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Lancet Haematol ; 8(10): e770-e776, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481544


The low recruitment and retention of blood donors in sub-Saharan Africa is a grave concern for blood transfusion services in the region. This problem is exacerbated by factors such as a high prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections and anaemia, over-reliance on family replacement donors, resource constraints, and poor communication with the public. To improve blood safety and availability, innovative intervention strategies must be developed and implemented. The primary objective of this Series paper is to discuss the available evidence in the region and to provide recommendations on how to improve safe blood supply in sub-Saharan Africa. These recommendations include a call for renewed attention to donor recruitment in blood transfusion centres, a consistent and structured educational intervention, the development and adherence to national policies on blood donor selection with focus on voluntary donations, and comprehensive screening of donations for transfusion-transmissible infections. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

Segurança do Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362688


As several low- and middle-income countries roll out their COVID-19 vaccination programmes, COVID-19 vaccines hesitancy could threaten the success of such programmes. But pharmacists can play a leading role in addressing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy by using a critical mobile phone-based technology. This technology, known as caller tunes or ringback tones, is flourishing in low- and middle-income countries such as those in Africa and Asia where it is used to promote popular songs and religious messages. With this technology, callers to mobile phones hear a message or a song instead of the typical ringing sound. There is a need for pharmacists associations to collaborate with the creative arts industry and telecommunication companies to have caller tunes on COVID-19 vaccines. As pharmacists and others download COVID-19 vaccine caller tunes onto their mobile phones, their callers will hear COVID-19 vaccines messages or songs. This could help combat disinformation and hesitancy, and promote widespread vaccination as availability increases.

Vox Sang ; 116(3): 324-335, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161604


OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to identify factors that are predictive of intention to return to donate blood among first-time blood donors. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 505 first-time blood donors, selected from blood donation sessions across three regions in Ghana. Data were obtained on their intention to donate blood in the next four months, factors that would influence this decision. Logistic regression models were used to test factors that were predictive of intention to return. RESULTS: First-time donors were young with 87·4% below 35 years of age, male (72·5%), single (73·3%), Christian (93·7%), employed (58·8%), with at least a basic education (98%). Factors that positively predicted intention to return included: motivational incentives (OR = 1·67, 95%CI: 1·01-2·78; P = 0·045); ease of access to the donation site (OR = 2·65, 95%CI: 1·48-4·73; P = 0·001); SMS and email reminders (OR = 2·84, 95%CI: 1·60-5·06; P < 0·001); and television, radio or newspaper advertisements (OR = 2·97, 95%CI: 1·66-5·31; P < 0·001). Factors that negatively predicted intention included preferential access to transfusions (i.e. 'blood credits') (OR = 0·43, 95%CI: 0·23-0·83; P = 0·012); getting to know test results (OR = 0·40, 95%CI: 0·20-0·80; P = 0·010); and not knowing and/or trusting what happens to the blood after donating (OR = 0·50, 95%CI: 0·28-0·88; P = 0·016). CONCLUSION: Motivational incentives, convenient access to donation sessions, reminders and mass media advertisements appear to positively influence intention to return to donate. Conversely not knowing what happens to the blood after donation negatively influenced intention to return. Interventions to promote repeat blood donation should consider the identified factors.

Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Motivação , Adolescente , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
Virol J ; 17(1): 114, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709248


BACKGROUND: Detection of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and subtype diversity (SD) are public health strategies to assess current HIV-1 regimen and ensure effective therapeutic outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-1 patients. Globally, limited data exist on TDR and SD among blood donors. In this study, drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and SD amongst HIV-1 sero-positive blood donors in Accra, Ghana were characterized. METHODS: Purposive sampling method was used to collect 81 HIV sero-positive blood samples from the Southern Area Blood Center and confirmed by INNO-LIA as HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Viral RNA was only extracted from plasma samples confirmed as HIV-1 positive. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was synthesized using the RNA as a template and subsequently amplified by nested PCR with specific primers. The expected products were verified, purified and sequenced. Neighbour-joining tree with the Kimura's 2-parameter distances was generated with the RT sequences using Molecular Evolutionary Genetic Analysis version 6.0 (MEGA 6.0). RESULTS: Out of the 81 plasma samples, 60 (74%) were confirmed as HIV-1 sero-positive by INNO-LIA HIVI/II Score kit with no HIV-2 and dual HIV-1/2 infections. The remaining samples, 21 (26%) were confirmed as HIV sero-negative. Of the 60 confirmed positive samples, (32) 53% and (28) 47% were successfully amplified in the RT and PR genes respectively. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified samples revealed the presence of major drug resistance mutations in two (2) samples; E138A in one sample and another with K65R. HIV-1 Subtypes including subtypes A, B, CRF02_AG and CRF09_cpx were found. CONCLUSION: This study found major drug resistance mutations, E138A and K65R in the RT gene that confer high level resistance to most NNRTIs and NRTI respectively. CRF02_AG was most predominant, the recorded percentage of subtype B and the evolutionary relationship inferred by phylogenetic analysis may suggest possible subtype importation. However, a more prospective and detailed analysis is needed to establish this phenomenon. The data obtained would inform the selection of drugs for ART initiation to maximize therapeutic options in drug-naïve HIV-1 patients in Ghana.

Doadores de Sangue , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , HIV-1/genética , Mutação , Filogenia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/classificação , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/genética , Adulto Jovem
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 6(5): e117, 2018 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728343


BACKGROUND: Voluntary blood donation rates are low in sub-Saharan Africa. Sociobehavioral factors such as a belief that donated blood would be used for performing rituals deter people from donating blood. There is a need for culturally appropriate communication interventions to encourage individuals to donate blood. Health care interventions that use mobile phones have increased in developing countries, although many of them focus on SMS text messaging (short message service, SMS). A unique feature of mobile phones that has so far not been used for aiding blood donation is caller tunes. Caller tunes replace the ringing sound heard by a caller to a mobile phone before the called party answers the call. In African countries such as Ghana, instead of the typical ringing sound, a caller may hear a message or song. Despite the popularity of such caller tunes, there is a lack of empirical studies on their potential use for promoting blood donation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use the technology acceptance model to explore the influence of the factors-perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and free of cost-on intentions of blood or nonblood donors to download blood donation-themed caller tunes to promote blood donation, if available. METHODS: A total of 478 blood donors and 477 nonblood donors were purposively sampled for an interviewer-administered questionnaire survey at blood donation sites in Accra, Ghana. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factory analysis or structural equation modeling, leading to hypothesis testing to examine factors that determine intention to use caller tunes for blood donation among blood or nonblood donors who use or do not use mobile phone caller tunes. RESULTS: Perceived usefulness had a significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.293, P<.001), blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.165, P=.02, nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.278, P<.001), and nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.164, P=.01). Attitudes had significant effect on intention to use caller tunes among blood donors without caller tunes (beta=.351, P<.001), nonblood donors with caller tunes (beta=.384, P<.001), nonblood donors without caller tunes (beta=.539, P<.001) but not among blood donors with caller tunes (beta=.056, P=.44). The effect of free-of-cost caller tunes on the intention to use for blood donation was statistically significant (beta=.169, P<.001) only in the case of nonblood donors without caller tunes, whereas this path was statistically not significant in other models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide empirical evidence for designing caller tunes to promote blood donation in Ghana. The study found that making caller tunes free is particularly relevant for nonblood donors with no caller tunes.

Br J Haematol ; 177(6): 864-877, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28542841


Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA. The review revealed a common understanding that blood and blood donation save lives. The main deterrent to blood donation was fear due to lack of knowledge and discouraging spiritual, religious and cultural perceptions of blood donation. The main motivators for blood donation were altruism, donating blood for family and incentives. The findings support the need for targeted, culturally sensitive education, recruitment and retention strategies to improve the blood supply in SSA.

Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Motivação , África ao Sul do Saara , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Altruísmo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos