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1.
JCI Insight ; 5(7)2020 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271165

RESUMO

Recent studies in distinct preclinical tumor models have established the nucleotide synthesis enzyme inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) as a viable target for antitumor therapy. IMPDH inhibitors have been used clinically for decades as safe and effective immunosuppressants. However, the potential to repurpose these pharmacological agents for antitumor therapy requires further investigation, including direct comparisons of available compounds. Therefore, we tested structurally distinct IMPDH inhibitors in multiple cell and mouse tumor models of the genetic tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC-associated tumors are driven by uncontrolled activation of the growth-promoting protein kinase complex mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1), which is also aberrantly activated in the majority of sporadic cancers. Despite eliciting similar immunosuppressive effects, the IMPDH inhibitor mizoribine, used clinically throughout Asia, demonstrated far superior antitumor activity compared with the FDA-approved IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolate mofetil (or CellCept, a prodrug of mycophenolic acid). When compared directly to the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, mizoribine treatment provided a more durable antitumor response associated with tumor cell death. These results provide preclinical support for repurposing mizoribine, over other IMPDH inhibitors, as an alternative to mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of TSC-associated tumors and possibly other tumors featuring uncontrolled mTORC1 activity.

2.
mBio ; 11(2)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184254

RESUMO

The Candida albicans high-affinity phosphate transporter Pho84 is required for normal Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling, oxidative stress resistance, and virulence of this fungal pathogen. It also contributes to C. albicans' tolerance of two antifungal drug classes, polyenes and echinocandins. Echinocandins inhibit biosynthesis of a major cell wall component, beta-1,3-glucan. Cells lacking Pho84 were hypersensitive to other forms of cell wall stress beyond echinocandin exposure, while their cell wall integrity signaling response was weak. Metabolomics experiments showed that levels of phosphoric intermediates, including nucleotides like ATP and nucleotide sugars, were low in pho84 mutant compared to wild-type cells recovering from phosphate starvation. Nonphosphoric precursors like nucleobases and nucleosides were elevated. Outer cell wall phosphomannan biosynthesis requires a nucleotide sugar, GDP-mannose. The nucleotide sugar UDP-glucose is the substrate of enzymes that synthesize two major structural cell wall polysaccharides, beta-1,3- and beta-1,6-glucan. Another nucleotide sugar, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, is the substrate of chitin synthases which produce a stabilizing component of the intercellular septum and of lateral cell walls. Lack of Pho84 activity, and phosphate starvation, potentiated pharmacological or genetic perturbation of these enzymes. We posit that low substrate concentrations of beta-d-glucan- and chitin synthases, together with pharmacologic inhibition of their activity, diminish enzymatic reaction rates as well as the yield of their cell wall-stabilizing products. Phosphate import is not conserved between fungal and human cells, and humans do not synthesize beta-d-glucans or chitin. Hence, inhibiting these processes simultaneously could yield potent antifungal effects with low toxicity to humans.IMPORTANCE Candida species cause hundreds of thousands of invasive infections with high mortality each year. Developing novel antifungal agents is challenging due to the many similarities between fungal and human cells. Maintaining phosphate balance is essential for all organisms but is achieved completely differently by fungi and humans. A protein that imports phosphate into fungal cells, Pho84, is not present in humans and is required for normal cell wall stress resistance and cell wall integrity signaling in C. albicans Nucleotide sugars, which are phosphate-containing building block molecules for construction of the cell wall, are diminished in cells lacking Pho84. Cell wall-constructing enzymes may be slowed by lack of these building blocks, in addition to being inhibited by drugs. Combined targeting of Pho84 and cell wall-constructing enzymes may provide a strategy for antifungal therapy by which two sequential steps of cell wall maintenance are blocked for greater potency.

3.
J Biol Chem ; 295(19): 6263-6277, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139506

RESUMO

Treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is limited by a lack of effective molecular therapies targeting this disease. Recent studies have identified metabolic alterations in cancer cells that can be targeted to improve responses to standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens. Using MDA-MB-468 and SUM-159PT TNBC cells, along with LC-MS/MS and HPLC metabolomics profiling, we found here that exposure of TNBC cells to the cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin alter arginine and polyamine metabolites. This alteration was because of a reduction in the levels and activity of a rate-limiting polyamine biosynthetic enzyme, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Using gene silencing and inhibitor treatments, we determined that the reduction in ODC was mediated by its negative regulator antizyme, targeting ODC to the proteasome for degradation. Treatment with the ODC inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) sensitized TNBC cells to chemotherapy, but this was not observed in receptor-positive breast cancer cells. Moreover, TNBC cell lines had greater sensitivity to single-agent DFMO, and ODC levels were elevated in TNBC patient samples. The alterations in polyamine metabolism in response to chemotherapy, as well as DFMO-induced preferential sensitization of TNBC cells to chemotherapy, reported here suggest that ODC may be a targetable metabolic vulnerability in TNBC.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3483, 2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103083

RESUMO

Although metabolic syndrome (MS) is a significant risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the cardiac response (MR) to MS remains unclear due to traditional MS models' narrow scope around a limited number of cell-cycle regulation biomarkers and drawbacks of limited human tissue samples. To date, we developed the most comprehensive platform studying MR to MS in a pig model tightly related to human MS criteria. By incorporating comparative metabolomic, transcriptomic, functional analyses, and unsupervised machine learning (UML), we can discover unknown metabolic pathways connections and links on numerous biomarkers across the MS-associated issues in the heart. For the first time, we show severely diminished availability of glycolytic and citric acid cycle (CAC) pathways metabolites, altered expression, GlcNAcylation, and activity of involved enzymes. A notable exception, however, is the excessive succinate accumulation despite reduced succinate dehydrogenase complex iron-sulfur subunit b (SDHB) expression and decreased content of precursor metabolites. Finally, the expression of metabolites and enzymes from the GABA-glutamate, GABA-putrescine, and the glyoxylate pathways significantly increase, suggesting an alternative cardiac means to replenish succinate and malate in MS. Our platform discovers potential therapeutic targets for MS-associated CVD within pathways that were previously unknown to corelate with the disease.

5.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(2): 246-256, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015438

RESUMO

The Hippo and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathways are the two predominant growth-control pathways that dictate proper organ development. We therefore explored potential crosstalk between these two functionally relevant pathways to coordinate their growth-control functions. We found that the LATS1 and LATS2 kinases, the core components of the Hippo pathway, phosphorylate S606 of Raptor, an essential component of mTORC1, to attenuate mTORC1 activation by impairing the interaction of Raptor with Rheb. The phosphomimetic Raptor-S606D knock-in mutant led to a reduction in cell size and proliferation. Compared with Raptor+/+ mice, RaptorD/D knock-in mice exhibited smaller livers and hearts, and a significant inhibition of elevation in mTORC1 signalling induced by Nf2 or Lats1 and Lats2 loss. Thus, our study reveals a direct link between the Hippo and mTORC1 pathways to fine-tune organ growth.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo/genética , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Células HCT116 , Células HEK293 , Células HeLa , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Fígado/anormalidades , Fígado/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Camundongos Transgênicos , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Neurofibromina 2/deficiência , Neurofibromina 2/genética , Tamanho do Órgão , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteína Enriquecida em Homólogo de Ras do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína Regulatória Associada a mTOR/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/deficiência
6.
Cell Syst ; 10(1): 66-81.e11, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812693

RESUMO

Frequent mutation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway genes in human cancers has stimulated large investments in targeted drugs but clinical successes are rare. As a result, many cancers with high PI3K pathway activity, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), are treated primarily with chemotherapy. By systematically analyzing responses of TNBC cells to a diverse collection of PI3K pathway inhibitors, we find that one drug, Torin2, is unusually effective because it inhibits both mTOR and other PI3K-like kinases (PIKKs). In contrast to mTOR-selective inhibitors, Torin2 exploits dependencies on several kinases for S-phase progression and cell-cycle checkpoints, thereby causing accumulation of single-stranded DNA and death by replication catastrophe or mitotic failure. Thus, Torin2 and its chemical analogs represent a mechanistically distinct class of PI3K pathway inhibitors that are uniquely cytotoxic to TNBC cells. This insight could be translated therapeutically by further developing Torin2 analogs or combinations of existing mTOR and PIKK inhibitors.

9.
Nat Metab ; 1(4): 460-474, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535082

RESUMO

Drug-tolerance is an acute defense response prior to a fully drug-resistant state and tumor relapse, however there are few therapeutic agents targeting drug-tolerance in the clinic. Here we show that miR-147b initiates a reversible tolerant-state to the EGFR inhibitor osimertinib in non-small cell lung cancer. With miRNA-seq analysis we find that miR-147b is the most upregulated microRNA in osimertinib-tolerant and EGFR mutated lung cancer cells. Whole transcriptome analysis of single-cell derived clones reveals a link between osimertinib-tolerance and pseudohypoxia responses irrespective of oxygen levels. Further metabolomics and genetic studies demonstrate that osimertinib-tolerance is driven by miR-147b repression of VHL and succinate dehydrogenase linked to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and pseudohypoxia pathways. Finally, pretreatment with a miR-147b inhibitor delays osimertinib-associated drug tolerance in patient-derived three-dimensional (3D) structures. This link between miR-147b and tricarboxylic acid cycle may provide promising targets for preventing tumor relapse.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0219436, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390367

RESUMO

RAS is the founding member of a superfamily of GTPases and regulates signaling pathways involved in cellular growth control. While recent studies have shown that the activation state of RAS can be controlled by lysine ubiquitylation and acetylation, the existence of lysine methylation of the RAS superfamily GTPases remains unexplored. In contrast to acetylation, methylation does not alter the side chain charge and it has been challenging to deduce its impact on protein structure by conventional amino acid substitutions. Herein, we investigate lysine methylation on RAS and RAS-related GTPases. We developed GoMADScan (Go language-based Modification Associated Database Scanner), a new user-friendly application that scans and extracts posttranslationally modified peptides from databases. The GoMADScan search on PhosphoSitePlus databases identified methylation of conserved lysine residues in the core GTPase domain of RAS superfamily GTPases, including residues corresponding to RAS Lys-5, Lys-16, and Lys-117. To follow up on these observations, we immunoprecipitated endogenous RAS from HEK293T cells, conducted mass spectrometric analysis and found that RAS residues, Lys-5 and Lys-147, undergo dimethylation and monomethylation, respectively. Since mutations of Lys-5 have been found in cancers and RASopathies, we set up molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to assess the putative impact of Lys-5 dimethylation on RAS structure. Results from our MD analyses predict that dimethylation of Lys-5 does not significantly alter RAS conformation, suggesting that Lys-5 methylation may alter existing protein interactions or create a docking site to foster new interactions. Taken together, our findings uncover the existence of lysine methylation as a novel posttranslational modification associated with RAS and the RAS superfamily GTPases, and putative impact of Lys-5 dimethylation on RAS structure.


Assuntos
Mineração de Dados/métodos , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/química , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Metilação , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Domínios Proteicos
11.
Gastroenterology ; 157(6): 1615-1629.e17, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Some oncogenes encode transcription factors, but few drugs have been successfully developed to block their activity specifically in cancer cells. The transcription factor SALL4 is aberrantly expressed in solid tumor and leukemia cells. We developed a screen to identify compounds that reduce the viability of liver cancer cells that express high levels of SALL4, and we investigated their mechanisms. METHODS: We developed a stringent high-throughput screening platform comprising unmodified SNU-387 and SNU-398 liver cancer cell lines and SNU-387 cell lines engineered to express low and high levels of SALL4. We screened 1597 pharmacologically active small molecules and 21,575 natural product extracts from plant, bacteria, and fungal sources for those that selectively reduce the viability of cells with high levels of SALL4 (SALL4hi cells). We compared gene expression patterns of SALL4hi cells vs SALL4-knockdown cells using RNA sequencing and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. Xenograft tumors were grown in NOD/SCID gamma mice from SALL4hi SNU-398 or HCC26.1 cells or from SALL4lo patient-derived xenograft (PDX) cells; mice were given injections of identified compounds or sorafenib, and the effects on tumor growth were measured. RESULTS: Our screening identified 1 small molecule (PI-103) and 4 natural compound analogues (oligomycin, efrapeptin, antimycin, and leucinostatin) that selectively reduced viability of SALL4hi cells. We performed validation studies, and 4 of these compounds were found to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase inhibitor oligomycin reduced the viability of SALL4hi hepatocellular carcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines with minimal effects on SALL4lo cells. Oligomycin also reduced the growth of xenograft tumors grown from SALL4hi SNU-398 or HCC26.1 cells to a greater extent than sorafenib, but oligomycin had little effect on tumors grown from SALL4lo PDX cells. Oligomycin was not toxic to mice. Analyses of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing data showed that SALL4 binds approximately 50% of mitochondrial genes, including many oxidative phosphorylation genes, to activate their transcription. In comparing SALL4hi and SALL4-knockdown cells, we found SALL4 to increase oxidative phosphorylation, oxygen consumption rate, mitochondrial membrane potential, and use of oxidative phosphorylation-related metabolites to generate ATP. CONCLUSIONS: In a screening for compounds that reduce the viability of cells that express high levels of the transcription factor SALL4, we identified inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, which slowed the growth of xenograft tumors from SALL4hi cells in mice. SALL4 activates the transcription of genes that regulate oxidative phosphorylation to increase oxygen consumption, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP generation in cancer cells. Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation might be used for the treatment of liver tumors with high levels of SALL4.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/genética , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Cancer Discov ; 9(9): 1306-1323, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217297

RESUMO

The function of PTEN in the cytoplasm largely depends on its lipid-phosphatase activity, though which it antagonizes the PI3K-AKT oncogenic pathway. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the role of PTEN in the nucleus remain largely elusive. Here, we report that DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) promote PTEN interaction with MDC1 upon ATM-dependent phosphorylation of T/S398-PTEN. Importantly, DNA DSBs enhance NSD2 (MMSET/WHSC1)-mediated dimethylation of PTEN at K349, which is recognized by the tudor domain of 53BP1 to recruit PTEN to DNA-damage sites, governing efficient repair of DSBs partly through dephosphorylation of γH2AX. Of note, inhibiting NSD2-mediated methylation of PTEN, either through expressing methylation-deficient PTEN mutants or through inhibiting NSD2, sensitizes cancer cells to combinatorial treatment with a PI3K inhibitor and DNA-damaging agents in both cell culture and in vivo xenograft models. Therefore, our study provides a novel molecular mechanism for PTEN regulation of DSB repair in a methylation- and protein phosphatase-dependent manner. SIGNIFICANCE: NSD2-mediated dimethylation of PTEN is recognized by the 53BP1 tudor domain to facilitate PTEN recruitment into DNA-damage sites, governing efficient repair of DNA DSBs. Importantly, inhibiting PTEN methylation sensitizes cancer cells to combinatorial treatment with a PI3K inhibitor combined with DNA-damaging agents in both cell culture and in vivo xenograft models.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1143.

13.
Elife ; 82019 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107239

RESUMO

NRF2 is emerging as a major regulator of cellular metabolism. However, most studies have been performed in cancer cells, where co-occurring mutations and tumor selective pressures complicate the influence of NRF2 on metabolism. Here we use genetically engineered, non-transformed primary murine cells to isolate the most immediate effects of NRF2 on cellular metabolism. We find that NRF2 promotes the accumulation of intracellular cysteine and engages the cysteine homeostatic control mechanism mediated by cysteine dioxygenase 1 (CDO1), which catalyzes the irreversible metabolism of cysteine to cysteine sulfinic acid (CSA). Notably, CDO1 is preferentially silenced by promoter methylation in human non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) harboring mutations in KEAP1, the negative regulator of NRF2. CDO1 silencing promotes proliferation of NSCLC by limiting the futile metabolism of cysteine to the wasteful and toxic byproducts CSA and sulfite (SO32-), and depletion of cellular NADPH. Thus, CDO1 is a metabolic liability for NSCLC cells with high intracellular cysteine, particularly NRF2/KEAP1 mutant cells.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cisteína Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Animais , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
14.
Nature ; 569(7755): 275-279, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996345

RESUMO

Drosophila Lgl and its mammalian homologues, LLGL1 and LLGL2, are scaffolding proteins that regulate the establishment of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells1,2. Whereas Lgl functions as a tumour suppressor in Drosophila1, the roles of mammalian LLGL1 and LLGL2 in cancer are unclear. The majority (about 75%) of breast cancers express oestrogen receptors (ERs)3, and patients with these tumours receive endocrine treatment4. However, the development of resistance to endocrine therapy and metastatic progression are leading causes of death for patients with ER+ disease4. Here we report that, unlike LLGL1, LLGL2 is overexpressed in ER+ breast cancer and promotes cell proliferation under nutrient stress. LLGL2 regulates cell surface levels of a leucine transporter, SLC7A5, by forming a trimeric complex with SLC7A5 and a regulator of membrane fusion, YKT6, to promote leucine uptake and cell proliferation. The oestrogen receptor targets LLGL2 expression. Resistance to endocrine treatment in breast cancer cells was associated with SLC7A5- and LLGL2-dependent adaption to nutrient stress. SLC7A5 was necessary and sufficient to confer resistance to tamoxifen treatment, identifying SLC7A5 as a potential therapeutic target for overcoming resistance to endocrine treatments in breast cancer. Thus, LLGL2 functions as a promoter of tumour growth and not as a tumour suppressor in ER+ breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, adaptation to nutrient stress is critically important5, and our findings identify an unexpected role for LLGL2 in this process.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Leucina/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Proteínas R-SNARE/metabolismo
16.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 5(1): 42-51, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31019917

RESUMO

Ketamine, a noncompetitive, voltage-dependent N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has been shown to have a rapid antidepressant effect and is used for patients experiencing treatment-resistant depression. We carried out a time-dependent targeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomics profiling analysis combined with a quantitative based on in vivo 15N metabolic labeling proteome comparison of ketamine- and vehicle-treated mice. The metabolomics and proteomics datasets were used to further elucidate ketamine's mode of action on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic and glutamatergic systems. In addition, myelin basic protein levels were analyzed by Western Blot. We found altered GABA, glutamate and glutamine metabolite levels and ratios as well as increased levels of putrescine and serine - 2 positive modulators of the NMDAR. In addition, GABA receptor (GABAR) protein levels were reduced, whereas the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunit Gria2 protein levels were increased upon ketamine treatment. The significantly altered metabolite and protein levels further significantly correlated with the antidepressant-like behavior, which was assessed using the forced swim test. In conclusion and in line with previous research, our data indicate that ketamine impacts the AMPAR subunit Gria2 and results in decreased GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission leading to increased excitatory neuronal activity.

17.
Science ; 363(6431): 1088-1092, 2019 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30846598

RESUMO

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+) is essential for producing NADPH, the primary cofactor for reductive metabolism. We find that growth factor signaling through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway induces acute synthesis of NADP+ and NADPH. Akt phosphorylates NAD kinase (NADK), the sole cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of NADP+ from NAD+ (the oxidized form of NADH), on three serine residues (Ser44, Ser46, and Ser48) within an amino-terminal domain. This phosphorylation stimulates NADK activity both in cells and directly in vitro, thereby increasing NADP+ production. A rare isoform of NADK (isoform 3) lacking this regulatory region exhibits constitutively increased activity. These data indicate that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of NADK stimulates its activity to increase NADP+ production through relief of an autoinhibitory function inherent to its amino terminus.


Assuntos
NADP/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Citosol/enzimologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Domínios Proteicos , Serina/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(5): 662-663, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783264

RESUMO

In the version of this Article originally published, the labels for Rictor and mTOR in the whole cell lysate (WCL) blots were swapped in Fig. 3b and the mTOR blot was placed upside down. Unprocessed blots of mTOR were also missing from Supplementary Fig. 9. The corrected Figs are shown below. In addition, control blots for the mTOR antibody (Cell Signalling Technology #2972) were also missing. These are now provided below, as Fig. 9, and show that the lower band is likely non-specific.

19.
Immunity ; 50(3): 576-590.e6, 2019 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770249

RESUMO

Elevated glucose metabolism in immune cells represents a hallmark feature of many inflammatory diseases, such as sepsis. However, the role of individual glucose metabolic pathways during immune cell activation and inflammation remains incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized anti-inflammatory function of the O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) signaling associated with the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Despite elevated activities of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway, activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in attenuated HBP activity and protein O-GlcNAcylation. Deletion of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), a key enzyme for protein O-GlcNAcylation, led to enhanced innate immune activation and exacerbated septic inflammation. Mechanistically, OGT-mediated O-GlcNAcylation of the serine-threonine kinase RIPK3 on threonine 467 (T467) prevented RIPK3-RIPK1 hetero- and RIPK3-RIPK3 homo-interaction and inhibited downstream innate immunity and necroptosis signaling. Thus, our study identifies an immuno-metabolic crosstalk essential for fine-tuning innate immune cell activation and highlights the importance of glucose metabolism in septic inflammation.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Necrose/metabolismo , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Serina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Treonina/metabolismo
20.
Cell Rep ; 26(2): 469-482.e5, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30625329

RESUMO

The plasticity of a preexisting regulatory circuit compromises the effectiveness of targeted therapies, and leveraging genetic vulnerabilities in cancer cells may overcome such adaptations. Hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) is characterized by oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) deficiency caused by fumarate hydratase (FH) nullizyogosity. To identify metabolic genes that are synthetically lethal with OXPHOS deficiency, we conducted a genetic loss-of-function screen and found that phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) inhibition robustly blocks the proliferation of FH mutant cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, PGD inhibition blocks glycolysis, suppresses reductive carboxylation of glutamine, and increases the NADP+/NADPH ratio to disrupt redox homeostasis. Furthermore, in the OXPHOS-proficient context, blocking OXPHOS using the small-molecule inhibitor IACS-010759 enhances sensitivity to PGD inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Together, our study reveals a dependency on PGD in OXPHOS-deficient tumors that might inform therapeutic intervention in specific patient populations.


Assuntos
Fosforilação Oxidativa , Fosfogluconato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutações Sintéticas Letais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Genômica/métodos , Glicólise , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
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