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2.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(12): 1763-1773, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcome predictors of severe leptospirosis requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission in a temperate zone. METHODS: LEPTOREA was a retrospective multicentre study conducted in 79 ICUs in metropolitan France. Consecutive adults admitted to the ICU for proven severe leptospirosis from January 2012 to September 2016 were included. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and hierarchical classification on principal components (HCPC) were performed to distinguish different clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: The 160 included patients (0.04% of all ICU admissions) had median values of 54 years [38-65] for age, 40 [28-58] for the SAPSII, and 11 [8-14] for the SOFA score. Hospital mortality was 9% and was associated with older age; worse SOFA score and early need for endotracheal ventilation and/or renal replacement therapy; chronic alcohol abuse and worse hepatic dysfunction; confusion; and higher leucocyte count. Four phenotypes were identified: moderately severe leptospirosis (n = 34, 21%) with less organ failure and better outcomes; hepato-renal leptospirosis (n = 101, 63%) with prominent liver and kidney dysfunction; neurological leptospirosis (n = 8, 5%) with the most severe organ failures and highest mortality; and respiratory leptospirosis (n = 17, 11%) with pulmonary haemorrhage. The main risk factors for leptospirosis contamination were contact with animals, contact with river or lake water, and specific occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Severe leptospirosis was an uncommon reason for ICU admission in metropolitan France and carried a lower mortality rate than expected based on the high severity and organ-failure scores. The identification in our population of several clinical presentations may help clinicians establish an appropriate index of suspicion for severe leptospirosis.

3.
JAMA ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577035

RESUMO

Importance: Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective: To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n = 868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 µg/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions: Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n = 585) or to placebo (n = 283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results: Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P = .30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P = .77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P = .85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P = .41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.

4.
N Engl J Med ; 381(24): 2327-2337, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate therapeutic hypothermia is currently recommended to improve neurologic outcomes in adults with persistent coma after resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of moderate therapeutic hypothermia in patients with nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity) is debated. METHODS: We performed an open-label, randomized, controlled trial comparing moderate therapeutic hypothermia (33°C during the first 24 hours) with targeted normothermia (37°C) in patients with coma who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after resuscitation from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm. The primary outcome was survival with a favorable neurologic outcome, assessed on day 90 after randomization with the use of the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating greater disability). We defined a favorable neurologic outcome as a CPC score of 1 or 2. Outcome assessment was blinded. Mortality and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: From January 2014 through January 2018, a total of 584 patients from 25 ICUs underwent randomization, and 581 were included in the analysis (3 patients withdrew consent). On day 90, a total of 29 of 284 patients (10.2%) in the hypothermia group were alive with a CPC score of 1 or 2, as compared with 17 of 297 (5.7%) in the normothermia group (difference, 4.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 8.9; P = 0.04). Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (81.3% and 83.2%, respectively; difference, -1.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.0 to 4.3). The incidence of prespecified adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with coma who had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm, moderate therapeutic hypothermia at 33°C for 24 hours led to a higher percentage of patients who survived with a favorable neurologic outcome at day 90 than was observed with targeted normothermia. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; HYPERION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01994772.).


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Coma/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Idoso , Temperatura Corporal , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Método Simples-Cego
5.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 95, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that hyperchloremia induced by fluid resuscitation is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality, particularly in sepsis. Experimental studies showed that hyperchloremia could affect organ functions. In patients with septic shock, we examined the relationship between serum chloride concentration and both renal function and survival. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the "HYPER2S" trial database (NCT01722422) including 434 patients with septic shock randomly assigned for resuscitation with 0.9% or 3% saline. Metabolic parameters were recorded up to 72 h. Metabolic effects of hyperchloremia (> 110 mmol/L) were studied stratified for hyperlactatemia (> 2 mmol/L). Cox models were constructed to assess the association between chloride parameters, day-28 mortality and AKI. RESULTS: 413 patients were analysed. The presence of hyperlactatemia was significantly more frequent than hyperchloremia (62% versus 71% of patients, respectively, p = 0.006). Metabolic acidosis was significantly more frequent in patients with hyperchloremia, no matter the presence of hyperlactatemia, p < 0.001. Adjusted risk of AKI and mortality were not significantly associated with serum chloride, hyperchloremia, maximal chloremia and delta chloremia (maximal-H0 [Cl]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more frequent metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia was not associated with an increased risk for AKI or mortality. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01722422, registered 2 November 2012.

7.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 54, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the recommended mean arterial pressure (MAP) target of 65 mmHg during initial resuscitation of septic shock is sufficient to maintain cerebral perfusion. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a higher MAP target in patients with septic shock may improve level of arousal. METHODS: We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis of the SEPSISPAM trial, which assessed the effect of a "high-target" level of MAP (80-85 mmHg) versus the recommended "low-target" MAP (65-70 mm Hg) on mortality in patients with septic shock. Among the 776 patients originally recruited in SEPSISPAM trial, we selected those who were mechanically ventilated and sedated and with available evaluation of arousal level assessed by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). RESULTS: We restricted our analysis to the period in which patients were treated with vasoactive drugs. Cumulative sedative drugs were assessed daily. A total of 532 patients were included in this study: 253 (47.6%) in the low-target group and 279 (52.4%) in the high-target group. Daily cumulative sedative drugs were similar in both groups. Compared to the low-target group, minimal and maximal RASS were significantly higher in the high-target group at day 2, 4 and 5. Furthermore, in order to consider the fact that multiple measures were done for each patient and to consider the global effect of time on these measures, we used a mixed linear regression and multivariate models: we confirmed that maximal RASS values were significantly higher in the high-target group. CONCLUSION: In patients with septic shock who were mechanically ventilated and sedated, resuscitation with MAP target between 80 and 85 mmHg was associated with higher arousal level as compared to a MAP target between 65 and 70 mmHg.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 51, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistive index (RI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography has been shown to be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. However, its clinical use is limited by poor sensitivity and specificity which may be explained by its numerous determinants [in particular mean arterial pressure (MAP)]. We measured, in patients with septic shock, RI at different MAP levels over a short period of time on the admission day to ICU (D1) and every 3 days until day 10 (D10) to define the determinants of RI and study specifically the relationship between RI and MAP. RESULTS: Consecutive patients with septic shock without preexisting chronic renal dysfunction were included in this prospective cohort study in two ICUs. Sixty-five patients were included in the study. Thirty-three (50.8%) and 15 (23.1%) patients had a history of chronic hypertension or diabetes, respectively. At D3, 35 patients presented AKI with AKIN 2 or 3 criteria (severe AKI, AKIN2-3 group) and 30 presented no AKIN or AKIN 1 criteria (AKIN0-1 group). As previously described, RI at D1 was higher in the AKIN2-3 group than in the AKIN0-1 group (0.73 interquartile range [0.67; 0.78] vs. 0.67 [0.59; 0.72], p = 0.001). A linear mixed model for predicting RI from D1 to D10 showed that an increase in pulse pressure, presence of severe AKI and additional day of ICU hospitalization were associated with an increase in RI. An increase in MAP and recovery from severe AKI were associated with a decrease in RI. In the presence of chronic hypertension or diabetes, an increase in MAP resulted in a lower decrease in RI, than in the absence of such factors. Presence of AKI at D3 did not impact the relationship between MAP and RI. CONCLUSIONS: Severe AKI was associated with a reversible increase in RI without significant interaction with the relationship between MAP and RI. Conversely, the presence of chronic hypertension and/or diabetes interacted with this relationship.

9.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 20, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly applied to restore and maintain blood pressure in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the current practice and therapeutic goals regarding vasopressor use in septic shock as a basis for future studies and to provide some recommendations on their use. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of vasoactive drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 17 questions focused on the profile of respondents, triggering factors, first choice agent, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatments, and effects of vasopressors. We investigated whether the answers complied with current guidelines. In addition, a group of 34 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of vasopressors based on 6 questions with sub-questions (total 14). RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries (65% main specialty/activity intensive care) responded. The main trigger for vasopressor use was an insufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to initial fluid resuscitation (83%). The first-line vasopressor was norepinephrine (97%), targeting predominantly a MAP > 60-65 mmHg (70%), with higher targets in patients with chronic arterial hypertension (79%). The experts agreed on 10 recommendations, 9 of which were based on unanimous or strong (≥ 80%) agreement. They recommended not to delay vasopressor treatment until fluid resuscitation is completed but rather to start with norepinephrine early to achieve a target MAP of ≥ 65 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Reported vasopressor use in septic shock is compliant with contemporary guidelines. Future studies should focus on individualized treatment targets including earlier use of vasopressors.

10.
Shock ; 52(4): e52-e59, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407373

RESUMO

Hyperoxia (ventilation with FIO2 = 1.0) has vasoconstrictor properties, in particular in the coronary vascular bed, and, hence, may promote cardiac dysfunction. However, we previously showed that hyperoxia attenuated myocardial injury during resuscitation from hemorrhage in swine with coronary artery disease. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis whether hyperoxia would also mitigate myocardial injury and improve heart function in the absence of chronic cardiovascular comorbidity.After 3 h of hemorrhage (removal of 30% of the calculated blood volume and subsequent titration of mean arterial pressure to 40 mm Hg) 19 anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented pigs received FIO2 = 0.3(control) or hyperoxia(FIO2 = 1.0) during the first 24 h. Before, at the end of and every 12 h after shock, hemodynamics, blood gases, metabolism, cytokines, and cardiac function (pulmonary artery thermodilution, left ventricular pressure-conductance catheterization) were recorded. At 48 h, cardiac tissue was harvested for western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and mitochondrial respiration.Except for higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressures at 24 h (hyperoxia 21 (17;24), control 17 (15;18) mm Hg; P = 0.046), hyperoxia affected neither left ventricular function cardiac injury (max. Troponin I at 12 h: hyperoxia:9 (6;23), control:17 (11;24) ng mL; P = 0.395), nor plasma cytokines (except for interleukin-1ß: hyperoxia 10 (10;10) and 10 (10;10)/control 14 (10;22), 12 (10;15) pg mL, P = 0.023 and 0.021 at 12 and 24 h, respectively), oxidation and nitrosative stress, and mitochondrial respiration. However, hyperoxia decreased cardiac tissue three-nitrotyrosine formation (P < 0.001) and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P = 0.016). Ultimately, survival did not differ significantly either.In conclusion, in contrast to our previous study in swine with coronary artery disease, hyperoxia did not beneficially affect cardiac function or tissue injury in healthy swine, but was devoid of deleterious side effects.

12.
Intensive Care Med ; 44(12): 2162-2173, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456466

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the relative importance of host and bacterial factors associated with hospital mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (PCAP). METHODS: Immunocompetent Caucasian ICU patients with PCAP documented by cultures and/or pneumococcal urinary antigen (UAg Sp) test were included in this multicenter prospective study between 2008 and 2012. All pneumococcal strains were serotyped. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 614 patients, 278 (45%) had septic shock, 270 (44%) had bacteremia, 307 (50%) required mechanical ventilation at admission, and 161 (26%) had a diagnosis based only on the UAg Sp test. No strains were penicillin-resistant, but 23% had decreased susceptibility. Of the 36 serotypes identified, 7 accounted for 72% of the isolates, with different distributions according to age. Although antibiotics were consistently appropriate and were started within 6 h after admission in 454 (74%) patients, 116 (18.9%) patients died. Independent predictors of hospital mortality in the adjusted analysis were platelets ≤ 100 × 109/L (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 2.8-21.1), McCabe score ≥ 2 (4.58; 1.61-13), age > 65 years (2.92; 1.49-5.74), lactates > 4 mmol/L (2.41; 1.27-4.56), male gender and septic shock (2.23; 1.30-3.83 for each), invasive mechanical ventilation (1.78; 1-3.19), and bilateral pneumonia (1.59; 1.02-2.47). Women with platelets ≤ 100 × 109/L had the highest mortality risk (adjusted OR, 7.7; 2.8-21). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with PCAP, age, gender, and organ failures at ICU admission were more strongly associated with hospital mortality than were comorbidities. Neither pneumococcal serotype nor antibiotic regimen was associated with hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/complicações , Pneumonia Pneumocócica/terapia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 102, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving sepsis support is one of the three pillars of a 2017 resolution according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Septic shock is indeed a burden issue in the intensive care units. Hemodynamic stabilization is a cornerstone element in the bundle of supportive treatments recommended in the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) consecutive biannual reports. MAIN BODY: The "Pandera's box" of septic shock hemodynamics is an eternal debate, however, with permanent contentious issues. Fluid resuscitation is a prerequisite intervention for sepsis rescue, but selection, modalities, dosage as well as duration are subject to discussion while too much fluid is associated with worsen outcome, vasopressors often need to be early introduced in addition, and catecholamines have long been recommended first in the management of septic shock. However, not all patients respond positively and controversy surrounding the efficacy-to-safety profile of catecholamines has come out. Preservation of the macrocirculation through a "best" mean arterial pressure target is the actual priority but is still contentious. Microcirculation recruitment is a novel goal to be achieved but is claiming more knowledge and monitoring standardization. Protection of the cardio-renal axis, which is prevalently injured during septic shock, is also an unavoidable objective. Several promising alternative or additive drug supporting avenues are emerging, trending toward catecholamine's sparing or even "decatecholaminization." Topics to be specifically addressed in this review are: (1) mean arterial pressure targeting, (2) fluid resuscitation, and (3) hemodynamic drug support. CONCLUSION: Improving assessment and means for rescuing hemodynamics in early septic shock is still a work in progress. Indeed, the bigger the unresolved questions, the lower the quality of evidence.

14.
Ann Intensive Care ; 8(1): 90, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30225670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Criteria for the Sepsis-3 definition of septic shock include vasopressor treatment to maintain a mean arterial pressure > 65 mmHg and a lactate concentration > 2 mmol/L. The impact of hyperoxia in patients with septic shock using these criteria is unknown. METHODS: A post hoc analysis was performed of the HYPER2S trial assessing hyperoxia versus normoxia in septic patients requiring vasopressor therapy, in whom a plasma lactate value was available at study inclusion. Mortality was compared between patients fulfilling the Sepsis-3 septic shock criteria and patients requiring vasopressors for hypotension only (i.e., with lactate ≤ 2 mmol/L). RESULTS: Of the 434 patients enrolled, 397 had available data for lactate at inclusion. 230 had lactate > 2 mmol/L and 167 ≤ 2 mmol/L. Among patients with lactate > 2 mmol/L, 108 and 122 were "hyperoxia"- and "normoxia"-treated, respectively. Patients with lactate > 2 mmol/L had significantly less COPD more cirrhosis and required surgery more frequently. They also had higher illness severity (SOFA 10.6 ± 2.8 vs. 9.5 ± 2.5, p = 0.0001), required more renal replacement therapy (RRT), and received vasopressor and mechanical ventilation for longer time. Mortality rate at day 28 was higher in the "hyperoxia"-treated patients with lactate > 2 mmol/L as compared to "normoxia"-treated patients (57.4% vs. 44.3%, p = 0.054), despite similar RRT requirements as well as vasopressor and mechanical ventilation-free days. A multivariate analysis showed an independent association between hyperoxia and mortality at day 28 and 90. In patients with lactate ≤ 2 mmol/L, hyperoxia had no effect on mortality nor on other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that hyperoxia may be associated with a higher mortality rate in patients with septic shock using the Sepsis-3 criteria, but not in patients with hypotension alone.

16.
Ann Hematol ; 97(9): 1601-1609, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717367

RESUMO

The benefit of early admission of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) recipients to the intensive care unit (ICU) as soon as they develop organ injury is unknown. We performed a retrospective study on 92 patients admitted to the ICU to determine the impact of time from organ injury to ICU admission on outcome. The number of organ injuries prior to ICU admission was associated with an increased in-hospital mortality (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1-2.7, p = 0.04). Time between first organ injury and ICU admission was also associated with an increased in-hospital survival (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.02). A score combining these two covariates-the number of organ injuries/day (sum of days spent with each individual organ injury)-further improved the prediction of hospital survival. Patients with more organ injuries/day had significantly higher in-hospital mortality rate even after adjustment for refractory acute GVHD and the SOFA (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1-1.7, p = 0.02). Early ICU admission of allogeneic SCT recipients to the ICU as soon as they develop organ injury is associated with decreased in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/mortalidade , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Transplante Homólogo/mortalidade
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