with ZW sex chromosome differentiation. For the great majority of species in this family it was proposed that the karyotypic diversification is mostly due to repetitive DNA mobility and accumulation. In this study, 2 repetitive probes, (GATA)n and (TTAGGG)n, were used to assess probable mechanisms of chromosome diversification, especially those related to molecular differentiation of the W chromosome. Results showed that the (GATA)n sequence is involved in the differentiation of the W chromosome female-specific region of Parodontidae and that it is accumulated in diverse autosomes. The (TTAGGG)n repeat is part of the vertebrate telomere, and the presence of interstitial telomeric sites may help to identify chromosome rearrangements. However, in Parodontidae, no interstitial telomeric sites were detected. This study shows plasticity in the amount of the (GATA)n repeat in Parodontidae that may be involved in chromatin modifications and transcriptional control of the W chromosome, and the role of repetitive DNAs in genomic diversification in this fish family is discussed.

Caraciformes/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Cromossomos Sexuais/fisiologia , Animais , Caraciformes/classificação , DNA/análise , Sondas de DNA , Feminino , Variação Genética , Cariótipo
Genet Mol Biol ; 35(4): 737-40, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23271932


Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) presents monogenic inheritance and mutation factors which have already been identified in six different genes. Given the wide molecular variation present in the hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α gene (HNF1α) MODY3, the aim of this study was to amplify and sequence the coding regions of this gene in seven patients from the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Brazil, presenting clinical MODY3 features. Besides the synonymous variations, A15A, L17L, Q141Q, G288G and T515T, two missense mutations, I27L and A98V, were also detected. Clinical and laboratory data obtained from patients were compared with the molecular findings, including the I27L polymorphism that was revealed in some overweight/obese diabetic patients of this study, this corroborating with the literature. We found certain DNA variations that could explain the hyperglycemic phenotype of the patients.

BMC Genet ; 12: 65, 2011 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21787398


BACKGROUND: The Characidium (a Neotropical fish group) have a conserved diploid number (2n = 50), but show remarkable differences among species and populations in relation to sex chromosome systems and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NOR). In this study, we isolated a W-specific probe for the Characidium and characterized six Characidium species/populations using cytogenetic procedures. We analyzed the origin and differentiation of sex and NOR-bearing chromosomes by chromosome painting in populations of Characidium to reveal their evolution, phylogeny, and biogeography. RESULTS: A W-specific probe for efficient chromosome painting was isolated by microdissection and degenerate oligonucleotide primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR) amplification of W chromosomes from C. gomesi. The W probe generated weak signals dispersed on the proto sex chromosomes in C. zebra, dispersed signals in both W and Z chromosomes in C. lauroi and, in C. gomesi populations revealed a proximal site on the long arms of the Z chromosome and the entire W chromosome. All populations showed small terminal W probe sites in some autosomes. The 18S rDNA revealed distinctive patterns for each analyzed species/population with regard to proto sex chromosome, sex chromosome pair, and autosome location. CONCLUSIONS: The results from dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (dual-color FISH) using W and 18S rDNA probes allowed us to infer the putative evolutionary pathways for the differentiation of sex chromosomes and NORs, from structural rearrangements in a sex proto-chromosome, followed by gene erosion and heterochromatin amplification, morphological differentiation of the sex chromosomal pair, and NOR transposition, giving rise to the distinctive patterns observed among species/populations of Characidium. Biogeographic isolation and differentiation of sex chromosomes seem to have played a major role in the speciation process in this group of fish.

Coloração Cromossômica , Peixes/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Diferenciação Sexual , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Feminino , Cariotipagem , Filogenia
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 7(1): 25-30, Mar. 2009. ilus, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | ID: lil-511526


Four samples of Neoplecostomus yapo were analyzed through the allozyme electrophoresis technique in corn starch gel. The allozyme pattern was similar to those found in N. paranensis with 24 loci scored. Two samples (ribeirão Atlântico and ribeirão Uraí) showed monomorphic bands for all 24 loci, whereas the other two (rio Verde and rio Fortaleza) showed 8.3 percent of polymorphic loci. The He genetic variability estimates for the rios Verde and Fortaleza populations were 0.0195 and 0.0179, respectively, too much inferior to the mean heterozygosity summed to species from the whole world (0.051). The Wright statistical values F IS = 0.5181, F IT = 0.5681 and F ST = 0.1039 and the genetic distance of Nei values showed that the four samples are genetically very similar to each other and that there is homozygote excess in the polymorphic loci.(AU)

Foram analisadas quatro populações de Neoplecostomus yapo por meio da técnica de eletroforese de aloenzimas em gel de amido de milho. O padrão de bandas obtido foi semelhante ao de N. paranensis, tendo sido detectado um total de 24 loci enzimáticos. Duas populações (ribeirão Atlântico e ribeirão Uraí) apresentaram formas monomórficas para todos os 24 loci, enquanto as outras duas (rio Verde e rio Fortaleza) apresentaram 8,3 por cento de loci polimórficos. As estimativas de variabilidade genética He para as populações dos rios Verde e Fortaleza foram 0,0195 e 0,0179, respectivamente, muito inferiores à média das espécies de peixes no mundo todo (0,051). Os valores das estatísticas de Wright F IS = 0,5181, F IT = 0,5681 e F ST = 0,1039 e os valores de distância genética de Nei mostram que as quatro populações são geneticamente muito semelhantes entre si e que há excesso de homozigotos nos loci polimórficos.(AU)

Animais , Variação Genética , Peixes-Gato/genética , Rios , Eletroforese/métodos
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 5(1): 37-44, Jan.-Mar 2007. mapas, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-457868


The recently described fish species, Astyanax altiparanae (tetra) is common in the upper rio Paraná basin, and has been reported in the Iguaçu basin. However, its natural origin in the rio Iguaçu is questionable. In the present work, karyotypical and morphological features of two populations of Astyanax altiparanae from the upper rio Tibagi and upper rio Iguaçu were compared. Both populations showed 2n=50 chromosomes and differences in their karyotype formula, NOR-bearing chromosomes and location of heterochromatin. Morphometric data from both populations were analyzed through free-size canonical variables. Cytogenetic and morphological results were mostly coincident showing exclusive markers that reflect their degree of populational isolation. In addition to other geographic, morphological and molecular data for A. altiparanae populations from the lower rio Iguaçu and rio Paraná tributaries upstream from the Itaipu Dam (South Brazil), the present results indicate that the two populations analyzed in this study belong to different stocks. The presence of this species along the rio Iguaçu basin would be a consequence of a complex and poorly understood evolutionary history.

Astyanax altiparanae, recentemente descrita, é comum na bacia do alto rio Paraná, tendo sido registrada recentemente na bacia do rio Iguaçu. Entretanto, sua origem natural no rio Iguaçu é questionável. No presente trabalho algumas características cariotípicas e morfológicas de duas populações de Astyanax altiparanae do rio alto rio Tibagi e alto rio Iguaçu foram comparadas. Ambas as populações mostraram 2n=50 cromossomos e diferenças nas suas fórmulas de cariotípicas, cromossomos portadores das regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e localização da heterocromatina. Dados morfométricos das duas populações foram analisados para variáveis canônicas livres de tamanho. Os dados citogenéticos e morfológicos foram coincidentes e mostraram marcas exclusivas que refletem o grau de isolamento populacional. Em adição a outros dados geográficos, morfológicos e moleculares em populações de A. altiparanae do baixo rio Iguaçu e tributários do rio Paraná acima da represa de Itaipu (Sul do Brasil), os presentes resultados indicam que as duas populações analisadas neste estudo pertençam a diferentes estoques. A presença desta espécie ao longo da bacia do rio Iguaçu pode ser uma conseqüência de uma história evolutiva complexa e pouco conhecida.

Animais , Characidae/anatomia & histologia , Characidae/genética , Brasil , Cromossomos