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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436837

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET/CT and US are both well established for diagnosing GCA. The present study investigates their accuracy and whether they provide overlapping or complementary information in a cohort of patients presenting with suspicion of GCA. METHODS: We selected consecutive patients from our cohort of suspected GCA cases that underwent both extended vascular US and PET/CT for diagnostic work-up between December 2006 and August 2012. RESULTS: A total of 102 patients were included. Diagnosis of GCA was confirmed in 68 patients and excluded in 34 patients (controls). Vasculitic changes in US were most often found in the temporal artery with 32 positive findings on each side, followed by the popliteal artery (10 right, 9 left) and the subclavian/axillary artery (7 right, 8 left). By contrast, PET/CT showed vasculitis most frequently in the vertebral (23 right, 33 left) and common carotid arteries (32 right, 24 left), followed by the subclavian arteries (16 right, 18 left), and the thoracic (17) and abdominal aorta (23). In 37/68 GCA patients PET/CT and US both revealed vasculitic findings, 11/68 had positive findings in US only and 14/68 in PET/CT only. Specificity of US was higher (one false-positive vs five false-positive in PET/CT). On a single segment level, only 20 of 136 positive segments were positive in both imaging modalities. CONCLUSION: PET/CT measuring vessel wall metabolism and US vessel wall morphology showed a comparable diagnostic accuracy for GCA. However PET/CT and US were often discrepant within single vascular regions. Thus PET/CT and US should be considered as complementary methods, with a second imaging modality increasing the diagnostic yield by 16-20%.

2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 49(9): e13154, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin T (hs-cTnT), NT-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) may improve risk stratification of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) beyond the PESI risk score. METHODS: In the prospective multicentre SWITCO65+ study, we analysed 214 patients ≥ 65 years with a new submassive PE. Biomarkers and clinical information for the PESI risk score were ascertained within 1 day after diagnosis. Associations of hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, hs-CRP and the PESI risk score with the primary endpoint defined as 6-month mortality were assessed. The discriminative power of the PESI risk score and its combination with hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP for 6-month mortality was compared using integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) index and net reclassification improvement (NRI). RESULTS: Compared with the lowest quartile, patients in the highest quartile had a higher risk of death during the first 6 months for hs-cTnT (adjusted HR 10.22; 95% CI 1.79-58.34; P = 0.009) and a trend for NT-proBNP (adjusted HR 4.3; 95% CI 0.9-20.41; P = 0.067) unlike hs-CRP (adjusted HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.48-8.05; P = 0.344). The PESI risk score (c-statistic 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) had the highest prognostic accuracy for 6-month mortality, outperforming hs-cTnT, NT-proBNP and hs-CRP (c-statistics of 0.72, 0.72, and 0.54), respectively. Combining all three biomarkers had no clinically relevant impact on risk stratification when added to the PESI risk score (IDI = 0.067; 95% CI 0.012-0.123; P = 0.018; NRI = 0.101 95% CI -0.099-0.302; P = 0.321). CONCLUSIONS: In elderly patients with PE, 6-month mortality can adequately be predicted by the PESI risk score alone.

3.
Am J Emerg Med ; 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31088750

RESUMO

Rapid estimates of the central venous pressure (CVP) can be helpful to administer early fluid therapy or to manage cardiac preload in intensive care units, operating rooms or emergency rooms in order to start and monitor an adequate medical therapy. Invasive CVP measurements have inherent and non-negligible complication rates as well as great expenditures. Several noninvasive methods of CVP measurements, like ultrasound-guided techniques, are available, but require trained skills and special equipment which might not be at hand in all situations. Our purpose was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of CVP estimates assessed upon the height of hand veins collapse (HVC) using invasively measured CVP as the gold standard. The HVC was determined by slowly lifting the patient's hand while watching the dorsal hand veins to collapse. The vertical distance from the dorsal hand to a transducer air zero port was noted and converted to mmHg. The observer was blinded to the simultaneously measured CVP values, which were categorized as low (<7 mmHg), normal (7-12 mmHg) and high (>12 mmHg). Measurements were performed in 82 patients who had a median [IQR] age of 67 [60;74]. Median CVP was 12 [8;15] mmHg and the median absolute difference between the measured HVC and CVP was 4 [2;7] mmHg. The Spearman correlation coefficient between CVP and HVC was 0.55, 95%-CI [0.35;0.69]. Overall CVP categorization was correct in 45% of the cases. HVC had a sensitivity of 92% for a low CVP with a negative predictive value of 98%. A high HVC had a sensitivity of 29% but a high specificity of 94% for a high CVP. The overall performance of observing the hand vein collapse to estimate CVP was only moderate in the intensive care setting. However, the median difference to the CVP was low and HVC identifies a low CVP with a high sensitivity and excellent negative predictive value.

4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(2): 306-318, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30570809

RESUMO

Essentials Predictive ability of pro-hemostatic Gas6 for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unknown. We measured Gas6 levels in 864 patients with VTE over 3 years. High Gas6 (> 157%) at diagnosis is associated with VTE recurrence, major bleeding and mortality. Gas6 plasma levels measured 12 months after the index VTE are discriminatory for VTE recurrence. SUMMARY: Background Growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6) is a prohemostatic protein with an unknown predictive ability for recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). In the elderly, VTE results in higher mortality but does not have a higher rate of recurrence than in younger patients. Consequently, anticoagulation management in the elderly is challenging. Objective To prospectively investigate the performance of Gas6 in predicting VTE recurrence, major bleeding and mortality in the elderly. Methods Consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years with acute VTE were followed for a period of 3 years. Primary outcomes were symptomatic VTE recurrence, major bleeding, and mortality. Plasma Gas6 was measured with ELISA. Results Gas6 levels were measured in 864 patients at the time of the index VTE (T1) and, in 70% of them, also 12 months later (T2). The Gas6 level at T1 was discriminatory for VTE recurrence (C-statistic, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.62), major bleeding (0.60, 95% CI 0.55-0.65) and mortality (0.69, 95% CI 0.65-0.73) up to 36 months. VTE recurrence up to 24 months after T2 was discriminated by the Gas6 level at T2 (0.62, 95% CI 0.54-0.71). High Gas6 levels (> 157%) and continuous Gas6 levels at T1 were associated with VTE recurrence up to 6 months and 12 months, respectively. Conclusions In elderly patients, a high Gas6 level is associated with higher risks of VTE recurrence, major bleeding, and death. These findings support further studies to assess the performance of Gas6 in adjusting the length of anticoagulation.

5.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(5): 792-797, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544199

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess changes of arterial vessel wall morphology in large vessel GCA patients (LV-GCA) by repeated US. METHODS: Patients with LV-GCA on US examination were followed up 6, 12 and 24 months after diagnosis by US of the temporal, vertebral, carotid (common, internal, external), subclavian, axillary, femoral (deep, superficial and common) and popliteal arteries. Clinical and laboratory data were assessed at each visit. Vessel wall thickening was classified as moderate, marked or arteriosclerotic. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients (26 female) with a median age of 75 years at diagnosis had in median 2 (range 1-3) US follow-up exams. Twenty-eight had both LV and temporal artery involvement and 14 had LV-GCA only. The common carotid, subclavian, axillary, popliteal and/or superficial femoral artery were most commonly involved. Reduction of LV wall thickening occurred in 45% of patients during follow-up, corresponding to 71 of the 284 (25%) initially 'vasculitic' LV segments. In contrast, a reduction of vessel wall thickening in the temporal artery was found in 85% of patients. Of the LVs, the vertebral, axillary, subclavian and deep femoral arteries were most likely to improve. There was no difference in relapses or the received cumulative steroid dose between patients with or without a reduction of vessel wall thickening (temporal artery or LV) during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Regression of wall thickening within the LV is significantly less common than in the temporal artery and irrespective of clinical remission. Morphological regression does not seem to be a useful predictor for relapses.

6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 148: w14661, 2018 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30141518

RESUMO

Historically, giant cell arteritis (GCA) was considered to be synonymous with temporal arteritis. However, the disease spectrum of GCA extends much further, and includes vasculitis of the aorta and its branches with or without involvement of the temporal arteries. Imaging is crucial for the diagnosis and follow-up of GCA patients. Large vessel GCA (LV-GCA) often presents as an inflammatory syndrome and is only detected by imaging modalities such as: colour duplex sonography (CDS), computed tomography (CT) / CT angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) / CT. Deciding which imaging modality to use in different clinical situations remains a matter of debate. CDS and MRI enable assessment of the temporal arteries with a presumably higher sensitivity than histology. In the context of a typical presentation, CDS can replace a biopsy. In about a third of patients, the temporal arteries are not involved, thus PET/CT, MRI, CT, or CDS of larger arteries is needed to diagnose GCA. The sensitivity of all modalities is affected by glucocorticoid therapy. Therefore, without delaying therapy, imaging should be performed within a few days of treatment initiation. The use of PET/CT for the work-up of inflammatory syndromes in the elderly reveals vasculitis in approximately 20% of examined patients and uncover relevant diagnoses in the majority of remaining patients. The aorta should be routinely assessed in all GCA patients at diagnosis and during follow-up. MRA or CTA are best suited to characterise structural damage of larger arteries. The role of imaging in monitoring GCA disease activity still needs to be further defined.

7.
Am J Med ; 131(6): 703.e7-703.e16, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known about predictors and outcomes of recurrent venous thromboembolism in elderly patients. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute venous thromboembolism in a multicenter Swiss cohort study. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism. We explored the association between baseline characteristics and treatments and recurrent venous thromboembolism using competing risk regression, adjusting for periods of anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. We also assessed the clinical consequences (case-fatality, localization) of recurrent venous thromboembolism. RESULTS: During a median follow-up period of 30 months, 122 patients developed recurrent venous thromboembolism, corresponding to a 3-year cumulative incidence of 14.8%. The case-fatality of recurrence was high (20.5%), particularly in patients with unprovoked (23%) and cancer-related venous thromboembolism (29%). After adjustment, only unprovoked venous thromboembolism (sub-hazard ratio, 1.67 compared with provoked venous thromboembolism; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.77) and proximal deep vein thrombosis (sub-hazard ratio, 2.41 compared with isolated distal deep vein thrombosis; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-5.38) were significantly associated with recurrence. Patients with initial pulmonary embolism were more likely to have another pulmonary embolism as a recurrent event than patients with deep vein thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism have a substantial long-term risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism, and recurrence carries a high case-fatality rate. Only 2 factors, unprovoked venous thromboembolism and proximal deep vein thrombosis, were independently associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism, indicating that traditional risk factors for venous thromboembolism recurrence (eg, cancer) may be less relevant in the elderly.

9.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 19(8): 933-940, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29126277

RESUMO

Aims: The usefulness of [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([18F]FDG-PET/CT) for diagnosing giant cell arteritis (GCA) has been previously reported. Yet, the interpretation of PET scans is not clear-cut. The present study aimed at determining the best method to analyse PET/CT in a large, real-life cohort of patients presenting with suspicion of GCA. Methods and results: One hundred and three patients with clinical suspicion of GCA undergoing PET/CT between 2006 and 2012 were included. Clinical data were retrieved from patients' charts. PET/CT was categorized by visual scoring of the uptake and by the artery/liver standardized uptake values (SUV) ratios. Diagnosis of GCA was confirmed in 68 patients and excluded in 35 patients, which served as the controls. GCA patients were older (median age 75 vs. 68 years), and presented more often with ischaemic symptoms. The best discrimination between GCA patients and controls was achieved for PET/CT findings within the supra-aortic arteries (sensitivity 0.71, specificity 0.91 for a SUV/LE cut-off value of 1.0). Specificity of PET/CT for the aorta and the iliofemoral arteries was lower (<0.34). Visual scoring correlated poorly to SUV measurements (Kendall Tau-b 0.13-0.55) and had a lower diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 0.77, specificity 0.75). Prednisone treatment for ≥10 days significantly reduced PET/CT sensitivity (P = 0.009). Conclusion: SUV based analysis of PET/CT enhances diagnostic accuracy with best discrimination in the supra-aortic region, particularly in steroid naïve patients. For discrimination based on the aorta and the iliofemoral region, higher cut-off values have to be applied, resulting in lower sensitivities for diagnosing GCA.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(11): 2146-2155, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28933797

RESUMO

Background Inflammatory processes of the venous wall in acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) play a role in thrombus formation and resolution. However, direct evaluation of the perivascular inflammation is currently not feasible. Objective To assess perivascular perfusion in acute proximal DVT using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) reflecting perivenous inflammation and its association with systemic inflammatory markers in a single-centre, prospective observational study. Patients/Methods Twenty patients with proximal DVT underwent CEUS imaging in the thrombosed and contralateral popliteal vein at baseline and after 2 weeks and 3 months. Perfusion was quantified by measuring peak enhancement (PE) and wash-in rate (WiR) in a perivenous region after bolus injection of the contrast agent. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at the time of each CEUS imaging. Results PE and WiR were significantly higher in the thrombosed compared with the unaffected leg at baseline (1,007 vs. 34 au and 103 vs. 4 au/s) and 2-week follow-up (903 vs. 35 au and 70 vs. 4 au/s). Compared with baseline, PE and WiR in the thrombosed leg significantly decreased to 217 au and 18 au/s at 3-month follow-up.At baseline, hsCRP and IL-6 were elevated at 20.1 mg/mL and 8.2 pg/mL and decreased significantly to 2.8 mg/mL and 2.6 pg/mL at 2-week follow-up, remaining low after 3 months. There was a weak association between the level of inflammatory markers and the CEUS parameters at baseline on the thrombosed leg. Conclusion Elevated perivascular perfusion assessed by CEUS imaging is associated with the inflammatory response in acute DVT.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Imagem de Perfusão/métodos , Fosfolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Hexafluoreto de Enxofre/administração & dosagem , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/sangue , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Suíça , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia
11.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(10)2017 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28837210

RESUMO

Existing clinical scores do not perform well in predicting bleeding in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to derive an easy-to-use clinical score to help physicians identify elderly patients with VTE who are at high-risk of bleeding during extended anticoagulation (>3 months). Our derivation sample included 743 patients aged ≥65 years with VTE who were enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort study. All patients received extended anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists. We derived our score using competing risk regression, with the time to a first major bleeding up to 36 months of extended anticoagulation as the outcome, and 17 candidate variables as predictors. We used bootstrapping methods for internal validation. Sixty-six (9 %) patients suffered major bleeding. The clinical score is based on seven clinical factors (previous bleeding, active cancer, low physical activity, anemia, thrombocytopenia, antiplatelet drugs/NSAIDs, and poor INR control). Overall, 48 % of patients were classified as low-risk, 37 % as moderate-risk, and 15 % as high-risk of bleeding. The rate of major bleeding was 1.4 events in low-risk, 5.0 events in moderate-risk, and 12.2 events per 100 patient-years in high-risk patients. The c-statistic was 0.78 at 3 months and 0.71 at 36 months of extended anticoagulation. Model calibration was excellent (p=0.93). Internal validation showed similar results. This simple clinical score accurately identified elderly patients with VTE who are at high risk of major bleeding and who may not benefit from extended anticoagulation. Further validation of the score is important before its implementation into practice. The study is registered to https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00973596.

13.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 56(5): 829-834, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28064210

RESUMO

Objectives: Autoantibodies are useful biomarkers for diagnosing and monitoring treatment in some autoimmune diseases. Antibodies against isoforms of 14-3-3 protein have been proposed as biomarkers for the presence of aortic aneurysm in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). Here, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic role and potential immunopathological involvement of anti-14-3-3 antibodies in newly diagnosed LVV patients. Methods: Antibodies against three isoforms of 14-3-3 (γ, ɛ and ζ) were measured in 90 subjects: 48 GCA and 3 Takayasu's arteritis (TA) patients, and 39 controls (non-inflammatory and inflammatory diseases), using a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay and immunoprecipitation studies. The positive cut-off value was defined based on young healthy controls. Anti-14-3-3 IgG antibodies in LVV patients were compared with those in controls in order to assess their diagnostic performance, and the relationship of anti-14-3-3 IgG antibodies to the immunohistopathology of artery explants was assessed. Results: Antibodies against all three 14-3-3 isoforms were detected in LVV patients as well as in age-matched inflammatory and non-inflammatory controls. Among LVV patients, detection of antibodies targeting 14-3-3 ɛ and ζ was associated with more severe disease. Detection of antibodies against 14-3-3 γ was linked to latent Toxoplasma gondii infection, a parasite that secrets a 14-3-3 homologue, suggesting potential cross-reactivity. Conclusion: Detection of antibodies against 14-3-3 proteins at the time of LVV diagnosis is not disease-specific. Their presence at high levels in LVV patients with stroke, aortitis and-in a previous study-aneurysm formation may indicate an association with extensive tissue destruction. The relevance of 14-3-3 antibodies in non-LVV patients needs to be investigated in larger cohorts.


Assuntos
Proteínas 14-3-3/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aortite/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/imunologia , Arterite de Takayasu/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Remodelação Vascular/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Med ; 130(2): 198-206, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27742261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term predictors and causes of death are understudied in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism. METHODS: We prospectively followed up 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute venous thromboembolism in a multicenter Swiss cohort study. The primary outcome was overall mortality. We explored the association between patient baseline characteristics and mortality, adjusting for other baseline variables and periods of anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. Causes of death over time were adjudicated by a blinded, independent committee. RESULTS: The median age was 75 years. During a median follow-up period of 30 months, 206 patients (21%) died. Independent predictors of overall mortality were age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.65, per decade), active cancer (HR, 5.80; 95% CI, 4.22-7.97), systolic blood pressure <100 mm Hg (HR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.56-4.92), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.02-2.22), low physical activity level (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.38-2.66), polypharmacy (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96), anemia (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.07-2.05), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein >40 mg/L (HR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.36-2.60), ultra-sensitive troponin >14 pg/mL (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.06-2.25), and D-dimer >3000 ng/mL (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.01). Cancer (34%), pulmonary embolism (18%), infection (17%), and bleeding (6%) were the most common causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism have a substantial long-term mortality, and several factors, including polypharmacy and a low physical activity level, are associated with long-term mortality. Cancer, pulmonary embolism, infections, and bleeding are the most common causes of death in the elderly with venous thromboembolism.


Assuntos
Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Doença Aguda , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Complicações do Diabetes/mortalidade , Exercício , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Polimedicação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Troponina/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
15.
Ultraschall Med ; 38(1): 14-32, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27737471

RESUMO

Part one addressed the value of duplex ultrasound in the diagnostic workup of varicosis. The present article discusses the use of preinterventional, intrainterventional and postinterventional duplex ultrasound in endoluminal methods for the treatment of varices. It is a prerequisite for the planning, implementation, and follow-up of this form of therapy.


Assuntos
Angioplastia/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/métodos , Varizes/diagnóstico por imagem , Varizes/terapia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/classificação , Insuficiência Venosa/classificação , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Venosa/terapia
16.
Thromb Haemost ; 117(10): 1930-1936, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151819

RESUMO

Existing clinical scores do not perform well in predicting bleeding in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). We sought to derive an easy-to-use clinical score to help physicians identify elderly patients with VTE who are at high-risk of bleeding during extended anticoagulation (>3 months). Our derivation sample included 743 patients aged ≥65 years with VTE who were enrolled in a prospective multicenter cohort study. All patients received extended anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists. We derived our score using competing risk regression, with the time to a first major bleeding up to 36 months of extended anticoagulation as the outcome, and 17 candidate variables as predictors. We used bootstrapping methods for internal validation. Sixty-six (9%) patients suffered major bleeding. The clinical score is based on seven clinical factors (previous bleeding, active cancer, low physical activity, anemia, thrombocytopenia, antiplatelet drugs/NSAIDs, and poor INR control). Overall, 48% of patients were classified as low-risk, 37% as moderate-risk, and 15% as high-risk of bleeding. The rate of major bleeding was 1.4 events in low-risk, 5.0 events in moderate-risk, and 12.2 events per 100 patientyears in high-risk patients. The c-statistic was 0.78 at 3 months and 0.71 at 36 months of extended anticoagulation. Model calibration was excellent (p=0.93). Internal validation showed similar results. This simple clinical score accurately identified elderly patients with VTE who are at high risk of major bleeding and who may not benefit from extended anticoagulation. Further validation of the score is important before its implementation into practice. The study is registered to https://clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00973596.This work was carried out at the Department of General Internal Medicine in the Bern University Hospital, Switzerland.

17.
Thromb Res ; 145: 67-71, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27498122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence on the prognostic value of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in elderly, hemodynamically stable patients with Pulmonary Embolism (PE) is limited. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of common echocardiographic signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and their prognostic impact in hemodynamically stable patients aged ≥65years with acute PE in a prospective multicenter cohort. METHODS: TTE was performed by cardiologists. We defined RV dysfunction as a RV/left ventricular ratio >0.9 or RV hypokinesis (primary definition) or the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 of 6 predefined echocardiographic signs (secondary definitions). Outcomes were overall mortality and mortality/non-fatal recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) at 30days, adjusting for the Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index risk score and highly sensitive troponin T values. RESULTS: Of 400 patients, 36% had RV dysfunction based on our primary definition, and 81% (≥1 sign) and 53% (≥2 signs) based on our secondary definitions, respectively. Using our primary definition, there was no association between RV dysfunction and mortality (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.31-2.58) and mortality/non-fatal VTE (adjusted HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.40-2.98). Similarly, there was no statistically significant association between the presence of ≥1 or ≥2 echocardiographic signs (secondary definitions) and clinical outcomes. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of echocardiographic RV dysfunction varied widely depending upon the definition used. There was no association between RV dysfunction and clinical outcomes. Thus, TTE may not be suitable as a stand-alone risk assessment tool in elderly patients with acute PE. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00973596.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 6(3): 221-33, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27280085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying patients likely to have improved renal function after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and stenting (PTRA) for renal artery stenosis (RAS) is challenging. The purpose of this study was to use a comprehensive multimarker assessment to identify those patients who would benefit most from correction of RAS. METHODS: In 127 patients with RAS and decreased renal function and/or hypertension referred for PTRA, quantification of hemodynamic cardiac stress using B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), renal function using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), parenchymal renal damage using resistance index (RI), and systemic inflammation using C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed before intervention. RESULTS: Predefined renal function improvement (increase in eGFR ≥10%) at 6 months occurred in 37% of patients. Prognostic accuracy as quantified by the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve for the ability of BNP, eGFR, RI and CRP to predict renal function improvement were 0.59 (95% CI, 0.48-0.70), 0.71 (95% CI, 0.61-0.81), 0.52 (95% CI, 0.41-0.65), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.44-0.68), respectively. None of the possible combinations increased the accuracy provided by eGFR (lower eGFR indicated a higher likelihood for eGFR improvement after PTRA, P=ns for all). In the subgroup of 56 patients with pre-interventional eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), similar findings were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of renal function, but not any other pathophysiologic signal, provides at least moderate accuracy in the identification of patients with RAS in whom PTRA will improve renal function.

19.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0148348, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906217

RESUMO

Whether anticoagulation management practices are associated with improved outcomes in elderly patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. Thus, we aimed to examine whether practices recommended by the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines are associated with outcomes in elderly patients with VTE. We studied 991 patients aged ≥65 years with acute VTE in a Swiss prospective multicenter cohort study and assessed the adherence to four management practices: parenteral anticoagulation ≥5 days, INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulation, early start with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) ≤24 hours of VTE diagnosis, and the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) or fondaparinux. The outcomes were all-cause mortality, VTE recurrence, and major bleeding at 6 months, and the length of hospital stay (LOS). We used Cox regression and lognormal survival models, adjusting for patient characteristics. Overall, 9% of patients died, 3% had VTE recurrence, and 7% major bleeding. Early start with VKA was associated with a lower risk of major bleeding (adjusted hazard ratio 0.37, 95% CI 0.20-0.71). Early start with VKA (adjusted time ratio [TR] 0.77, 95% CI 0.69-0.86) and use of LMWH/fondaparinux (adjusted TR 0.87, 95% CI 0.78-0.97) were associated with a shorter LOS. An INR ≥2.0 for ≥24 hours before stopping parenteral anticoagulants was associated with a longer LOS (adjusted TR 1.2, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). In elderly patients with VTE, the adherence to recommended anticoagulation management practices showed mixed results. In conclusion, only early start with VKA and use of parenteral LMWH/fondaparinux were associated with better outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Eur Radiol ; 26(8): 2705-13, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26515548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in order to compare a high resolution, non-contrast-enhanced MRA (NATIVE SPACE, NE-MRA) of the pedal vasculature with contrast-enhanced MRA (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). METHODS: The prospective study consists of 20 PAOD patients. All patients underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or stenting and received MR angiographies the following day. RESULTS: With CE-MRA, 75.7 % of vessel segments showed good, 16.4 % suboptimal and 7.9 % not usable image quality. With NE-MRA, 64.6 % showed good, 18.6 % suboptimal and 16.8 % not usable image quality. CE-MRA showed a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 90 %/95 % regarding significant stenosis (greater than 50 %), and specificity and positive predictive value were 88 %/77 %. Accordingly, sensitivity and negative predictive value for the NE-MRA were 96 %/97 % and specificity and positive predictive value were 80 %/69 % for stenoses greater than 50 %. CONCLUSIONS: The applied NE-MRA technique achieves high diagnostic accuracy even in very small distal arteries of the foot. However, the rate of non-diagnostic vessel segments is considerably higher for NE-MRA than for CE-MRA. NE-MRA is a valuable alternative to CE-MRA in selected patients. KEY POINTS: • Comparison of non-enhanced MRA with contrast-enhanced MRA and DSA as gold standard. • High resolution MRA at 3 T for the depiction of small pedal vessels. • Evaluation of high resolution non-enhanced MRA in PAOD patients.


Assuntos
Angiografia Digital/métodos , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/diagnóstico , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Pé/irrigação sanguínea , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Arteriopatias Oclusivas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
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