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1.
Surg Today ; 44(7): 1359-66, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23828653

RESUMO

We report a case of typical fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) in a 16-year-old Japanese boy. This is very rare malignancy in Japan. The patient was referred for investigation of a large hepatic tumor and the results of tests for hepatitis B virus surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibody were negative. Liver function test results and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels were normal; however, the prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist II was elevated. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large lobulated heterogeneously enhanced tumor in the posterior section of the liver. We diagnosed FL-HCC and performed posterior sectionectomy of the liver. The resected specimen contained a light brown and green tumor with a central fibrous scar, 10.0 cm in diameter. Microscopic and electron microscopic examinations revealed the typical features of FL-HCC. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for cytokeratin (CK) 7, but negative for CK19 and AFP. The patient was alive without recurrence 48 months after surgery. Following this case report, we summarize the clinical features of the Japanese cases documented in the literature.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/ultraestrutura , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Queratina-7/análise , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/ultraestrutura , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Microscopia Eletroquímica de Varredura , Protrombina/metabolismo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Radiology ; 261(3): 834-44, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21998047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe imaging findings of early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) at gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, dynamic contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT), CT during arterial portography (CTAP), and CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) and to compare the diagnostic performance of each modality for small (≤ 2 cm) HCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institute ethics committee deemed study approval unnecessary. One hundred eight resected small lesions in 64 patients were diagnosed as a dysplastic nodule (DN) (n = 12), progressed HCC (n = 66), or early HCC (n = 30). All but two patients underwent all imaging examinations. The imaging characteristics of the lesions with each modality were determined. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the modalities, two radiologists graded the presence of HCC with use of a five-point confidence scale. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A(z)), sensitivity, and specificity of each modality were compared. RESULTS: The imaging features that are statistically significant for differentiating an early HCC from a DN include fat-containing lesions at dual-echo T1-weighted MR imaging (seen in 16 of the 30 early HCCs and none of the DNs), low attenuation at unenhanced CT (seen in 13 of the 30 early HCCs and none of the DNs), low attenuation at CTAP (seen in 11 of the 30 early HCCs and none of the DNs), and low signal intensity at hepatocyte phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging (seen in 29 of the 30 early HCCs and none of the DNs). The diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging (A(z), 0.98 and 0.99) was significantly greater than that of contrast-enhanced CT (A(z), 0.87) and CTHA-CTAP (A(z), 0.85 and 0.86) owing to its significantly higher sensitivity (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging is the most useful imaging technique for evaluating small HCC, including early HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio DTPA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Iohexol , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
3.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 26(4): 731-8, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21155886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Repeat hepatic resection for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is effective in improving long-term outcome in selected patients. In the present study, we attempted to identify the prognostic factors influencing overall and recurrence-free survival after the second hepatic resection. METHODS: From 1 September 1997 to 30 September 2009, 329 consecutive patients with HCC underwent surgical exploration at Yamanashi University Hospital, Japan. Of these, 35 patients underwent curative, second hepatic resection. The survival results in the 35 patients were analyzed retrospectively, and prognostic factors were determined. RESULTS: The univariate analysis revealed that Child-Pugh B, a Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of α-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) value more than 15%, and multiple tumors, were associated with significantly worse overall survival (P=0.010, P=0.0003, and P=0.037, respectively) and only AFP-L3 >15% was associated with significantly worse recurrence-free survival after the second hepatic resection (P=0.008). By multivariate analysis, only AFP-L3 >15% was an independent predictor of adverse overall survival. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after the second hepatic resection of 27 HCC patients with low AFP-L3 (≤15%) were 100%, 100%, and 91.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding survival rates of eight HCC patients with high AFP-L3 (>15%) were 100%, 47.6%, and 23.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative AFP-L3 level was a useful prognostic biomarker for survival after repeat hepatic resection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Lectinas de Plantas , alfa-Fetoproteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/mortalidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Hepatectomia/efeitos adversos , Hepatectomia/mortalidade , Humanos , Japão , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Hepáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Invest Radiol ; 46(2): 141-5, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21139506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: determine the effect of double-dose gadoxetic-acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on lesion-liver contrast ratio in arterial- and hepatocyte-phase images and arterial-phase image quality in patients with chronic liver disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: the ethics committee at our institute approved this study. This study included 28 patients (13 with Child-Pugh class A and 15 with class B) with 54 hepatocellular carcinomas. All patients received the standard Gd-EOB-DTPA dose (0.025 mmol/kg bodyweight) and double dose (0.050 mmol/kg bodyweight). The lesion-liver contrast ratio was evaluated in arterial- and hepatocyte-phase images. The artifacts in arterial-phase images were evaluated with a 4-point scale. Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for comparisons. RESULTS: the hepatocyte-phase lesion-liver contrast ratio after the double dose was significantly higher than that after the standard dose in patients with Child-Pugh class B disease(standard dose vs. double dose; 0.20 ± 0.16 vs. 0.25 ± 0.17; P < 0.0001); however, the ratio after both the standard and double doses was equivalent in patients with Child-Pugh class A disease (0.35 ± 0.18 vs. 0.35 ± 0.14; P = 0.3038). The double dose significantly increased the arterial-phase lesion-liver contrast ratio (0.34 ± 0.19 vs. 0.58 ± 0.33; P < 0.0001). The artifacts in the arterial-phase images were more prominent after the standard dose (2.7 vs. 2.4 for reader 1, 2.8 vs. 2.4 for reader 2; P = 0.0195 and 0.0010). CONCLUSIONS: administration of double dose of Gd-EOB-DTPA provided better arterial enhancement of hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with chronic liver disease, and also improved the lesion-liver contrast in hepatocyte-phase images in patients with Child-Pugh class B disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Meios de Contraste , Gadolínio DTPA , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/instrumentação , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Doença Crônica , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Gadolínio DTPA/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Estatística como Assunto , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Int J Clin Oncol ; 14(3): 245-8, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19593617

RESUMO

We herein report the complete remission of multiple recurrent hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) by the oral administration of tegafur/uracil (UFT) alone. A 56-year-old Japanese man with two huge HCCs was admitted and underwent hepatic resection. Intraoperative ultrasonography revealed that the tumor thrombus extended to the inferior vena cava (IVC) with a small tumor in the left hepatic lobe. Right trisectionectomy of the liver, removal of the tumor thrombus in the IVC, and partial resection of the left lobe were performed. Microscopic examination revealed that the larger tumor was moderately to poorly differentiated HCC and the smaller tumor was well-differentiated HCC. The small tumor in the left lobe was diagnosed as an intrahepatic metastasis of the larger tumor. Two months after the surgery, computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple HCC recurrences in the remnant liver, but complete remission was achieved by the administration of UFT alone. To clarify the reason for the good response of the recurrent HCC to UFT, the mRNA expression level of several fluoropyrimidine metabolism enzymes was measured in resected specimens. A lower expression of thymidine phosphorylase (TP) might explain the good response to UFT. The patient is alive without intra- or extrahepatic recurrence more than 6 years after the hepatic resection.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Hepatectomia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Veia Cava Inferior/patologia , Administração Oral , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/enzimologia , Quimioembolização Terapêutica , Terapia Combinada , Di-Hidrouracila Desidrogenase (NADP)/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/enzimologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Orotato Fosforribosiltransferase/genética , Tegafur/administração & dosagem , Timidina Fosforilase/genética , Timidilato Sintase/genética , Uracila/administração & dosagem
6.
Langenbecks Arch Surg ; 393(4): 605-9, 2008 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18026747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate surgical procedure for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) arising in the second portion of the duodenum remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Segmental resection of the second portion of the duodenum and Roux-en-Y reconstruction was performed in two patients with duodenal GISTs. In case 1, a huge tumor arising from the second portion of the duodenum occupied the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Preoperative treatment using imatinib mesylate decreased the tumor size from 22 to 8 cm. In case 2, the tumor was located in the second portion of the duodenum longitudinally. In both of the cases, the major papilla was preserved. RESULTS: The postoperative course was uneventful, and they were discharged on day 11. Surgical margins were negative. CONCLUSION: The present simple segmental duodenectomy can be applied in the treatment of GISTs or other low-grade malignancies.


Assuntos
Anastomose em-Y de Roux , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Duodeno/cirurgia , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/cirurgia , Idoso , Benzamidas , Neoplasias Duodenais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Duodenais/patologia , Feminino , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 14(3): 1182-90, 2007 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17195915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the relationship between inflammation, intra-hepatic oxidative stress, oxidative DNA damage and the progression of liver carcinogenesis in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected humans. METHODS: Non-cancerous liver tissues were collected from 30 patients with an HCV-associated solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who received curative tumor removal. After surgery, the patients were followed at monthly intervals at the outpatient clinic. Distribution of the inflammatory cells (CD68+), the number of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) DNA adducts and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) protein adducts and the expression of apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE) were determined by immunohistochemical analysis in serial liver sections from tumor-free parenchyma at the surgical margin around the tumor. RESULTS: Significant positive correlations were observed between the number of CD68+ cells, the amount of HNE protein adducts, and the number of 8-OHdG adducts in liver tissue of patients with HCC and HCV. The cumulative disease-free survival was significantly shorter in patients with the highest percentage of 8-OHdG-positive hepatocytes. Using a Cox proportional hazard model, 8-OHdG, HNE and CD68 were determined to be good biomarkers for predicting disease-free survival in patients with HCC and HCV. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that HCV-induced inflammation causes oxidative DNA damage and promotes hepatocarcinogenesis which directly affects the clinical outcome. Since patients with greater intra-hepatic oxidative stress had a higher incidence of HCC recurrence, we suggest that oxidative stress biomarkers could potentially be used as a useful clinical diagnostic tool to predict the duration of disease-free survival in patients with HCV-associated HCC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Estresse Oxidativo , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aldeídos/análise , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Adutos de DNA , Dano ao DNA , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hepatectomia , Hepatite C/virologia , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Prognóstico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
8.
J Leukoc Biol ; 79(4): 809-17, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16415172

RESUMO

The possibility that Kupffer cells (KCs) play key beneficial and deleterious roles in multiple organ injury in sepsis has been discussed. The role of KCs in lung injury in a rat peritonitis model was investigated. Specifically, the involvement of interleukin (IL)-10, which has anti-inflammatory effects, was examined. Rats were given saline or gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a KC toxicant, 24 h before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Survival was assessed for 7 days after CLP. The liver, lung, and serum were harvested, and the expression of cytokines was assessed. Macrophages were isolated from each organ after CLP, and the mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators was assessed. GdCl3 treatment increased lung injury and mortality. Plasma endotoxin levels were significantly greater, whereas serum IL-10 levels were lower in the GdCl3 than in the control group after CLP. IL-10 levels were significantly greater in the aorta than the hepatic vein. The mRNA expression of IL-10 was less in KCs from the GdCl3 than the control group. In the liver, the expression of IL-10 increased rapidly and continuously, up to 9 h in the control group, but values were significantly lower in the GdCl3 group. Rabbit anti-rat IL-10 antibodies were injected just after CLP to investigate the effects of immunoneutralization of endogenously produced IL-10. In the antibody-treated group, lung injury and mortality increased compared with animals treated with rabbit immunoglobulin G. Taken together, these results indicate that KCs play a protective role in lung injury in sepsis by production of IL-10.


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Pneumopatias/imunologia , Peritonite/imunologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Anticorpos/farmacologia , Ceco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxinas/sangue , Endotoxinas/imunologia , Gadolínio/administração & dosagem , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Peritonite/complicações , Peritonite/mortalidade , Punções , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Cancer ; 118(3): 564-70, 2006 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16108033

RESUMO

Interleukin (IL)-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that is up-regulated in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is the most common underlying disease in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of IL-18 in HCC associated with HCV infection. Sixty-five patients with HCC and HCV infections who received curative surgical resections were examined in our study. The expression of the IL-18 receptor was investigated in HCC tissues obtained from these patients and in 2 HCC cell lines. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activity and the expression of Bcl-xL and xIAP mRNA were tested in the cell lines using recombinant human (rh) IL-18. The IL-18 receptor was expressed in both the HCC tissues and the cell lines. NF-kappaB activation and the expression of Bcl-xL and xIAP mRNA were increased by rhIL-18. Moreover, rhIL-18 suppressed the apoptosis of HCC cells which was induced by etoposide in vitro. The overall survival rate (55.4%) was significantly worse in the IL-18 receptor-positive patients than in the IL-18 receptor-negative patients (p = 0.015). In a Cox multivariate analysis, the expression of the IL-18 receptor was found to be a significant predictor of a poor outcome in HCC patients. The expression of the IL-18 receptor and an antiapoptotic mechanism involving NF-kappaB activation in HCC cells may be implicated in a poor patient outcome.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C Crônica/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/fisiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina/fisiologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Desvio de Mobilidade Eletroforética , Etoposídeo/farmacologia , Feminino , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-18 , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Receptores de Interleucina-18 , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Proteína bcl-X/genética , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
10.
J Surg Res ; 129(2): 176-89, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16112135

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the regulation of lung macrophages (Muvarphis) by Kupffer cells (KCs) in lung injury caused by endotoxemia. Phenotypic differences in tissue Muvarphis were also investigated. Muvarphis were isolated from gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3))- or saline-treated rats 2 h after saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Furthermore, rats were given GdCl(3) 24 h prior to LPS administration, and survival rate was assessed for 24 h. Moreover, lung edema was assessed 9 h after LPS injection. Expression of inflammatory mediators was measured in the liver and lung. KCs were divided into three subpopulations based on size and phagocytosis. The expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-2 was greater in the small KCs and lung Muvarphis, while the expression of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 was greater in the large and intermediate KCs. GdCl(3) eliminated ED2-positive large KCs and did not have any effect on the lung Muvarphis. The number of ED1-positive KCs increased significantly in both organs after LPS challenge and was reduced by GdCl(3). The population of ED2-positive KCs did not change following LPS administration. GdCl(3) completely prevented increases in lung microvascular permeability and mortality after LPS infusion. After LPS administration, expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 increased rapidly and then decreased gradually in both organs. GdCl(3) inhibited these increases in the liver significantly and enhanced the expression of MCP-1 and IL-10 in the lung 9 h after LPS administration. Thus, the heterogeneous response of KCs to endotoxin leads to production of certain cytokines and chemokines that affect lung function.


Assuntos
Macrófagos do Fígado/citologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/citologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/imunologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Contagem de Células , Quimiocinas/genética , Citocinas/genética , Fluoresceína-5-Isotiocianato , Corantes Fluorescentes , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Masculino , Microesferas , Fagócitos/citologia , Fagócitos/imunologia , Edema Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Edema Pulmonar/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente
11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(12): 1348-56, 2004 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15610307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes chronic inflammation and increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This immunosuppressive state may be one reason why HCV-infected patients often have multicentric cancers. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to assess the cellular immune function in HCC-bearing and HCV-infected patients. METHODS: The expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)3zeta, CD28 and caspase-3 activity of peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBL) from HCC-bearing patients, HCV-infected patients and normal subjects was measured by flow cytometric methods. Furthermore, intrahepatic T lymphocytes (IHL) and tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) from HCC patients were used. RESULTS: Decreased expressions of CD3zeta, CD28 and the augmentation of caspase-3 activity were recognized in PBL from HCC and HCV patients. These phenomena were more dominant in TIL and IHL than in PBL in HCC patients. Furthermore, the down-modulation of CD3zeta and increased caspase-3 activity occurred in CD28 down-modulated T cells. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate impairment of the cellular immune system in HCC and HCV patients from the viewpoints of the down-modulation of CD3zeta and CD28 on T cells and T-cell apoptosis. In addition, the results imply that the down-modulation of CD3zeta and T-cell apoptosis take place in activated T cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/biossíntese , Complexo CD3/fisiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/imunologia , Caspases/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Hepatite C/imunologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Idoso , Caspase 3 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 286(6): G1081-9, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15132951

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) modulate the inflammatory immune response to LPS and enhance the expression of secretory IgA in the rat intestine. Rats were given either corn oil or MCTs by gavage daily for 1 wk, and LPS or saline vehicle was administered via the tail vein. They were then killed, and serum and sections from the gut were collected for further analysis. Western blot analysis for secretory IgA revealed that MCTs significantly enhanced its expression in the ileum compared with corn oil in rats administered saline. After LPS challenge, expression of secretory IgA was decreased in the corn oil group but not in the MCTs group. The mRNA expression of IL-6 was assessed by real-time RT-PCR, because IL-6 regulates secretory IgA in the intestine. The expression was significantly greater in the MCTs group than in the corn oil group after LPS injection. Increases in expression of proinflammatory cytokines or chemokines such as TNF-alpha, IL-18, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the ileum were significantly blunted by MCTs. In addition, the mRNA expression of the Th2 IgA-stimulating cytokine IL-10 in the ileum and Peyer's patches was significantly greater in the MCTs than the corn oil group. In contrast, the mRNA expression of the Th1 IgA-inhibiting cytokine interferon-gamma was blunted by MCTs. As a result, intestinal injury was significantly reduced. Therefore, MCTs protect the gut by modulating the immune response to LPS and enhancing secretory IgA expression.


Assuntos
Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Quimiocina CCL2/genética , Quimiocina CXCL2 , Óleo de Milho/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Íleo/metabolismo , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/sangue , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Monocinas/genética , Mortalidade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/química
13.
Hepatol Res ; 27(4): 272-278, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14662115

RESUMO

Most hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) occur in chronic liver disease. Under such conditions, an impaired cellular immune response is often observed, but the mechanisms of this deficiency are unclear. The down-modulation of CD3 zeta (a key molecule in signal-transducing factor of T cell receptor) leads to a reduction in the function of T cells. In this study, we demonstrated the decreased expression of CD3 zeta on T cells from hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected hosts and HCC patients and clarified the correlation between the expression of CD3 zeta and tumor progression. Flowcytometrical analysis of CD3 zeta on peripheral T lymphocytes from 12 HCV infected hosts and 36 HCC bearing patients showed a significantly lower CD3 zeta expression than normal controls. Compared with tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL), intrahepatic T lymphocytes (IHL) and peripheral T lymphocytes (PBL) from 11 HCC bearing patients, the expression of CD3 zeta on TIL was significantly lower than PBL, and the expression level of CD3 zeta on IHL was almost equal to that on TIL. These results suggest that the down-modulation of CD3 zeta of T lymphocytes in HCV infected hosts may be one of the reasons why multicentric occurrence and intrahepatic metastasis occur more frequently in HCC patients than another malignancies.

14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 307(1): 74-82, 2003 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12954792

RESUMO

We postulated that a novel free radical scavenger, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (edaravone; EDA), would attenuate inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in the liver after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge through its antioxidant effect. Rats were administered EDA (0.3, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 mg/kg) or the same volume of saline intravenously just after LPS (10 mg/kg) injection and then was continued intermittently every 2 h (five administrations in total). Survival was assessed for the next 24 h. In separate experiments, rats were sacrificed at 60 min, 90 min, 6 h, and 9 h after LPS injection. Serum and liver sections were collected for further analysis. Survival was improved by EDA in a dose-dependent manner up to 3 mg/kg, and maximum effects were observed at a dose of 3 mg/kg. After LPS injection, alanine aminotransferase levels increased significantly to about 1,250 IU/l in the vehicle-treated group, whereas values were blunted by about 80% by EDA. Furthermore, increases in 4-hydroxynonenal-modified proteins were also blunted in the liver by EDA. Moreover, mRNA expressions of macrophage infiltrating protein-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MCP-5 were attenuated by EDA. As a result, increases in the number of infiltrating inflammatory cells and mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 were significantly blunted in the liver by EDA. This reduction was accompanied by a significant reduction of their serum levels. In conclusion, EDA prevented liver injury by both inhibition of recruitments of inflammatory cells and expression of inflammatory cytokine levels in the liver.


Assuntos
Antipirina/uso terapêutico , Quimiocinas CXC , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/prevenção & controle , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antipirina/análogos & derivados , Quimiocina CCL4 , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CC , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edaravone , Endotoxemia/patologia , Endotoxemia/prevenção & controle , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interferon gama/biossíntese , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-10/biossíntese , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-16/fisiologia , Interleucina-6/sangue , Leucócitos/fisiologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Proteínas Inflamatórias de Macrófagos/biossíntese , Proteínas Inflamatórias de Macrófagos/genética , Masculino , Monocinas/biossíntese , Monocinas/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/sangue , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/mortalidade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Ann Surg ; 237(2): 246-55, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12560783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) prevent organ injuries and mortality in rats administered endotoxin and to investigate effects of MCT on the gut. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Since dietary MCTs prevent alcohol-induced liver injury by inhibiting activation of Kupffer cells in the enteral feeding model, the authors hypothesized that MCT could prevent deleterious conditions in endotoxemia. METHODS: After a preliminary experiment determined the optimal dose of MCT, rats were given MCT (5 g/kg per day) or the same dose of corn oil by gavage daily for 1 week. Then, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intravenously and survival was assessed for the next 24 hours. For analysis of mechanisms, rats were killed 9 hours after LPS injection and serum and liver sections were collected. To investigate effects of MCT on the gut, pathologic change, permeability, and microflora were assessed. Kupffer cells isolated by collagenase digestion and differential centrifugation were used for endotoxin receptor CD14 immunoblotting, phagocytic index, and TNF-alpha production assay. RESULTS: All rats given corn oil died after LPS administration; however, this mortality was prevented by MCT in a dose-dependent manner. Rats given corn oil showed liver injury after LPS administration. In contrast, MCT prevented this pathologic change nearly completely. MCT blunted CD14 expression on the Kupffer cells and TNF-alpha production by isolated Kupffer cells; however, there were no differences in phagocytic index between the two groups. The length of the intestinal epithelium was increased in the MCT group compared to the corn oil group. Further, after LPS administration, increases in gut permeability and injury were prevented by MCT. Importantly, MCT also prevented hepatic energy charge and gut injuries in this condition. CONCLUSIONS: Enteral feeding using MCT could be a practical way of protecting the liver and intestine during endotoxemia.


Assuntos
Enteropatias/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Óleo de Milho/administração & dosagem , Endotoxemia , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Nutrição Enteral , Fezes/microbiologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Inflamação , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Corpos Cetônicos/sangue , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Receptores de Lipopolissacarídeos/análise , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/microbiologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Necrose , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
16.
J Surg Res ; 106(1): 179-87, 2002 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12127824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine if evidence of functional heterogeneity between subtypes of the Kupffer cell (KC) may be involved in the mechanism of the protective effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) in endotoxemia. METHODS: Rats pretreated with or without GdCl3 were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle. Serum and liver tissues were collected after LPS administration for cytokine measurements and pathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. RESULTS: After LPS administration, increases in expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA in the liver were blunted significantly by GdCl3. In control liver tissue, ED2-positive cells were a predominant fraction, with a few ED1-positive cells, and GdCl3 eliminated only ED2-positive cells. Further, ED2-positive cells were larger in size than ED1-positive ones. Importantly, the number of ED1-positive cells in the liver was increased about threefold in the control group but not in the GdCl3 group after LPS injection. Intermediate or large KCs isolated by counterflow centrifugal elutriation showed greater capacity for phagocytosis and production of superoxide and TNF-alpha than small ones. In contrast, IL-6 production was increased to a greater extent in small than in intermediate or large cells. GdCl3 eliminated the intermediate or large KC subpopulation predominantly. CONCLUSION: Collectively, functional heterogeneity of the KC population was involved in the mechanism of the protective effects of GdCl3 in endotoxemia. TNF-alpha derived from activated intermediate or large KCs may activate small KCs and the latter may be recruited to other organs, such as lungs and kidneys, and produce a large amount of IL-6, leading to multiple organ failure.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Endotoxemia/tratamento farmacológico , Gadolínio/farmacologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos do Fígado/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Endotoxemia/mortalidade , Endotoxemia/patologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterogeneidade Genética , Imuno-Histoquímica , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos do Fígado/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Fagocitose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
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