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1.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 71: 101574, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768114

RESUMO

Psychiatric disorders and childhood trauma are highly prevalent in female inmates. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a number of roles in neuronal survival, structure, and function. Data in the literature suggest that it is a neurobiological substrate that moderates the impact of childhood adversities on the late expression of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether five childhood trauma subtypes-physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect-are associated with adult psychiatric disorders, BDNF levels, and criminality among incarcerated women. This was a cross-sectional study involving a consecutive sample of 110 women, divided into three groups of women (forensic - mentally ill who committed crimes, clinical psychiatric inpatients and healthy controls). The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus were applied in the whole sample, and BDNF levels were measured in a sub-sample of 54 women. The rates of mental illness and childhood trauma were high in the forensic group. Emotional abuse was higher in the clinical and forensic groups than in the healthy control group. Lower BDNF levels were associated with emotional abuse in the forensic group as well as with sexual abuse in the healthy control group. After multinomial logistic regression, lower levels of BDNF, higher levels of emotional abuse and the presence of familial offense were considered factors related to clinical psychiatric group. The results of this study underscore the idea that BDNF may be an important factor related to the development of diseases and criminality in women who are victims of childhood trauma, becoming a possible biological marker.

2.
Depress Anxiety ; 29(11): 966-75, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22815241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence, sociodemographic aspects, and clinical features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been previously addressed in primarily relatively small samples. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional demographic and clinical assessment of 901 OCD patients participating in the Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. We used the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale; Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS); Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale; Clinical Global Impression Scale; and Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of BDD was 12.1%. The individuals with comorbid BDD (OCD-BDD; n = 109) were younger than were those without it. In addition, the proportions of single and unemployed patients were greater in the OCD-BDD group. This group of patients also showed higher rates of suicidal behaviors; mood, anxiety, and eating disorders; hypochondriasis; skin picking; Tourette syndrome; and symptoms of the sexual/religious, aggressive, and miscellaneous dimensions. Furthermore, OCD-BDD patients had an earlier onset of OC symptoms; greater severity of OCD, depression, and anxiety symptoms; and poorer insight. After logistic regression, the following features were associated with OCD-BDD: current age; age at OCD onset; severity of the miscellaneous DY-BOCS dimension; severity of depressive symptoms; and comorbid social phobia, dysthymia, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and skin picking. CONCLUSIONS: Because OCD patients might not inform clinicians about concerns regarding their appearance, it is essential to investigate symptoms of BDD, especially in young patients with early onset and comorbid social anxiety, chronic depression, skin picking, or eating disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idade de Início , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
3.
Compr Psychiatry ; 47(4): 282-8, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16769303

RESUMO

To compare impulsivity and compulsivity, we performed a case control study comparing a group of 20 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder with a group of 20 patients with skin picking and/or trichotillomania (SP/T). The instruments used were Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Diagnosis, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Schalling Impulsivity Scale, and Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Inventories. A Multidimensional Impulsive-Compulsive Spectrum Assessment Instrument was designed for this particular study. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores were significantly higher in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, compared with patients with SP/T (F = 90.29; P < .001). The Hamilton Inventories and Schalling Impulsivity Scale revealed no significant intergroup differences. The Multidimensional Impulsive-Compulsive Spectrum Assessment Instrument allowed us to find 6 statistically significant differences between groups: the ability or inability to delay an impulse, quick response or action planning, feelings of pleasure or guilt during or after an act, ritualization, and whether the patient believes he/she has losses or benefits if prevented from acting. In conclusion, SP/T should deserve further attention about their classification in future versions of diagnostic manuals because, as in International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition includes these disorders in the same chapter as pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania and others. Despite their resemblance to compulsions, their classification under the Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum needs particular phenomenological and neurobiologic investigation.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo , Transtornos Disruptivos, de Controle do Impulso e da Conduta/psicologia , Comportamento Obsessivo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Tricotilomania/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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