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1.
Zootaxa ; 4657(1): zootaxa.4657.1.3, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716797

RESUMO

This revision of the bee genus Bathanthidium Mavromoustakis, 1953, treats 12 species, with 11 recorded from China, including Bathanthidium fengkaiense Niu Zhu, sp. nov.. Two species are proposed as new combinations in genus Bathanthidium: Anthidium (s. str.) bicolor Wu, 2004, A. (s. str.) monganshanensis Wu, 2004. The two new combinations (B. bicolor, B. monganshanense) are in Bathanthidium (Manthidium), previously considered to include only the type species from Burma and Laos (published records from northeastern India and Malaysia are based on misinterpreted localities). Trachusa (Paraanthidium) concavum (Wu, 1962) and Stelis siamensis Friese, 1925 are synonymized with B. binghami (Friese, 1901). Bathanthidium circinatum Wu, 2004 is transferred to Pseudoanthidium Friese forming the new combination P. (s. str.) circinatum (Wu, 2004). The distribution of each species is given, new distribution sites are marked by asterisk (*) especially. Our results confirm that the genus Bathanthidium has higher species diversity than previously documented and that this diversity is centered in China.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China , Índia , Laos , Malásia , Mianmar
2.
Zootaxa ; 4646(2): zootaxa.4646.2.3, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717014

RESUMO

The Chinese bees of the genus Trachusa Panzer, 1804 are reviewed. Nine species are confirmed to occur in China. Three new species are described and illustrated: Trachusa (Paraanthidium) pingdaensis Niu, sp. nov., T. (P.) staabi Niu, sp. nov. and T. (P.) wuae Niu, sp. nov. The distribution of each species is given. An illustrated key to the Chinese species is provided.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Abelhas , China
3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6355, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015555

RESUMO

Traditional conservation techniques for mapping highly biodiverse areas assume there to be satisfactory knowledge about the geographic distribution of biodiversity. There are, however, large gaps in biological sampling and hence knowledge shortfalls. This problem is even more pronounced in the tropics. Indeed, the use of only a few taxonomic groups or environmental surrogates for modelling biodiversity is not viable in mega-diverse countries, such as Brazil. To overcome these limitations, we developed a comprehensive spatial model that includes phylogenetic information and other several biodiversity dimensions aimed at mapping areas with high relevance for biodiversity conservation. Our model applies a genetic algorithm tool for identifying the smallest possible region within a unique biota that contains the most number of species and phylogenetic diversity, as well as the highest endemicity and phylogenetic endemism. The model successfully pinpoints small highly biodiverse areas alongside regions with knowledge shortfalls where further sampling should be conducted. Our results suggest that conservation strategies should consider several taxonomic groups, the multiple dimensions of biodiversity, and associated sampling uncertainties.

4.
Ecology ; 100(5): e02654, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942484

RESUMO

Predicting the long-term consequences of habitat alteration for the preservation of biodiversity and ecosystem function requires an understanding of how ecological filters drive taxonomic and functional biodiversity loss. Here, we test a set of predictions concerning the role of ecological filters in restructuring native bee assemblages inhabiting fragmented coastal sage scrub ecosystems in southern California, USA. In 2011 and 2012, we collected native bees in scrub habitat belonging to two treatment categories: large natural reserves and small habitat fragments embedded in an urban landscape. We compared bee assemblages in reserve and fragment sites with respect to their taxonomic and functional alpha diversity, beta diversity, assemblage composition, and mean geographical range size estimated via distribution maps compiled for this study from digitized specimen records. We found multiple lines of evidence that ecological filtering drove bee diversity loss in fragments: a disproportionate loss of functional diversity relative to taxonomic diversity, shifts in assemblage composition driven largely by the preferential extirpation of reserve-associated indicator species, and disproportionate loss of range-restricted species. However, we found no evidence of taxonomic or functional homogenization across fragment bee assemblages, suggesting that filtering was not sufficiently strong to cause a subset of functional traits (and their associated species) to dominate assemblages in fragments. Our results suggest that ecological filtering altered bee assemblages in habitat fragments, even when such fragments contained well-preserved native plant assemblages, underscoring the importance of preserving large areas of natural habitat for the conservation of bees (especially range-restricted taxa) and their associated ecological functions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Animais , Abelhas , California , Ecologia , Plantas
5.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0207900, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30452475

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0151482.].

8.
Thomson, Scott A; Pyle, Richard L; Ahyong, Shane T; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel; Ammirati, Joe; Araya, Juan Francisco; Ascher, John S; Audisio, Tracy Lynn; Azevedo-Santos, Valter M; Bailly, Nicolas; Baker, William J; Balke, Michael; Barclay, Maxwell V. L; Barrett, Russell L; Benine, Ricardo C; Bickerstaff, James R. M; Bouchard, Patrice; Bour, Roger; Bourgoin, Thierry; Boyko, Christopher B; Breure, Abraham S. H; Brothers, Denis J; Byng, James W; Campbell, David; Ceriaco, Luis M. P; Cernak, Istvan; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Chang, Chih-Han; Cho, Soowon; Copus, Joshua M; Costello, Mark J; Cseh, Andras; Csuzdi, Csaba; Culham, Alastair; D'Elia, Guillermo; d'Acoz, Cedric d'Udekem; Daneliya, Mikhail E; Dekker, Rene; Dickinson, Edward C; Dickinson, Timothy A; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B; Dima, Balint; Dmitriev, Dmitry A; Duistermaat, Leni; Dumbacher, John P; Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Ekrem, Torbjorn; Evenhuis, Neal L; Faille, Arnaud; Fernandez-Trianam, Jose L; Fiesler, Emile; Fishbein, Mark; Fordham, Barry G; Freitas, Andre V. L; Friol, Natalia R; Fritz, Uwe; Froslev, Tobias; Funk, Vicki A; Gaimari, Stephen D; Garbino, Guilherme S. T; Garraffoni, Andre R. S; Geml, Jozsef; Gill, Anthony C; Gray, Alan; Grazziotin, Felipe Gobbi; Greenslade, Penelope; Gutierrez, Eliecer E; Harvey, Mark S; Hazevoet, Cornelis J; He, Kai; He, Xiaolan; Helfer, Stephan; Helgen, Kristofer M; van Heteren, Anneke H; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Holstein, Norbert; Horvath, Margit K; Hovenkamp, Peter H; Hwang, Wei Song; Hyvonen, Jaakko; Islam, Melissa B; Iverson, John B; Ivie, Michael A; Jaafar, Zeehan; Jackson, Morgan D; Jayat, J. Pablo; Johnson, Norman F; Kaiser, Hinrich; Klitgard, Bente B; Knapp, Daniel G; Kojima, Jun-ichi; Koljalg, Urmas; Kontschan, Jeno; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Krisai-Greilhuberm, Irmgard; Kullander, Sven; Latelle, Leonardo; Lattke, John E; Lencioni, Valeria; Lewis, Gwilym P; Lhano, Marcos G; Lujan, Nathan K; Luksenburg, Jolanda A; Mariaux, Jean; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Marshall, Christopher J; Mate, Jason F; McDonough, Molly M; Michel, Ellinor; Miranda, Vitor F. O; Mitroiulm, Mircea-Dan; Molinari, Jesus; Monks, Scott; Moore, Abigail J; Moratelli, Ricardo; Muranyi, David; Nakano, Takafumi; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Noyes, John; Ohl, Michael; Oleas, Nora H; Orrell, Thomas; Pall-Gergele, Barna; Pape, Thomas; Papp, Viktor; Parenti, Lynne R; Patterson, David; Pavlinov, Igor Ya; Pine, Ronald H; Poczai, Peter; Prado, Jefferson; Prathapan, Divakaran; Rabeler, Richard K; Randall, John E; Rheindt, Frank E; Rhodin, Anders G. J; Rodriguez, Sara M; Rogers, D. Christopher; Roque, Fabio de O; Rowe, Kevin C; Ruedas, Luis A; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Salvador, Rodrigo B; Sangster, George; Sarmiento, Carlos E; Schigel, Dmitry S; Schmidt, Stefan; Schueler, Frederick W; Segers, Hendrik; Snow, Neil; Souza-Dias, Pedro G. B; Stals, Riaan; Stenroos, Soili; Stone, R. Douglas; Sturm, Charles F; Stys, Pavel; Teta, Pablo; Thomas, Daniel C; Timm, Robert M; Tindall, Brian J; Todd, Jonathan A; Triebel, Dagmar; Valdecasas, Antonio G; Vizzini, Alfredo; Vorontsova, Maria S; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Wagner, Philipp; Watling, Les; Weakley, Alan; Welter-Schultes, Francisco; Whitmore, Daniel; Wilding, Nicholas; Will, Kipling; Williams, Jason; Wilson, Karen; Winston, Judith E; Wuster, Wolfgang; Yanega, Douglas; Yeates, David K; Zaher, Hussam; Zhang, Guanyang; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Hong-Zhang.
PLoS. Biol. ; 16(3): e2005075, 2018.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15045
9.
Zootaxa ; 4352(1): 1-160, 2017 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245534

RESUMO

The state of Michigan occupies an area between the Great Plains and the northeastern United States, bordering four Great Lakes, with diverse biogeographical regions. Michigan also has the second most diverse agriculture in the country, with many crops that depend on bees for pollination. This unique combination provides a wide range of opportunities for bees to persist, yet there is no current published checklist of these important insects. This study was conducted to provide the first annotated checklist of the bee (Apoidea: Anthophila) fauna of Michigan, summarizing aspects of their taxonomy and behavior and to provide provisional conservation assessment. The list was compiled from a critical review of published literature, museum specimens, and database records, supplemented by new collections. In total, 465 species are included in the checklist, including 38 new records, however evidence for 13 species is poor, several more species require taxonomic revision, and the presence of additional species is expected. The exotic megachilid species Megachile apicalis Spinola, M. pusilla Pérez (=concinna Smith, auct.) and Osmia taurus Smith are reported from Michigan for the first time. New state records of native species include Anthidium tenuiflorae Cockerell and Nomada alpha alpha Cockerell, both previously undocumented from eastern North America, and Nomada sphaerogaster Cockerell, which has rarely been recognized. The taxonomy of some bee species is clarified by the formal publication of 11 new synonymies (some previously reported online or in manuscripts). The following list cites junior synonyms first followed by the valid name: Andrena chippewaensis Mitchell 1960 = A. (Simandrena) wheeleri Graenicher 1904; Osmia hendersoni Cockerell 1907 = O. (Melanosmia) tarsata Provancher 1888; Osmia michiganensis Mitchell 1962 = O. (M.) subarctica Cockerell 1912 (new status, removed from synonymy with O. (M.) tersula Cockerell 1912); Sphecodes persimilis Lovell and Cockerell 1907 = S. davisii Robertson 1897; Sphecodes knetschi Cockerell 1898 = S. dichrous Smith 1853; Sphecodes carolinus Mitchell 1956 = S. coronus Mitchell 1956; Sphecodes stygius Robertson 1893 = S. mandibularis Cresson 1872; Sphecodes prostygius Mitchell 1960 = S. fattigi Mitchell 1956; Stelis vernalis Mitchell 1962 = S. coarctatus Crawford 1916; and Stelis michiganensis Mitchell 1962 = S. foederalis Smith 1854. Poorly known Andrena (Cnemidandrena) are discussed, including A. parnassiae Cockerell, a new state record, A. robervalensis Mitchell, and the extralimital A. runcinatae Cockerell. Of these, only A. robervalensis was considered in the subgeneric revision, but we recognize all three as valid species pending further study. Nomada binotata (Robertson 1903) and N. quadrimaculata (Robertson 1903) are removed from synonymy with N. ovata (Robertson 1903), based on examination of the lectotypes. A new species, Triepeolus eliseae Rightmyer, the eastern representative of the verbesinae species group, is described. A putative undescribed species, Osmia aff. trevoris, is documented, but requires additional study for its status to be fully resolved. A rich bee fauna is documented that includes geographically-restricted species, rare and regionally-declining species, and economically-important species, providing information for ongoing conservation planning and future analysis of trends in bee populations.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Himenópteros , Lepidópteros , Michigan , Polinização
10.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 9141, 2017 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28831073

RESUMO

Although Brazil is a megadiverse country and thus a conservation priority, no study has yet quantified conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas (PAs) using extensive empirical data. Here, we evaluate the degree of biodiversity protection and knowledge within all the Brazilian PAs through a gap analysis of vertebrate, arthropod and angiosperm occurrences and phylogenetic data. Our results show that the knowledge on biodiversity in most Brazilian PAs remain scant as 71% of PAs have less than 0.01 species records per km2. Almost 55% of Brazilian species and about 40% of evolutionary lineages are not found in PAs, while most species have less than 30% of their geographic distribution within PAs. Moreover, the current PA network fails to protect the majority of endemic species. Most importantly, these results are similar for all taxonomic groups analysed here. The methods and results of our countrywide assessment are suggested to help design further inventories in order to map and secure the key biodiversity of the Brazilian PAs. In addition, our study illustrates the most common biodiversity knowledge shortfalls in the tropics.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Artrópodes/classificação , Biodiversidade , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Magnoliopsida/classificação , Filogenia , Vertebrados/classificação
11.
PLoS One ; 12(8): e0184136, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854229

RESUMO

Despite a large number of ecological studies that document diversity loss resulting from anthropogenic disturbance, surprisingly few consider how disturbance affects temporal patterns of diversity that result from seasonal turnover of species. Temporal dynamics can play an important role in the structure and function of biological assemblages. Here, we investigate the temporal diversity patterns of bee faunas in Southern California coastal sage scrub ecosystems that have been extensively fragmented by urbanization. Using a two-year dataset of 235 bee species (n = 12,036 specimens), we compared 1-ha plots in scrub fragments and scrub reserves with respect to three components of temporal diversity: overall plot-level diversity pooled over time (temporal gamma diversity), diversity at discrete points in time (temporal alpha diversity), and seasonal turnover in assemblage composition (temporal beta diversity). Compared to reserves, fragments harbored bee assemblages with lower species richness and assemblage evenness both when summed across temporal samples (i.e., lower temporal gamma diversity) and at single points in time (i.e., lower temporal alpha diversity). Bee assemblages in fragments also exhibited reduced seasonal turnover (i.e., lower temporal beta diversity). While fragments and reserves did not differ in overall bee abundance, bee abundance in fragments peaked later in the season compared to that in reserves. Our results argue for an increased awareness of temporal diversity patterns, as information about the distinct components of temporal diversity is essential both for characterizing the assemblage dynamics of seasonal organisms and for identifying potential impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on ecosystem function through its effects on assemblage dynamics.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Urbanização , Animais , California , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie
12.
Sci Adv ; 3(3): e1600513, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435856

RESUMO

The highly social (eusocial) corbiculate bees, comprising the honey bees, bumble bees, and stingless bees, are ubiquitous insect pollinators that fulfill critical roles in ecosystem services and human agriculture. Here, we conduct wide sampling across the phylogeny of these corbiculate bees and reveal a dynamic evolutionary history behind their microbiota, marked by multiple gains and losses of gut associates, the presence of generalist as well as host-specific strains, and patterns of diversification driven, in part, by host ecology (for example, colony size). Across four continents, we found that different host species have distinct gut communities, largely independent of geography or sympatry. Nonetheless, their microbiota has a shared heritage: The emergence of the eusocial corbiculate bees from solitary ancestors appears to coincide with the acquisition of five core gut bacterial lineages, supporting the hypothesis that host sociality facilitates the development and maintenance of specialized microbiomes.


Assuntos
Abelhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Animais , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Conserv Biol ; 31(1): 24-29, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27624925

RESUMO

Research on urban insect pollinators is changing views on the biological value and ecological importance of cities. The abundance and diversity of native bee species in urban landscapes that are absent in nearby rural lands evidence the biological value and ecological importance of cities and have implications for biodiversity conservation. Lagging behind this revised image of the city are urban conservation programs that historically have invested in education and outreach rather than programs designed to achieve high-priority species conservation results. We synthesized research on urban bee species diversity and abundance to determine how urban conservation could be repositioned to better align with new views on the ecological importance of urban landscapes. Due to insect pollinators' relatively small functional requirements-habitat range, life cycle, and nesting behavior-relative to larger mammals, we argue that pollinators put high-priority and high-impact urban conservation within reach. In a rapidly urbanizing world, transforming how environmental managers view the city can improve citizen engagement and contribute to the development of more sustainable urbanization.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Cidades , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Urbanização , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Insetos , Mamíferos
14.
Ecol Appl ; 27(3): 705-717, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935661

RESUMO

Recognition of the importance of bee conservation has grown in response to declines of managed honey bees and some wild bee species. Habitat loss has been implicated as a leading cause of declines, suggesting that ecological restoration is likely to play an increasing role in bee conservation efforts. In the midwestern United States, restoration of tallgrass prairie has traditionally targeted plant community objectives without explicit consideration for bees. However, restoration of prairie vegetation is likely to provide ancillary benefits to bees through increased foraging and nesting resources. We investigated community assembly of bees across a chronosequence of restored eastern tallgrass prairies and compared patterns to those in control and reference habitats (old fields and prairie remnants, respectively). We collected bees for 3 yr and measured diversity and abundance of in-bloom flowering plants, vegetation structure, ground cover, and surrounding land use as predictors of bee abundance and bee taxonomic and functional diversity. We found that site-level variables, but not site type or restoration age, were significant predictors of bee abundance (bloom diversity, P = 0.004; bare ground cover, P = 0.02) and bee diversity (bloom diversity, P = 0.01). There were significant correlations between overall composition of bee and blooming plant communities (Mantel test, P = 0.002), and both plant and bee assemblages in restorations were intermediate between those of old fields and remnant prairies. Restorations exhibited high bee beta diversity, i.e., restored sites' bee assemblages were taxonomically and functionally differentiated from each other. This pattern was strong in younger restorations (<20 yr old), but absent from older restorations (>20 yr), suggesting restored prairie bee communities become more similar to one another and more similar to remnant prairie bee communities over time with the arrival of more species and functional groups of bees. Our results indicate that old fields, restorations, and remnants provide habitat for diverse and abundant bee communities, but continued restoration of old fields will help support and conserve bee communities more similar to reference bee communities characteristic of remnant prairies.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Conservação de Recursos Energéticos , Magnoliopsida , Animais , Biodiversidade , Pradaria , Illinois , Densidade Demográfica
15.
Sci Rep ; v. 7(n. 9141): p. 1-9, 2017.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15077

RESUMO

Although Brazil is a megadiverse country and thus a conservation priority, no study has yet quantified conservation gaps in the Brazilian protected areas (PAs) using extensive empirical data. Here, we evaluate the degree of biodiversity protection and knowledge within all the Brazilian PAs through a gap analysis of vertebrate, arthropod and angiosperm occurrences and phylogenetic data. Our results show that the knowledge on biodiversity in most Brazilian PAs remain scant as 71% of PAs have less than 0.01 species records per km(2). Almost 55% of Brazilian species and about 40% of evolutionary lineages are not found in PAs, while most species have less than 30% of their geographic distribution within PAs. Moreover, the current PA network fails to protect the majority of endemic species. Most importantly, these results are similar for all taxonomic groups analysed here. The methods and results of our countrywide assessment are suggested to help design further inventories in order to map and secure the key biodiversity of the Brazilian PAs. In addition, our study illustrates the most common biodiversity knowledge shortfalls in the tropics.

16.
Ecology ; 97(11): 2925-2931, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27870034

RESUMO

Recent studies of mutualistic networks show that interactions between partners change across years. Both biological mechanisms and chance could drive these patterns, but the relative importance of these factors has not been separated. We established a field experiment consisting of 102 monospecific plots of 17 native plant species, from which we collected 6713 specimens of 52 bee species over four years. We used these data and a null model to determine whether bee species' foraging choices varied more or less over time beyond the variation expected by chance. Thus we provide the first quantitative definition of rewiring and fidelity as these terms are used in the literature on interaction networks. All 52 bee species varied in plant partner choice across years, but for 27 species this variation was indistinguishable from random partner choice. Another 11 species showed rewiring, varying more across years than expected by chance, while 14 species showed fidelity, indicating that they both prefer certain plant species and are consistent in those preferences across years. Our study shows that rewiring and fidelity both exist in mutualist networks, but that once sampling effects have been accounted for, they are less common than has been reported in the ecological literature.


Assuntos
Abelhas/classificação , Abelhas/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Densidade Demográfica , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Zootaxa ; 4127(2): 327-44, 2016 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395626

RESUMO

The resin bees of the genus Anthidiellum Cockerell, 1904 are revised for China. Seven species are confirmed to occur in China including five new combinations: A. (Pycnanthidium) carinatum (Wu, 1962) comb. nov., A. (P.) coronum (Wu, 2004a) comb. nov., A. (P.) latipes (Bingham, 1897) comb. nov., A. (Clypanthidium) popovii (Wu, 1962) comb. nov., and A. (Anthidiellum) yunnanensis (Wu, 1962) comb. nov.. These five species had previously been classified as Trachusa (Paraanthidium), which is characterized by much larger-bodied bees (only four species of Trachusa (Paraanthidium) are confirmed to occur in China after this study; others reported in the literature were misplaced to genus). Additionally, Anthidiellum ludingensis Wu, 1993, and Anthidiellum (Anthidiellum) xinjiangensis Wu, 2004b, are removed from Anthidiellum forming the new combinations Pseudoanthidium (Pseudoanthidium) ludingense (Wu, 1993) and P. (P.) xinjiangense (Wu, 2004b), thus extending the range of the genus in China to include Sichuan. Illustrations and a key to known Chinese Anthidiellum species are provided.


Assuntos
Abelhas/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
18.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0151482, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986000

RESUMO

Allometric relationships among morphological traits underlie important patterns in ecology. These relationships are often phylogenetically shared; thus quantifying allometric relationships may allow for estimating difficult-to-measure traits across species. One such trait, proboscis length in bees, is assumed to be important in structuring bee communities and plant-pollinator networks. However, it is difficult to measure and thus rarely included in ecological analyses. We measured intertegular distance (as a measure of body size) and proboscis length (glossa and prementum, both individually and combined) of 786 individual bees of 100 species across 5 of the 7 extant bee families (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Anthophila). Using linear models and model selection, we determined which parameters provided the best estimate of proboscis length. We then used coefficients to estimate the relationship between intertegular distance and proboscis length, while also considering family. Using allometric equations with an estimation for a scaling coefficient between intertegular distance and proboscis length and coefficients for each family, we explain 91% of the variance in species-level means for bee proboscis length among bee species. However, within species, individual-level intertegular distance was a poor predictor of individual proboscis length. To make our findings easy to use, we created an R package that allows estimation of proboscis length for individual bee species by inputting only family and intertegular distance. The R package also calculates foraging distance and body mass based on previously published equations. Thus by considering both taxonomy and intertegular distance we enable accurate estimation of an ecologically and evolutionarily important trait.


Assuntos
Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Ecologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 6: 7414, 2015 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26079893

RESUMO

There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost-effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas , Polinização , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/economia
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