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1.
Cardiovasc Toxicol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599474

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the effects of Buprenorphine (BUP) on oxidative parameters in pups born to mothers exposed to the drug during gestation and lactation. Pregnant and lactating rats received BUP, 0.5 or 0.1 mg/kg subcutaneously for 21 and 28 days, respectively. At the end of the study, the pups were anesthetized, and the hearts were dissected out to measure oxidative stress indices, including the levels of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric oxide (NO), Glutathione (GSH), and the activity of Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Our findings indicated that BUP did not alter MDA, NO, GSH levels, nor SOD activity in the cardiac tissue of pups exposed to this drug during the fetal period and through breast milk. We suggest performing additional studies to determine the association between BUP and oxidative modifications in cardiac tissues of pups born to mothers under BUP therapy during gestation and lactation.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572505

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal, which at high exposures causes neurotoxic effects and neurodegeneration. The neurotoxic effects of Mn are mediated by neuroinflammation, oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other mechanisms. Recent findings have demonstrated the potential impact of Mn overexposure on gut microbiota dysbiosis, which is known to contribute to neurodegeneration via secretion of neuroactive and proinflammatory metabolites. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the existing data on the impact of Mn exposure on gut microbiota biodiversity, bacterial metabolite production, and gut wall permeability regulating systemic levels. Recent data have demonstrated that Mn exposure may affect gut microbiota biodiversity by altering the abundance of Shiegella, Ruminococcus, Dorea, Fusicatenibacter, Roseburia, Parabacteroides, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Ruminococcaceae, Streptococcaceae, and other bacterial phyla. A Mn-induced increase in Bacteroidetes abundance and a reduced Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio may increase lipopolysaccharide levels. Moreover, in addition to increased systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, Mn is capable of potentiating LPS neurotoxicity. Due to the high metabolic activity of intestinal microflora, Mn-induced perturbations in gut microbiota result in a significant alteration in the gut metabolome that has the potential to at least partially mediate the biological effects of Mn overexposure. At the same time, a recent study demonstrated that healthy microbiome transplantation alleviates Mn-induced neurotoxicity, which is indicative of the significant role of gut microflora in the cascade of Mn-mediated neurotoxicity. High doses of Mn may cause enterocyte toxicity and affect gut wall integrity through disruption of tight junctions. The resulting increase in gut wall permeability further promotes increased translocation of LPS and neuroactive bacterial metabolites to the systemic blood flow, ultimately gaining access to the brain and leading to neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter imbalance. Therefore, the existing data lead us to hypothesize that gut microbiota should be considered as a potential target of Mn toxicity, although more detailed studies are required to characterize the interplay between Mn exposure and the gut, as well as its role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration and other diseases.

3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 157: 112555, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534608

RESUMO

Hair is used as a biomarker of manganese (Mn) exposure, yet there is limited evidence to support its utility to quantify internal vs external Mn exposure. C57BL/6 J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed in two blocks of 3 subcutaneous injections every 3 days starting on day 0 or 20. The control group received two blocks of saline (vehicle); Treatment A received the first block as Mn (50 mg/kg MnCl2 tetrahydrate), with the second block as either methylmercury (MeHg at 2.6 or 1.3 mg/kg) for mice or vehicle for rats; and Treatment B received Mn for both blocks. Hair was collected on days 0 and 60 from all treatment groups and Mn quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and total Hg by Direct Mercury Analyzer (DMA). No correlation between internal Mn dose and hair Mn was observed, whereas hair Hg was significantly elevated in MeHg exposed vs non-exposed mice. Whole body Mn content at day 60 was quantified postmortem by neutron activation analysis, which detected significantly elevated Mn for Treatment B in mice and rats. Overall, we find no evidence to support the use of hair as a valid biomarker for internal exposure to Mn at a neurotoxic level.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125878, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492818

RESUMO

With the increased appreciation for the significance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), the present research aimed to determine the role of competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in the process of particulate matter (PM) exposure-induced pulmonary damage. Alterations in messenger RNA (RNA), microRNA and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) profiles of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with PM were analyzed by microarray assays. Next, we identified that lncRNA taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) acted as a competing endogenous RNA for microRNA-222-3p (miR-222-3p) and subsequently attenuated the inhibitory effect of miR-222-3p on CUGBP elav-like family member 1 (CELF1). The binding potency among ceRNAs was verified by RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Knockdown of TUG1 attenuated HBE cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by downregulation of CELF1 and protein 53 (p53). Further, we confirmed that Tug1/mir-222-3p/CELF1/p53 network aggravated PM-induced airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) in mice. In summary, our novel findings revealed that TUG1 triggered dysfunction of pulmonary cells followed by PM exposure by serving as a sponge for miR-222-3p and thereby upregulating the expression of CELF1and p53.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , Material Particulado/toxicidade , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Taurina
5.
Curr Neuropharmacol ; 2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561984

RESUMO

Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) disorders result from damage, malfunction or absence of one or more key proteins involved in neuromuscular transmission, comprising a wide range of disorders. The most common pathology is antibody-mediated or downregulation of ion channels or receptors, resulting in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and acquired neuromyotonia (Isaac's syndrome), and rarely congenital myasthenic syndromes caused by mutations in NMJ proteins. A wide range of symptomatic treatments, immunomodulating therapies, or immunosuppressive drugs have been used to treat NMJ diseases. Future research must be directed at better understanding of the pathogenesis of these diseases, and developing novel disease-specific treatments. Numerous secondary metabolites, especially alkaloids isolated from plants have been used to treat NMJ diseases in traditional and clinical practices. An ethnopharmacological approach has provided leads for identifying new treatment for NMJ diseases. In this review, we performed a literature survey in Pubmed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar to gather information on drug discovery from plant sources for NMJ disease treatments. To date, most research has focused on the effect of herbal remedies on cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. This review provides leads for identifying potential new drugs from plant sources for the treatment of NMJ diseases.

6.
Cell Signal ; 87: 110142, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487816

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in humans. It is characterized by excessive cell growth and accelerated intrusion of normal brain tissue along with a poor prognosis. The current standard of treatment, including surgical removal, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, is largely ineffective, with high mortality and recurrence rates. As a result, traditional approaches have evolved to include new alternative remedies, such as natural compounds. Aquatic species provide a rich supply of possible drugs. The physiological effects of marine peptides in glioblastoma are mediated by a range of pathways, including apoptosis, microtubule balance disturbances, suppression of angiogenesis, cell migration/invasion, and cell viability; autophagy and metabolic enzymes downregulation. Herein, we address the efficacy of marine peptides as putative safe therapeutic agents for glioblastoma coupled with detail molecular mechanisms.

7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 68: 126852, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Environmental lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) pollution has been considered a risk factor in the etiology of kidney stones. However, the association between Pb and Cd exposure and kidney stone incidence has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine a possible the association between kidney stones with Pb and Cd exposure (alone or combined) in a non-occupational population. METHODS: Pb and Cd contaminations in soil-plant system were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Health risk assessment of dietary Pb or Cd intake from rice and vegetables were calculated. Kidney stones were diagnosed with urinary tract ultrasonography. Urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood lead (BPb) levels were determined by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed. RESULTS: The hazard indexes (HI) of Pb and Cd were 7.91 and 7.31. The odds ratio (OR) was 2.83 (95 %CI:1.38-5.77) in males with high BPb (BPb ≥ 100 µg/L), compared with those with low BPb (BPb<100 µg/L). Compared to those with low BPb and low UCd (BPb<100 µg/L and UCd<2 µg/g creatinine), the ORs were 2.58 (95 % CI:1.17-5.70) and 3.43 (95 % CI:1.21-9.16) in females and males with high BPb and high UCd (BPb ≥100 µg/L and UCd ≥2 µg/g creatinine), respectively. The OR was 3.16 (95 % CI:1.26-7.88) in males with high BPb and low UCd (BPb ≥ 100 µg/L and UCd <2 µg/g creatinine), compared to those with low BPb and low UCd. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney stones incidence was increased by high Pb exposure in males, and by Pb and Cd co-exposure in males and females.

8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502369

RESUMO

The aim of the present review is to discuss traditional hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as well as the role of metabolic-syndrome-related mechanisms in AD development with a special focus on advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and their role in metal-induced neurodegeneration in AD. Persistent hyperglycemia along with oxidative stress results in increased protein glycation and formation of AGEs. The latter were shown to possess a wide spectrum of neurotoxic effects including increased Aß generation and aggregation. In addition, AGE binding to receptor for AGE (RAGE) induces a variety of pathways contributing to neuroinflammation. The existing data also demonstrate that AGE toxicity seems to mediate the involvement of copper (Cu) and potentially other metals in AD pathogenesis. Specifically, Cu promotes AGE formation, AGE-Aß cross-linking and up-regulation of RAGE expression. Moreover, Aß glycation was shown to increase prooxidant effects of Cu through Fenton chemistry. Given the role of AGE and RAGE, as well as metal toxicity in AD pathogenesis, it is proposed that metal chelation and/or incretins may slow down oxidative damage. In addition, selenium (Se) compounds seem to attenuate the intracellular toxicity of the deranged tau and Aß, as well as inhibiting AGE accumulation and metal-induced neurotoxicity.

9.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; : 1-15, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474657

RESUMO

Meteorological parameters modulate transmission of the SARS-Cov-2 virus, the causative agent related to coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) development. However, findings across the globe have been inconsistent attributed to several confounding factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between reported meteorological parameters from July 1 to October 31, 2020, and the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in 4 Brazilian cities: São Paulo, the largest city with the highest number of cases in Brazil, and the cities with greater number of cases in the state of Parana during the study period (Curitiba, Londrina and Maringa). The assessment of meteorological factors with confirmed COVID-19 cases included atmospheric pressure, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar irradiation, sunlight, dew point temperature, and total precipitation. The 7- and 15-day moving averages of confirmed COVID-19 cases were obtained for each city. Pearson's correlation coefficients showed significant correlations between COVID-19 cases and all meteorological parameters, except for total precipitation, with the strongest correlation with maximum wind speed (0.717, <0.001) in São Paulo. Regression tree analysis demonstrated that the largest number of confirmed COVID-19 cases was associated with wind speed (between ≥0.3381 and <1.173 m/s), atmospheric pressure (<930.5mb), and solar radiation (<17.98e+3). Lower number of cases was observed for wind speed <0.3381 m/s and temperature <23.86°C. Our results encourage the use of meteorological information as a critical component in future risk assessment models.

10.
Neurotox Res ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480735

RESUMO

Repeated manganese (Mn) exposure may cause increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with a consequent imbalance in the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defence system, resulting in cellular dysfunctions, and eventually cell death, particularly in the brain. D-ribose-L-cysteine (RibCys) has been demonstrated to effectively promote the synthesis of glutathione, a potent neutralizer of ROS. In the present study, we examined the effects of RibCys on glutathione levels, apoptotic and astrocytic responses, neuronal ultrastructural integrity, following Mn exposure. Wild-type rats were exposed to either saline, Mn, or/and RibCys for 2 weeks. The Mn-exposed rats received RibCys either as pre-, co-, or post-treatments. Mn caused a marked decrease in GSH levels, overexpression of GFAP and caspase-3, reflecting astrocytosis and apoptosis, and altered ultrastructural integrities of the neuronal nuclei, mitochondria, and myelin sheath of the striatum and motor cortex respectively, while all interventions with RibCys minimized and prevented the neurotoxic events. Our study demonstrates that RibCys effectively attenuates the neurotoxic effects of Mn and may be useful as a therapeutic strategy against neurological consequences of Mn overexposure.

11.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112038, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411915

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most prevalent invasive form of cancer in females and posing a great challenge for overcoming disease burden. The growth in global cancer deaths mandates the discovery of new efficacious natural anti-tumor treatments. In this regard, aquatic species offer a rich supply of possible drugs. Studies have shown that several marine peptides damage cancer cells by a broad range of pathways, including apoptosis, microtubule balance disturbances, and suppression of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents are characterized by a plethora of side effects, including immune response suppression. The discovery of novel putative anti-cancer peptides with lesser toxicity is therefore necessary and timely, especially those able to thwart multi drug resistance (MDR). This review addresses marine anti-cancer peptides for the treatment of breast cancer.

12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 112024, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399200

RESUMO

Silymarin contains a group of closely-related flavonolignan compounds including silibinin, and is extracted from Silybum marianum species, also called milk thistle. Silymarin has been shown to protect the liver in both experimental models and clinical studies. The chemopreventive activity of silymarin has shown some efficacy against cancer both in vitro and in vivo. Silymarin can modulate apoptosis in vitro and survival in vivo, by interfering with the expression of cell cycle regulators and apoptosis-associated proteins. In addition to its anti-metastatic activity, silymarin has also been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. The chemoprotective effects of silymarin and silibinin (its major constituent) suggest they could be applied to reduce the side effects and increase the anti-cancer effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in various cancer types, especially in gastrointestinal cancers. This review examines the recent studies and summarizes the mechanistic pathways and down-stream targets of silymarin in the therapy of gastrointestinal cancer.

13.
Toxicol Rep ; 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34377679

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of this research was to address risk factors associated with death after hospitalization in intensive care units (ICUs) in 728 COVID-19 patients in Londrina, the second most populated city in the State of Paraná - Brazil, between March and December 2020. Methods: Statistical analysis, including multiple logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors associated with death in these patients. Results: The results showed that age (60 years or more, O.R. = 3.13, C.I. 95% [2.02; 4.84]), days in the ICU (11 days or more, O.R. = 1.76, C.I. 95% [1.16; 2.66]), neurological diseases (O.R. = 2.15, C.I. 95% [1.07; 4.31]), pneumopathy (O.R = 2.19, C.I. 95% [1.01; 4.82]), diabetes (O.R. = 1.55, C.I. 95% [1.03; 2.32]), and kidney disease (O.R. = 2.27, C.I. 95% [1.18; 4.70]) were associated with increased risk for death from COVID-19. Conclusion: Knowing the risk factors associated with death after ICUs hospitalization is useful for identifying the most vulnerable groups, as well as for defining vaccination priorities, considering its scarcity in many parts of the world, mainly in underdeveloped countries, including Brazil.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382514

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is clinically characterized by memory loss and intellectual decrease, among other neurological deficits. The etiology of AD is not completely understood but includes amyloid plaques and intracellular helical filaments as well as neurofibrillary tangles with hyperphosphorylated tau protein. AD is also associated with alterations in amyloid processing genes, such as PSEN1 or PSEN2 and APP. The modulation immune system, cholesterol metabolism, and synaptic vesicle endocytosis have all been shown to remediate AD. In this review, enzymes such as AChE, BuChE, ß-secretase, γ-secretase, MAO, and RAGE are discussed as potential targets for AD treatment. The aim of this review was to addresses the molecular mechanisms as well as various genetic factors in AD etiology. The use of natural compounds against these targets might be beneficial for the management of AD.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360489

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate hair toxic metal levels in patients with obesity and/or coronary heart disease (CHD). Following a 2 × 2 factorial design, subjects without CHD were grouped into normal weight control (n = 123) and obese groups (n = 140). Patients suffering from CHD were divided into normal weight (n = 180) and obese CHD subjects (n = 240). Hair Al, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and Pb levels were evaluated using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The data demonstrate that hair Al and Hg levels were higher in obese subjects as compared to normal weight controls. Normal weight CHD patients were characterized by significantly higher hair Al, As, Cd, and Pb levels when compared to healthy subjects. The highest hair Al, As, and Pb levels were observed in obese CHD patients, significantly exceeding the respective values in other groups. Factorial analysis revealed significant influence of factorial interaction (CHD*obesity) only for hair Pb content. Given the role of obesity as a risk factor for CHD, it is proposed that increased toxic metal accumulation in obesity may promote further development of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Doença das Coronárias , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Cabelo , Humanos , Chumbo , Obesidade/epidemiologia
16.
Neurotoxicology ; 86: 166-171, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389354

RESUMO

There are several candidate signalling pathways that mediate the response of the central nervous system (CNS) cells to environmental toxins. However, much is still to be learned on how these pathways modulate neurotoxicity. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways, which include the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and the p38-MAPK, are potentially key pathways to regulate CNS responses to environmental toxins. The pathways play leading roles in the transmission of extracellular signals into the cell nucleus, leading to cell differentiation, cell growth, and apoptosis, to name a few. Moreover, exposure to environmental toxins induces p38- and ERK-MAPK activation, which leads to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the CNS. Here, we provide a concise review of the recent evidence demonstrating the role of p38- and ERK-MAPK signaling pathways and their downstream targets in the CNS following exposure to environmental toxicants such as metals, organophosphorus and persistent organic pollutants.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34401955

RESUMO

The existence of a formal Endocannabinoid System in C. elegans has been questioned due to data showing the absence of typical cannabinoid receptors in the worm; however, the presence of a full metabolism for endocannabinoids, alternative ligands, and receptors for these agents and a considerable number of orthologous and homologous genes regulating physiological cannabinoid-like signals and responses - several of which are similar to those of mammals - demonstrates a well-structured and functional complex system in nematodes. In this review, we describe and compare similarities and differences between the Endocannabinoid System in mammals and nematodes, highlighting the basis for the integral study of this novel system in the worm.

18.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347326

RESUMO

The efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer therapy is limited due to resistance, treatment selectivity, and severe adverse effects. Immunotherapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, radiation, and surgery are the most common therapeutic strategies for treatment, with chemotherapy being the most successful. Nonetheless, these treatments exhibit poor effectiveness due to toxicity and resistance. Therefore, combination therapies of natural products may be used as an effective and novel strategy to overcome such barriers. Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy agent, and when administered alone, it can lead to severe adverse effects and resistance mechanism resulting in therapeutic failure. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa) exhibiting anticancer potential with minimal adverse effects. The combination therapy of curcumin and cisplatin is a novel strategy to mitigate/attenuate cisplatin-related adverse effects and improve the barrier of resistance reducing unwanted effects. However, there are uncertainties on the efficacy of curcumin, and more in depth and high-quality studies are needed. This review aims to explain the adverse effects related to individual cisplatin delivery, the positive outcome of individual curcumin delivery, and the combination therapy of curcumin and cisplatin from nano platform as a novel strategy for cancer therapy.

19.
Neurochem Res ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432181

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation and oxidative stress cooperate to compromise the function of the central nervous system (CNS). Colloidal platinum nanoparticles (Pt NPs) are ideal candidates for reducing the deleterious effects of neuroinflammation since they act as free radical scavengers. Here we evaluated the effects of Pt NPs on several markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in cultured BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with increased dilutions (1-100 ppm) of Colloidal Pt and/or LPS (1-10 µg/mL) at different exposure times. Three different protocols of exposure were used combining Pt NPs and LPS: (a) conditioning-protective effect (pre-post-treat), (b) therapeutic effect (co-treat) and (c) conditioning-therapeutic effect (pre-co-treat). After exposure to LPS for 24 h, cells were used for assessment of cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, apoptosis and caspase-3 levels, cell proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) activity, pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6) levels, and phagocytic activity. Low concentrations (below or equal to 10 ppm) of Colloidal Pt prevented or ameliorated the LPS-induced increase in ROS formation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of apoptosis, increase in LDH release, increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS, inhibition of phagocytosis linked to microglial persistence in the M1 phase phenotype, loss of cell adhesion, differentiation and/or proliferation, as well as loss of cell viability. These protective effects were evident when cells were preconditioned with Pt NPs prior to LPS treatment. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that at low concentrations, Pt NPs can regulate the function and phenotype of BV-2 cells, activating protective mechanisms to maintain the microglial homeostasis and reduce inflammatory events triggered by the inflammatory insults induced by LPS. These preventive/protective effects on the LPS pro-inflammatory model are linked to the antioxidant properties and phagocytic activity of these NPs.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(35)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446561

RESUMO

Manganese (Mn) is an essential metal that induces incurable parkinsonism at elevated levels. However, unlike other essential metals, mechanisms that regulate mammalian Mn homeostasis are poorly understood, which has limited therapeutic development. Here, we discovered that the exposure of mice to a translationally relevant oral Mn regimen up-regulated expression of SLC30A10, a critical Mn efflux transporter, in the liver and intestines. Mechanistic studies in cell culture, including primary human hepatocytes, revealed that 1) elevated Mn transcriptionally up-regulated SLC30A10, 2) a hypoxia response element in the SLC30A10 promoter was necessary, 3) the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1 or HIF2 were required and sufficient for the SLC30A10 response, 4) elevated Mn activated HIF1/HIF2 by blocking the prolyl hydroxylation of HIF proteins necessary for their degradation, and 5) blocking the Mn-induced up-regulation of SLC30A10 increased intracellular Mn levels and enhanced Mn toxicity. Finally, prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that stabilize HIF proteins and are in advanced clinical trials for other diseases reduced intracellular Mn levels and afforded cellular protection against Mn toxicity and also ameliorated the in vivo Mn-induced neuromotor deficits in mice. These findings define a fundamental homeostatic protective response to Mn toxicity-elevated Mn levels activate HIF1 and HIF2 to up-regulate SLC30A10, which in turn reduces cellular and organismal Mn levels, and further indicate that it may be possible to repurpose prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors for the management of Mn neurotoxicity.

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