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1.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 142, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827575

RESUMO

The Great Debate session at the 2020 Melanoma Bridge virtual congress (December 3rd-5th, Italy) featured counterpoint views from experts on five specific controversial issues in melanoma. The debates considered whether or not innate immunity is important in the response to cancer and immunotherapy, how useful are the revised American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification for the staging of patients, the use of sentinel node biopsy for staging patients, the use of triplet combination of targeted therapy plus immunotherapy versus combined immunotherapy, and the respective benefits of neoadjuvant versus adjuvant therapy. As is usual with Bridge congresses, the debates were assigned by meeting Chairs and positions taken by experts during the debates may not have necessarily reflected their own personal opinion.

2.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 144, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827609

RESUMO

As part of the 2020 Immunotherapy Bridge virtual congress (December 2nd-3rd, Italy), the Great Debate session featured counterpoint views from leading experts on three clinical questions in immunotherapy today. The first of these was whether antitumoral vaccination is still a treatment option. The second topic debated whether anti-programmed death (PD)-1/PD-ligand (L)1 blockade should be the backbone for immunotherapy combination. Finally, the use of innovative study designs and surrogate endpoints was considered from both an academic and industry perspective. For each topic, two experts presented the argument and counter-argument in support of two different points of view. As with previous Bridge congresses, the debates were assigned by meeting Chairs and positions taken by experts during the debates may not have necessarily reflected their respective personal view. The views summarised in this article are based on available evidence but may reflect personal interpretation of these data, clinical experience and subjective opinion of the speaker.

3.
Eur J Cancer ; 149: 37-48, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-PD1-based immunotherapy is currently used in most patients with advanced melanoma. Despite the remarkable data regarding overall survival, the optimal treatment duration is still unknown. METHODS: We evaluated the outcome of 125 patients with advanced melanoma with and without brain metastases (MBM), treated either with anti-PD1 monotherapy (N = 97) or combined with anti-CTLA4 (N = 28) after elective treatment discontinuation due to complete response (CR) (group A, N = 86), or treatment-limiting toxicity (N = 33) and investigator's decision (ID, N = 6) (group B) with subsequent CR. RESULTS: For group A, median duration of treatment (mDoT) was 22 months (range 5-49) and median time to CR 9 months (range 2-47). Accordingly, mDoT for group B was 3 months (range 0-36) and median time to CR 7 months (range 1-32). Seven patients from group A and three from group B experienced disease recurrence. Off-treatment survival was not reached. Median off-treatment response time (mOTRt) was 19 months (range 0-42) and 25 months (range 0-66), respectively. For MBM, mOTRt was 17 months (range 7-41) and 28 months (range 9-39), respectively. After a median follow-up of 38 months (range 9-70), seven (5.6%) patients had deceased, one (0.8%) due to melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment discontinuation is feasible also in patients with MBM. Efficacy outcomes seemed to be similar in both groups of patients who achieved CR, regardless of reason for discontinuation. In patients who experienced disease relapse, treatment re-challenge with anti-PD1 resulted in subsequent renewed response.

4.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial assessed pembrolizumab versus placebo in patients with resected high-risk stage III melanoma. At 15-month median follow-up, pembrolizumab improved recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74], p<0·0001) compared with placebo, leading to its approval in the USA and Europe. This report provides the final results for the secondary efficacy endpoint, distant metastasis-free survival and an update of the recurrence-free survival results. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with complete resection of cutaneous melanoma metastatic to lymph node, classified as American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, seventh edition (AJCC-7) stage IIIA (at least one lymph node metastasis >1 mm), IIIB, or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis), and with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a central interactive voice response system to receive intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks for up to 18 doses or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified according to disease stage and region, using a minimisation technique, and clinical investigators, patients, and those collecting or analysing the data were masked to treatment assignment. The two coprimary endpoints were recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population and in patients with PD-L1-positive tumours. The secondary endpoint reported here was distant metastasis-free survival in the ITT and PD-L1-positive populations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to receive either pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). At an overall median follow-up of 42·3 months (IQR 40·5-45·9), 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was higher in the pembrolizumab group than in the placebo group in the ITT population (65·3% [95% CI 60·9-69·5] in the pembrolizumab group vs 49·4% [44·8-53·8] in the placebo group; HR 0·60 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]; p<0·0001). In the 853 patients with PD-L1-positive tumours, 3·5-year distant metastasis-free survival was 66·7% (95% CI 61·8-71·2) in the pembrolizumab group and 51·6% (46·6-56·4) in the placebo group (HR 0·61 [95% CI 0·49-0·76]; p<0·0001). Recurrence-free survival remained longer in the pembrolizumab group 59·8% (95% CI 55·3-64·1) than the placebo group 41·4% (37·0-45·8) at this 3·5-year follow-up in the ITT population (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·70]) and in those with PD-L1-positive tumours 61·4% (56·3-66·1) in the pembrolizumab group and 44·1% (39·2-48·8) in the placebo group (HR 0·59 [95% CI 0·49-0·73]). INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab adjuvant therapy provided a significant and clinically meaningful improvement in distant metastasis-free survival at a 3·5-year median follow-up, which was consistent with the improvement in recurrence-free survival. Therefore, the results of this trial support the indication to use adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy in patients with resected high risk stage III cutaneous melanoma. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325-MG/KEYNOTE-054 trial in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma demonstrated improved recurrence-free survival with adjuvant pembrolizumab compared with placebo (hazard ratio 0·57 [98·4% CI 0·43-0·74]; p<0·0001). This study reports the results from the health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) exploratory endpoint. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial was done at 123 academic centres and community hospitals across 23 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older with previously untreated histologically confirmed stage IIIA, IIIB, or IIIC resected cutaneous melanoma, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 1 or 0 were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a central interactive voice-response system on the basis of a minimisation technique stratified for stage and geographic region to receive intravenously 200 mg pembrolizumab or placebo. Treatment was administered every 3 weeks for 1 year, or until disease recurrence, unacceptable toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint of the trial was recurrence-free survival (reported elsewhere). HRQOL was a prespecified exploratory endpoint, with global health/quality of life (GHQ) over 2 years measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30 as the primary analysis. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02362594, and EudraCT, 2014-004944-37, and long-term follow-up is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Aug 26, 2015, and Nov 14, 2016, 1019 patients were assigned to pembrolizumab (n=514) or placebo (n=505). Median follow-up was 15·1 months (IQR 12·8-16·9) at the time of this analysis. HRQOL compliance was greater than 90% at baseline, greater than 70% during the first year, and greater than 60% thereafter for both groups. Because of low absolute compliance numbers at later follow-up, the analysis was truncated to week 84. Baseline GHQ scores were similar between groups (77·55 [SD 18·20] in the pembrolizumab group and 76·54 [17·81] in the placebo group) and remained stable over time. The difference in average GHQ score between the two groups over the 2 years was -2·2 points (95% CI -4·3 to -0·2). The difference in average score during treatment was -1·1 points (95% CI -3·2 to 0·9) and the difference in average score after treatment was -2·2 points (-4·8 to 0·4). These differences are within the 5-point clinical relevance threshold for the QLQ-C30 and are therefore clinically non-significant. INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab does not result in a clinically significant decrease in HRQOL compared with placebo when given as adjuvant therapy for patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma. These results support the use of adjuvant pembrolizumab in this setting. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 148: 61-75, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a known predictive and prognostic factor for a poor outcome in patients with metastatic melanoma. It is unclear whether first-line targeted therapy (TT) or immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is more beneficial in melanoma patients with elevated LDH because prospective studies in this area are lacking. METHODS: This multicentre retrospective cohort study was conducted at 25 melanoma centres worldwide to analyse progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among melanoma patients with elevated LDH. The role of confounders was addressed by using inverse probability of treatment weighting. RESULTS: Among 173 BRAFV600-mutant patients, PFS at 12 months in the TT group was 22% compared with 52% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-1.0, p = 0.07) and 18% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2-2.8, p = 0.003). Twelve months' OS was 48% in the TT group compared with 83% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p = 0.03) and 50% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.8-2.0, p = 0.37). The ORR in the TT group was 63%, compared with 55% and 20% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1 monotherapy group, respectively. Among 314 patients receiving ICI first-line, PFS at 12 months was 33% in the anti-PD-1 group versus 38% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group (HR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-1.0; p = 0.07). OS at 12 months was 54% in the anti-PD-1 group versus 66% in the combined ICI group (HR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-1.0; p = 0.03). The ORR was 30% in the anti-PD-1 monotherapy group and 43% in the combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 group. Results from multivariate analysis confirmed the absence of qualitative confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Among BRAF-mutant patients with elevated LDH, combined anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 blockade seems to be associated with prolonged OS compared with first-line TT. Among patients receiving ICI as a first-line treatment, OS appears to be longer for the combination of anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 than for anti-PD-1 alone.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670365

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are attractive therapeutic targets and promising candidates as molecular biomarkers for various therapy-resistant tumors. However, the association between miRNAs and drug resistance in melanoma remains to be elucidated. We used an integrative genomic analysis to comprehensively study the miRNA expression profiles of drug-resistant melanoma patients and cell lines. MicroRNA-181a and -181b (miR181a/b) were identified as the most significantly down-regulated miRNAs in resistant melanoma patients and cell lines. Re-establishment of miR-181a/b expression reverses the resistance of melanoma cells to the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib. Introduction of miR-181 mimics markedly decreases the expression of TFAM in A375 melanoma cells resistant to BRAF inhibitors. Furthermore, melanoma growth was inhibited in A375 and M14 resistant melanoma cells transfected with miR-181a/b mimics, while miR-181a/b depletion enhanced resistance in sensitive cell lines. Collectively, our study demonstrated that miR-181a/b could reverse the resistance to BRAF inhibitors in dabrafenib resistant melanoma cell lines. In addition, miR-181a and -181b are strongly down-regulated in tumor samples from patients before and after the development of resistance to targeted therapies. Finally, melanoma tissues with high miR-181a and -181b expression presented favorable outcomes in terms of Progression Free Survival, suggesting that miR-181 is a clinically relevant candidate for therapeutic development or biomarker-based therapy selection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/biossíntese , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Melanoma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteínas Mitocondriais/biossíntese , Proteínas de Neoplasias/biossíntese , RNA Neoplásico/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/biossíntese , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 301-309, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558722

RESUMO

The association among pathological response, recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) with neoadjuvant therapy in melanoma remains unclear. In this study, we pooled data from six clinical trials of anti-PD-1-based immunotherapy or BRAF/MEK targeted therapy. In total, 192 patients were included; 141 received immunotherapy (104, combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab; 37, anti-PD-1 monotherapy), and 51 received targeted therapy. A pathological complete response (pCR) occurred in 40% of patients: 47% with targeted therapy and 33% with immunotherapy (43% combination and 20% monotherapy). pCR correlated with improved RFS (pCR 2-year 89% versus no pCR 50%, P < 0.001) and OS (pCR 2-year OS 95% versus no pCR 83%, P = 0.027). In patients with pCR, near pCR or partial pathological response with immunotherapy, very few relapses were seen (2-year RFS 96%), and, at this writing, no patient has died from melanoma, whereas, even with pCR from targeted therapy, the 2-year RFS was only 79%, and OS was only 91%. Pathological response should be an early surrogate endpoint for clinical trials and a new benchmark for development and approval in melanoma.


Assuntos
Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Ipilimumab/administração & dosagem , Ipilimumab/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/imunologia , Melanoma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Terapia Neoadjuvante/efeitos adversos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Nivolumabe/administração & dosagem , Nivolumabe/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Melanoma Res ; 31(2): 181-185, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625104

RESUMO

Nearly 10% of patients with high-risk early-stage melanoma will develop satellite or in-transit metastases (ITM), classified as stage III disease similar to lymph node metastases. The pivotal registration trials of the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab, and the PD-1 antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab, also included patients with unresectable stage III disease. However, there has been no analysis of patients with ITM, and anecdotal retrospective small series have indicated a potential lesser effect. This study aimed to identify patients with unresectable ITM within the randomized trials, and to determine response, progression-free survival and overall survival. The pivotal phase III randomized intervention trials that included melanoma patients with ITM, with or without nodal metastasis, and were treated with ipilimumab, nivolumab or pembrolizumab was identified. The datasets from each trial were then searched to identify the specific details of the investigated patient population for a pooled analysis. The primary endpoint was complete response rate. Seven trials that included stage III patients, and with accessible datasets, were identified. There was a total of 4711 patients, however, no patients with ITM could be identified, as this data was not captured by the case report forms. Evidence from prospective clinical trials on the use of immunotherapy in patients with ITM is lacking. We recommend pooling data from multiple institutions to examine efficacy of available drug therapies in this patient population, but more importantly, prospective clinical trials of locoregional treatments with or without systemic drug therapies are required.

10.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 17, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies carried out in vitro and in a mouse model have shown that BRAF inhibitors enhance the effects of IFN-α on BRAFV600E melanoma cells through the inhibition of ERK. Therefore, the combination of vemurafenib and IFN-α in patients with BRAFV600E melanoma may provide therapeutic benefits; MEK inhibition may prevent the reactivation of the MAPK pathway induced by BRAF inhibitor resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a phase I study, adult patients with advanced BRAFV600-mutated melanoma were treated with vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b or vemurafenib + cobimetinib + PEG-IFN-α-2b, to assess the safety of the combination and the upregulation of IFN-α/ß receptor-1 (IFNAR1). RESULTS: Eight patients were treated; 59 adverse events with four serious ones (three related to study treatments) were reported. Patients with a pre-treatment IFNAR1 expression on ≤ 35% melanoma cells had a median progression-free survival of 12.0 months (range: 5.6-18.4 months) and a median overall survival of 31.0 months (range: 19.8-42.2 months), while patients with a pre-treatment IFNAR1 expression on > 35% of melanoma cells had a median progression-free survival of 4.0 months (range: 0-8.8; p = 0.03), and a median overall survival of 5 months (p = 0.02). Following treatment, responders had higher levels of growth-suppressor genes, including GAS1 and DUSP1, and genes involved in a metabolically robust immune response, including FAP. CONCLUSION: Our study supports the overall safety of the vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b + cobimetinib combination. IFNAR1 expression levels correlated with response to treatment, including survival. Vemurafenib + PEG-IFN-α-2b + cobimetinib would have difficulty finding a niche in the current treatment scenario for advanced melanoma, but we speculate that our findings may contribute to identify subjects particularly responsive to treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01959633). Registered 10 October 2013, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01959633.

11.
J Transl Med ; 19(1): 13, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407605

RESUMO

Over the last few years, numerous clinical trials and real-world experience have provided a large amount of evidence demonstrating the potential for long-term survival with immunotherapy agents across various malignancies, beginning with melanoma and extending to other tumours. The clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade has encouraged increasing development of other immunotherapies. It has been estimated that there are over 3000 immuno-oncology trials ongoing, targeting hundreds of disease and immune pathways. Evolving topics on cancer immunotherapy, including the state of the art of immunotherapy across various malignancies, were the focus of discussions at the Immunotherapy Bridge meeting (4-5 December, 2019, Naples, Italy), and are summarised in this report.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 8, 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproducible, high-quality surgery is a key point in the management of cancer patients. Quality indicators for surgical treatment of melanoma has been presented with benchmarks but data on morbidity are still limited. This study presents the quality indicators on morbidity after surgical treatment for non-metastatic skin melanoma in an Italian registry. METHODS: Data were extracted from the Central National Melanoma Registry (CNMR) promoted by the Italian Melanoma Intergroup (IMI). All surgical procedures (WE, SNLB or LFND) for non-metastatic skin melanoma between January 2011 and February 2017 were evaluated for inclusion in the study. Only centers with adequate completeness of information (> 80%) were included in the study. Short-term complications (wound infection, dehiscence, skin graft failure and seroma) were investigated. RESULTS: Wound infection rate was 1.1% (0.4 to 2.7%) in WE, 1.3% (0.7 to 2.5%) in SLNB and 4.1% (2.1 to 8.0%) in LFND. Wound dehiscence rate was 2.0% (0.8 to 5.1%) in WE, 0.9% (0.2 to 3.0%) in SLNB and 2.8% (0.9 to 8.6%) in LFND. Seroma rate was 4.2% (1.5 to 11.1%) in SLNB and 15.1% (4.6 to 39.9%) in LFND. Unreliable information was found on skin graft failure. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings contribute to available literature in setting up the recommended standards for melanoma centers, thus improving the quality of surgery offered to patients. A consensus on the core issues around surgical morbidity is needed to provide practical guidance on morbidity prevention and management.

14.
Curr Opin Oncol ; 33(2): 133-138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399314

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with advanced or metastatic v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF)-mutated melanoma can be treated with a BRAF inhibitor in combination with a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, achieving high but short-lived response rates. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), in contrast, give lower response rates but more durable responses. Preclinical and translational data indicate that combining BRAF and MEK inhibitors with ICI could exceed the limitations of each class and potentially lead to longer lasting responses. RECENT FINDINGS: Vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib are designed to block mutated forms of BRAF, which cause abnormal signalling inside cancer cells leading to tumour growth. Trametinib, binimetinib and cobimetinib are designed to target and inhibit MEK1/2, proteins in a cell signalling pathway that help cell growth and survival. Pembrolizumab, nivolumab, durvalumab and atezolizumab are ICIs which can inhibit the pathway of programmed death-1/ programmed death-ligand-1 proteins, allowing tumours to avoid detection by the immune system. SUMMARY: Treating patients with targeted therapy would allow the release of antigens from tumour cells, which could be more easily acknowledged by the immune system. Efficacy can also be increased by combining ICIs with the aim of maintaining a longer response. The possibility to administer three drugs in combination, would allow to induce tumour regression and produce an immune response with a synergistic effect.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6262, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33288749

RESUMO

Combining PD-L1 blockade with inhibition of oncogenic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling may result in long-lasting responses in patients with advanced melanoma. This phase 1, open-label, dose-escalation and -expansion study (NCT02027961) investigated safety, tolerability and preliminary efficacy of durvalumab (anti-PD-L1) combined with dabrafenib (BRAF inhibitor) and trametinib (MEK inhibitor) for patients with BRAF-mutated melanoma (cohort A, n = 26), or durvalumab and trametinib given concomitantly (cohort B, n = 20) or sequentially (cohort C, n = 22) for patients with BRAF-wild type melanoma. Adverse events and treatment discontinuation rates were more common than previously reported for these agents given as monotherapy. Objective responses were observed in 69.2% (cohort A), 20.0% (cohort B) and 31.8% (cohort C) of patients, with evidence of improved tumor immune infiltration and durable responses in a subset of patients with available biopsy samples. In conclusion, combined MAPK inhibition and anti-PD-L1 therapy may provide treatment options for patients with advanced melanoma.

17.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhibitors of immune checkpoint programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptor on T cells have shown remarkable clinical outcomes in metastatic melanoma. However, most patients are resistant to therapy. Production of extracellular adenosine, via CD73-mediated catabolism of AMP, contributes to suppress T-cell-mediated responses against cancer. In this study, we analyzed the expression and activity of soluble CD73 in sera of patients with melanoma undergoing anti-PD-1± cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 therapy. METHODS: Soluble CD73 expression and activity were retrospectively analyzed in serum of a total of 546 patients with melanoma from different centers before starting treatment (baseline) with anti-PD-1 agents, nivolumab or pembrolizumab, and compared with those of 96 healthy subjects. The CD73 activity was correlated with therapy response and survival of patients. RESULTS: Patients with melanoma show significantly higher CD73 activity and expression than those observed in healthy donors (p<0.0001). Elevated pretreatment levels of CD73 activity were associated with non-response to therapy with nivolumab or pembrolizumab. During treatment, levels of soluble CD73 activity remain unchanged from baseline and still stratify clinical responders from non-responders. High levels of serum CD73 enzymatic activity associate with reduced overall survival (OS; HR=1.36, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.78; p=0.03) as well as progression-free survival (PFS; HR=1.42, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.79, p=0.003). Further, the multivariate Cox regression analysis indicates that serum CD73 activity is an independent prognostic factor besides serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and the presence of brain metastases for both OS (p=0.009) and PFS (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data indicate the relevance of serum CD73 in patients with advanced melanoma receiving anti-PD-1 therapy and support further investigation on targeting CD73 in combination with anti-PD-1 antibodies.

18.
J Transl Med ; 18(1): 489, 2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33353549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1918 an unknown infectious agent spread around the world infecting over one-third of the general population and killing almost 50 million people. Many countries were at war, the First World War. Since Spain was a neutral country and Spanish press could report about the infection without censorship, this condition is commonly remembered as "Spanish influenza". This review examines several aspects during the 1918 influenza pandemic to bring out evidences which might be useful to imagine the possible magnitude of the present coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: In the first part of this review we will examine the origin of the SARS-Coronavirus-2 and 1918 Spanish Influenza Virus and the role played by host and environment in its diffusion. We will also include in our analysis an evaluation of different approaches utilized to restrain the spread of pandemic and to treat infected patients. In the second part, we will try to imagine the magnitude of the present COVID-19 pandemic and the possible measures able to restrain in the present environment its spread. RESULTS: Several factors characterize the outcome in a viral pandemic infection. They include the complete knowledge of the virus, the complete knowledge of the host and of the environment where the host lives and the pandemic develops. CONCLUSION: By comparing the situation seen in 1918 with the current one, we are now in a more favourable position. The experience of the past teaches us that their success is linked to a rapid, constant and lasting application. Then, rather than coercion, awareness of the need to observe such prevention measures works better.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/história , Influenza Humana/história , Pandemias , /tratamento farmacológico , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Pandêmica, 1918-1919/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
19.
Oncoimmunology ; 9(1): 1826132, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33194317

RESUMO

The multicenter international Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) study of the consensus Immunoscore demonstrated the prediction of survival and response to chemotherapy in 763 Stage III colon cancer (CC) patients. Similar Immunoscore groups were found in elderly patients, and densities of immune cells and intratumoral T-cell repertoire were not decreasing with age in the tumor microenvironment. In two independent cohorts, Immunoscore significantly predicted time to recurrence (TTR), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS), including within high-risk (T4 or N2) and low-risk (T1-3, N1) patients. In stratified Cox multivariable analysis for TTR, DFS, and OS, Immunoscore's association to outcomes was independent of the patient's age, sidedness, gender, T-stage, N-stage, and microsatellite instability status. Furthermore, the relative contribution to the risk test showed that Immunoscore had the highest contribution to survival. Importantly Immunoscore predicted the likelihood of response to chemotherapy. Only patients with a high-Immunoscore significantly benefited from chemotherapy. The prognostic value of Immunoscore was confirmed in two independent phase 3 clinical trials (NCCTG-N0147, n = 559; Prodige-IDEA, n = 1062). Moreover, results from IDEA phase 3 randomized trial revealed the predictive value of Immunoscore for response to adjuvant FOLFOX chemotherapy duration. The latest edition of the WHO Digestive System Tumors classification introduced the immune response as measured by Immunoscore as essential and desirable diagnostic criteria for CC, and Immunoscore was introduced into the 2020 ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for CC to refine the prognosis and adjust chemotherapy decision-making process in stages II and III patients. These results highlight the clinical utility of Immunoscore.

20.
Eur J Cancer ; 142: 18-28, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Concomitant medications are known to impact on clinical outcomes of patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). We aimed weighing the role of different concomitant baseline medications to create a drug-based prognostic score. METHODS: We evaluated concomitant baseline medications at immunotherapy initiation for their impact on objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in a single-institution cohort of patients with advanced cancer treated with ICIs (training cohort, N = 217), and a drug-based prognostic score with the drugs resulting significantly impacting the OS was computed. Secondly, we externally validated the score in a large multicenter external cohort (n = 1012). RESULTS: In the training cohort (n = 217), the median age was 69 years (range: 32-89), and the primary tumours were non-small-cell lung cancer (70%), melanoma (14.7%), renal cell carcinoma (9.2%) and others (6%). Among baseline medications, corticosteroids (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.60-3.30), systemic antibiotics (HR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.31-3.25) and proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (HR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13-2.18) were significantly associated with OS. The prognostic score was calculated using these three drug classes, defining good, intermediate and poor prognosis patients. Within the training cohort, OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0297) were significantly distinguished by the score stratification. The prognostic value of the score was also demonstrated in terms of OS (p < 0.0001), PFS (p < 0.0001) and ORR (p = 0.0006) within the external cohort. CONCLUSION: Cumulative exposure to corticosteroids, antibiotics and PPIs (three likely microbiota-modulating drugs) leads to progressively worse outcomes after ICI therapy. We propose a simple score that can help stratifying patients in routine practice and clinical trials of ICIs.

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