Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 140
Filtrar
1.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 62, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anemia is a significant problem in patients on ICU. Its commonest cause, iron deficiency (ID), is difficult to diagnose in the context of inflammation. Hepcidin is a new marker of ID. We aimed to assess whether hepcidin levels would accurately guide treatment of ID in critically ill anemic patients after a prolonged ICU stay and affect the post-ICU outcomes. METHODS: In a controlled, single-blinded, multicenter study, anemic (WHO definition) critically ill patients with an ICU stay ≥ 5 days were randomized when discharge was expected to either intervention by hepcidin treatment protocol or control. In the intervention arm, patients were treated with intravenous iron (1 g of ferric carboxymaltose) when hepcidin was < 20 µg/l and with intravenous iron and erythropoietin for 20 ≤ hepcidin < 41 µg/l. Control patients were treated according to standard care (hepcidin quantification remained blinded). Primary endpoint was the number of days spent in hospital 90 days after ICU discharge (post-ICU LOS). Secondary endpoints were day 15 anemia, day 30 fatigue, day 90 mortality and 1-year survival. RESULTS: Of 405 randomized patients, 399 were analyzed (201 in intervention and 198 in control arm). A total of 220 patients (55%) had ID at discharge (i.e., a hepcidin < 41 µg/l). Primary endpoint was not different (medians (IQR) post-ICU LOS 33(13;90) vs. 33(11;90) days for intervention and control, respectively, median difference - 1(- 3;1) days, p = 0.78). D90 mortality was significantly lower in intervention arm (16(8%) vs 33(16.6%) deaths, absolute risk difference - 8.7 (- 15.1 to - 2.3)%, p = 0.008, OR 95% IC, 0.46, 0.22-0.94, p = 0.035), and one-year survival was improved (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Treatment of ID diagnosed according to hepcidin levels did not reduce the post-ICU LOS, but was associated with a significant reduction in D90 mortality and with improved 1-year survival in critically ill patients about to be discharged after a prolonged stay. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrial.gov NCT02276690 (October 28, 2014; retrospectively registered).

2.
Crit Care Med ; 49(4): e412-e422, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591012

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Individualizing a target mean arterial pressure is challenging during the initial resuscitation of patients with septic shock. The Sepsis and Mean Arterial Pressure (SEPSISPAM) trial suggested that targeting high mean arterial pressure might reduce the occurrence of acute kidney injury among those included patients with a past history of chronic hypertension. We investigated whether the class of antihypertensive medications used before the ICU stay in chronic hypertensive patients was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury occurring after inclusion, according to mean arterial pressure target. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the SEPSISPAM trial. SETTING: The primary outcome was the occurrence of severe acute kidney injury during the ICU stay defined as kidney disease improving global outcome stage 2 or higher. Secondary outcomes were mortality at day 28 and mortality at day 90. PATIENTS: All patients with chronic hypertension included in SEPSISPAM with available antihypertensive medications data in the hospitalization report were included. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We analyzed 297 patients. Severe acute kidney injury occurred in 184 patients, without difference according to pre-ICU exposure to antihypertensive medications. Patients with pre-ICU exposure to angiotensin II receptor blockers had significantly less severe acute kidney injury in the high mean arterial pressure target group (adjusted odd ratio 0.24 with 95% CI [0.09-0.66]; p = 0.006). No statistically significant association was found after adjustment for pre-ICU exposure to antihypertensive medications and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that patients with septic shock and chronic hypertension treated with angiotensin II receptor blocker may benefit from a high mean arterial pressure target to reduce the risk of acute kidney injury occurrence.

3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 21, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment decisions on critically ill patients with circulatory shock lack consensus. In an international survey, we aimed to evaluate the indications, current practice, and therapeutic goals of inotrope therapy in the treatment of patients with circulatory shock. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of cardiovascular drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 14 questions focused on the profile of respondents, the triggering factors, first-line choice, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatment strategy, and suggested effect of inotropes. In addition, a group of 42 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of inotropes based on 11 questions. RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries responded. Dobutamine was the first-line inotrope in critically ill patients with acute heart failure for 84% of respondents. Two-thirds of respondents (66%) stated to use inotropes when there were persistent clinical signs of hypoperfusion or persistent hyperlactatemia despite a supposed adequate use of fluids and vasopressors, with (44%) or without (22%) the context of low left ventricular ejection fraction. Nearly half (44%) of respondents stated an adequate cardiac output as target for inotropic treatment. The experts agreed on 11 strong recommendations, all of which were based on excellent (> 90%) or good (81-90%) agreement. Recommendations include the indications for inotropes (septic and cardiogenic shock), the choice of drugs (dobutamine, not dopamine), the triggers (low cardiac output and clinical signs of hypoperfusion) and targets (adequate cardiac output) and stopping criteria (adverse effects and clinical improvement). CONCLUSION: Inotrope use in critically ill patients is quite heterogeneous as self-reported by individual caregivers. Eleven strong recommendations on the indications, choice, triggers and targets for the use of inotropes are given by international experts. Future studies should focus on consistent indications for inotrope use and implementation into a guideline for circulatory shock that encompasses individualized targets and outcomes.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 188-198, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388794

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 h were eligible if they had: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection at ICU admission. VA-LRTI, including ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. All VA-LRTI were prospectively identified, and chest-X rays were analyzed by at least two physicians. Cumulative incidence of first episodes of VA-LRTI was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, and compared using Fine-and Gray models. RESULTS: 1576 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2, 482 in influenza, and 526 in no viral infection groups). VA-LRTI incidence was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 patients (287, 50.5%), as compared to influenza patients (146, 30.3%, adjusted sub hazard ratio (sHR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 2.04)) or patients with no viral infection (133, 25.3%, adjusted sHR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.39)). Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for a large proportion (82% to 89.7%) of VA-LRTI, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VA-LRTI is significantly higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection after statistical adjustment, but residual confounding may still play a role in the effect estimates.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica , Infecções Respiratórias , Idoso , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
5.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 672, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is wide variability between intensivists in the decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment (DFLST). Advance directives (ADs) allow patients to communicate their end-of-life wishes to physicians. We assessed whether ADs reduced variability in DFLSTs between intensivists. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, prospective, simulation study. Eight patients expressed their wishes in ADs after being informed about DFLSTs by an intensivist-investigator. The participating intensivists answered ten questions about the DFLSTs of each patient in two scenarios, referring to patients' characteristics without ADs (round 1) and then with (round 2). DFLST score ranged from 0 (no-DFLST) to 10 (DFLST for all questions). The main outcome was variability in DFLSTs between intensivists, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD). RESULTS: A total of 19,680 decisions made by 123 intensivists from 27 ICUs were analyzed. The DFLST score was higher with ADs than without (6.02 95% CI [5.85; 6.19] vs 4.92 95% CI [4.75; 5.10], p < 0.001). High inter-intensivist variability did not change with ADs (RSD: 0.56 (round 1) vs 0.46 (round 2), p = 0.84). Inter-intensivist agreement on DFLSTs was weak with ADs (intra-class correlation coefficient: 0.28). No factor associated with DFLSTs was identified. A qualitative analysis of ADs showed focus on end-of-life wills, unwanted things and fear of pain. CONCLUSIONS: ADs increased the DFLST rate but did not reduce variability between the intensivists. In the decision-making process using ADs, the intensivist's decision took priority. Further research is needed to improve the matching of the physicians' decision with the patient's wishes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03013530. Registered 6 January 2017; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03013530 .

6.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2252-2264, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169217

RESUMO

Modalities of fluid management in patients sustaining the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are challenging and controversial. Optimal fluid management should provide adequate oxygen delivery to the body, while avoiding inadvertent increase in lung edema which further impairs gas exchange. In ARDS patients, positive fluid balance has been associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, longer ICU and hospital stay, and higher mortality. Accordingly, a restrictive strategy has been compared to a more liberal approach in randomized controlled trials conducted in various clinical settings. Restrictive strategies included fluid restriction guided by the monitoring of extravascular lung water, pulmonary capillary wedge or central venous pressure, and furosemide targeted to diuresis and/or albumin replacement in hypoproteinemic patients. Overall, restrictive strategies improved oxygenation significantly and reduced duration of mechanical ventilation, but had no significant effect on mortality. Fluid management may require different approaches depending on the time course of ARDS (i.e., early vs. late period). The effects of fluid strategy management according to ARDS phenotypes remain to be evaluated. Since ARDS is frequently associated with sepsis-induced acute circulatory failure, the prediction of fluid responsiveness is crucial in these patients to avoid hemodynamically inefficient-hence respiratory detrimental-fluid administration. Specific hemodynamic indices of fluid responsiveness or mini-fluid challenges should be preferably used. Since the positive airway pressure contributes to positive fluid balance in ventilated ARDS patients, it should be kept as low as possible. As soon as the hemodynamic status is stabilized, correction of cumulated fluid retention may rely on diuretics administration or renal replacement therapy.

7.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 545-552, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy with cardiogenic shock have a high mortality. This study assessed venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) support for sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock refractory to conventional treatments. METHODS: In this retrospective, multicentre, international cohort study, we compared outcomes of 82 patients (aged ≥18 years) with septic shock who received VA-ECMO at five academic ECMO centres, with 130 controls (not receiving ECMO) obtained from three large databases of septic shock. All patients had severe myocardial dysfunction (cardiac index 3 L/min per m2 or less or left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] 35% or less) and severe haemodynamic compromise (inotrope score at least 75 µg/kg per min or lactic acidaemia at least 4 mmol/L) at time of inclusion. The primary endpoint was survival at 90 days. A propensity score-weighted analysis was done to control for confounders. FINDINGS: At baseline, patients treated with VA-ECMO had more severe myocardial dysfunction (mean cardiac index 1·5 L/min per m2vs 2·2 L/min per m2, LVEF 17% vs 27%), more severe haemodynamic impairment (inotrope score 279 µg/kg per min vs 145 µg/kg per min, lactataemia 8·9 mmol/L vs 6·5 mmol/L), and more severe organ failure (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score 17 vs 13) than did controls, with p<0·0001 for each comparison. Survival at 90 days for patients treated with VA-ECMO was significantly higher than for controls (60% vs 25%, risk ratio [RR] for mortality 0·54, 95% CI [0·40-0·70]; p<0·0001). After propensity score weighting, ECMO remained associated with improved survival (51% vs 14%, adjusted RR for mortality 0·57, 95% CI [0·35-0·93]; p=0·0029). Lactate and catecholamine clearance were also significantly enhanced in patients treated with ECMO. Among the 49 survivors treated with ECMO, 32 who had been treated at the largest centre reported satisfactory Short Form-36 evaluated health-related quality of life at 1-year follow-up. INTERPRETATION: Patients with severe sepsis-induced cardiogenic shock treated with VA-ECMO had a large and significant improvement in survival compared with controls not receiving ECMO. However, despite the careful propensity-weighted analysis, we cannot rule out unmeasured confounders. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Choque Cardiogênico/terapia , Choque Séptico/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bases de Dados Factuais , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Cardiogênico/etiologia , Choque Cardiogênico/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 55, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with a SARS-Cov-2-associated respiratory failure develop an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been recently suggested that SARS-Cov-2-associated ARDS may differ from usual non-SARS-Cov-2-associated ARDS by higher respiratory system compliance (CRS), lower potential for recruitment with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) contrasting with severe shunt fraction. The purpose of the study was to systematically assess respiratory mechanics and recruitability in SARS-Cov-2-associated ARDS. METHODS: Gas exchanges, CRS and hemodynamics were assessed at 2 levels of PEEP (15 cmH2O and 5 cmH2O) within 36 h (day1) and from 4 to 6 days (day 5) after intubation. The recruited volume was computed as the difference between the volume expired from PEEP 15 to 5 cmH2O and the volume predicted by compliance at PEEP 5 cmH2O (or above airway opening pressure). The recruitment-to-inflation (R/I) ratio (i.e. the ratio between the recruited lung compliance and CRS at PEEP 5 cmH2O) was used to assess lung recruitability. A R/I ratio value higher than or equal to 0.5 was used to define highly recruitable patients. RESULTS: The R/I ratio was calculated in 25 of the 26 enrolled patients at day 1 and in 15 patients at day 5. At day 1, 16 (64%) were considered as highly recruitable (R/I ratio median [interquartile range] 0.7 [0.55-0.94]) and 9 (36%) were considered as poorly recruitable (R/I ratio 0.41 [0.31-0.48]). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at PEEP 15 cmH2O was higher compared to PEEP 5 cmH2O only in highly recruitable patients (173 [139-236] vs 135 [89-167] mmHg; p < 0.01). Neither PaO2/FiO2 or CRS measured at PEEP 15 cmH2O or at PEEP 5 cmH2O nor changes in PaO2/FiO2 or CRS in response to PEEP changes allowed to identify highly or poorly recruitable patients. CONCLUSION: In this series of 25 patients with SARS-Cov-2 associated ARDS, 64% were considered as highly recruitable and only 36% as poorly recruitable based on the R/I ratio performed on the day of intubation. This observation suggests that a systematic R/I ratio assessment may help to guide initial PEEP titration to limit harmful effect of unnecessary high PEEP in the context of Covid-19 crisis.

9.
N Engl J Med ; 382(11): 999-1008, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ARDS Clinical Trials Network recommends a target partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao2) between 55 and 80 mm Hg. Prospective validation of this range in patients with ARDS is lacking. We hypothesized that targeting the lower limit of this range would improve outcomes in patients with ARDS. METHODS: In this multicenter, randomized trial, we assigned patients with ARDS to receive either conservative oxygen therapy (target Pao2, 55 to 70 mm Hg; oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2], 88 to 92%) or liberal oxygen therapy (target Pao2, 90 to 105 mm Hg; Spo2, ≥96%) for 7 days. The same mechanical-ventilation strategies were used in both groups. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 28 days. RESULTS: After the enrollment of 205 patients, the trial was prematurely stopped by the data and safety monitoring board because of safety concerns and a low likelihood of a significant difference between the two groups in the primary outcome. Four patients who did not meet the eligibility criteria were excluded. At day 28, a total of 34 of 99 patients (34.3%) in the conservative-oxygen group and 27 of 102 patients (26.5%) in the liberal-oxygen group had died (difference, 7.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.8 to 20.6). At day 90, 44.4% of the patients in the conservative-oxygen group and 30.4% of the patients in the liberal-oxygen group had died (difference, 14.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.7 to 27.2). Five mesenteric ischemic events occurred in the conservative-oxygen group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with ARDS, early exposure to a conservative-oxygenation strategy with a Pao2 between 55 and 70 mm Hg did not increase survival at 28 days. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; LOCO2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02713451.).


Assuntos
Oxigenoterapia , Respiração Artificial , Adulto , Idoso , Tratamento Conservador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 62, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requires urgent and specific antimicrobial therapy. However, the causal pathogen is typically unknown at the point when anti-infective therapeutics must be initiated. Physicians synthesize information from diverse data streams to make appropriate decisions. Artificial intelligence (AI) excels at finding complex relationships in large volumes of data. We aimed to evaluate the abilities of experienced physicians and AI to answer this question at patient admission: is it a viral or a bacterial pneumonia? METHODS: We included patients hospitalized for CAP and recorded all data available in the first 3-h period of care (clinical, biological and radiological information). For this proof-of-concept investigation, we decided to study only CAP caused by a singular and identified pathogen. We built a machine learning model prediction using all collected data. Finally, an independent validation set of samples was used to test the pathogen prediction performance of: (i) a panel of three experts and (ii) the AI algorithm. Both were blinded regarding the final microbial diagnosis. Positive likelihood ratio (LR) values > 10 and negative LR values < 0.1 were considered clinically relevant. RESULTS: We included 153 patients with CAP (70.6% men; 62 [51-73] years old; mean SAPSII, 37 [27-47]), 37% had viral pneumonia, 24% had bacterial pneumonia, 20% had a co-infection and 19% had no identified respiratory pathogen. We performed the analysis on 93 patients as co-pathogen and no-pathogen cases were excluded. The discriminant abilities of the AI approach were low to moderate (LR+ = 2.12 for viral and 6.29 for bacterial pneumonia), and the discriminant abilities of the experts were very low to low (LR+ = 3.81 for viral and 1.89 for bacterial pneumonia). CONCLUSION: Neither experts nor an AI algorithm can predict the microbial etiology of CAP within the first hours of hospitalization when there is an urgent need to define the anti-infective therapeutic strategy.

12.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 9, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31970567

RESUMO

Activation of arginine-vasopressin is one of the hormonal responses to face vasodilation-related hypotension. Released from the post-pituitary gland, vasopressin induces vasoconstriction through the activation of V1a receptors located on vascular smooth muscle cells. Due to its non-selective receptor affinity arginine-vasopressin also activates V2 (located on renal tubular cells of collecting ducts) and V1b (located in the anterior pituitary and in the pancreas) receptors, thereby potentially promoting undesired side effects such as anti-diuresis, procoagulant properties due to release of the von Willebrand's factor and platelet activation. Finally, it also cross-activates oxytocin receptors. During septic shock, vasopressin plasma levels were reported to be lower than expected, and a hypersensitivity to its vasopressor effect is reported in such situation. Terlipressin and selepressin are synthetic vasopressin analogues with a higher affinity for the V1 receptor, and, hence, potentially less side effects. In this narrative review, we present the current knowledge of the rationale, benefits and risks of vasopressin use in the setting of septic shock and vasoplegic shock following cardiac surgery. Clearly, vasopressin administration allows reducing norepinephrine requirements, but so far, no improvement of survival was reported and side effects are frequent, particularly ischaemic events. Finally, we will discuss the current indications for vasopressin and its agonists in the setting of septic shock, and the remaining unresolved questions.

13.
JAMA ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577035

RESUMO

Importance: Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective: To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n = 868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 µg/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions: Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n = 585) or to placebo (n = 283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results: Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P = .30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P = .77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P = .85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P = .41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.

14.
N Engl J Med ; 381(24): 2327-2337, 2019 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Moderate therapeutic hypothermia is currently recommended to improve neurologic outcomes in adults with persistent coma after resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, the effectiveness of moderate therapeutic hypothermia in patients with nonshockable rhythms (asystole or pulseless electrical activity) is debated. METHODS: We performed an open-label, randomized, controlled trial comparing moderate therapeutic hypothermia (33°C during the first 24 hours) with targeted normothermia (37°C) in patients with coma who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after resuscitation from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm. The primary outcome was survival with a favorable neurologic outcome, assessed on day 90 after randomization with the use of the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher scores indicating greater disability). We defined a favorable neurologic outcome as a CPC score of 1 or 2. Outcome assessment was blinded. Mortality and safety were also assessed. RESULTS: From January 2014 through January 2018, a total of 584 patients from 25 ICUs underwent randomization, and 581 were included in the analysis (3 patients withdrew consent). On day 90, a total of 29 of 284 patients (10.2%) in the hypothermia group were alive with a CPC score of 1 or 2, as compared with 17 of 297 (5.7%) in the normothermia group (difference, 4.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 8.9; P = 0.04). Mortality at 90 days did not differ significantly between the hypothermia group and the normothermia group (81.3% and 83.2%, respectively; difference, -1.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -8.0 to 4.3). The incidence of prespecified adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with coma who had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest with nonshockable rhythm, moderate therapeutic hypothermia at 33°C for 24 hours led to a higher percentage of patients who survived with a favorable neurologic outcome at day 90 than was observed with targeted normothermia. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and others; HYPERION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01994772.).


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Coma/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Idoso , Temperatura Corporal , Encefalopatias/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Parada Cardíaca/complicações , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Método Simples-Cego
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 45(12): 1763-1773, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654079

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcome predictors of severe leptospirosis requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission in a temperate zone. METHODS: LEPTOREA was a retrospective multicentre study conducted in 79 ICUs in metropolitan France. Consecutive adults admitted to the ICU for proven severe leptospirosis from January 2012 to September 2016 were included. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and hierarchical classification on principal components (HCPC) were performed to distinguish different clinical phenotypes. RESULTS: The 160 included patients (0.04% of all ICU admissions) had median values of 54 years [38-65] for age, 40 [28-58] for the SAPSII, and 11 [8-14] for the SOFA score. Hospital mortality was 9% and was associated with older age; worse SOFA score and early need for endotracheal ventilation and/or renal replacement therapy; chronic alcohol abuse and worse hepatic dysfunction; confusion; and higher leucocyte count. Four phenotypes were identified: moderately severe leptospirosis (n = 34, 21%) with less organ failure and better outcomes; hepato-renal leptospirosis (n = 101, 63%) with prominent liver and kidney dysfunction; neurological leptospirosis (n = 8, 5%) with the most severe organ failures and highest mortality; and respiratory leptospirosis (n = 17, 11%) with pulmonary haemorrhage. The main risk factors for leptospirosis contamination were contact with animals, contact with river or lake water, and specific occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Severe leptospirosis was an uncommon reason for ICU admission in metropolitan France and carried a lower mortality rate than expected based on the high severity and organ-failure scores. The identification in our population of several clinical presentations may help clinicians establish an appropriate index of suspicion for severe leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Hospitalar , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/mortalidade , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/epidemiologia , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 95, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that hyperchloremia induced by fluid resuscitation is associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) and mortality, particularly in sepsis. Experimental studies showed that hyperchloremia could affect organ functions. In patients with septic shock, we examined the relationship between serum chloride concentration and both renal function and survival. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of the "HYPER2S" trial database (NCT01722422) including 434 patients with septic shock randomly assigned for resuscitation with 0.9% or 3% saline. Metabolic parameters were recorded up to 72 h. Metabolic effects of hyperchloremia (> 110 mmol/L) were studied stratified for hyperlactatemia (> 2 mmol/L). Cox models were constructed to assess the association between chloride parameters, day-28 mortality and AKI. RESULTS: 413 patients were analysed. The presence of hyperlactatemia was significantly more frequent than hyperchloremia (62% versus 71% of patients, respectively, p = 0.006). Metabolic acidosis was significantly more frequent in patients with hyperchloremia, no matter the presence of hyperlactatemia, p < 0.001. Adjusted risk of AKI and mortality were not significantly associated with serum chloride, hyperchloremia, maximal chloremia and delta chloremia (maximal-H0 [Cl]). CONCLUSIONS: Despite more frequent metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia was not associated with an increased risk for AKI or mortality. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01722422, registered 2 November 2012.

18.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 54, 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the recommended mean arterial pressure (MAP) target of 65 mmHg during initial resuscitation of septic shock is sufficient to maintain cerebral perfusion. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a higher MAP target in patients with septic shock may improve level of arousal. METHODS: We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis of the SEPSISPAM trial, which assessed the effect of a "high-target" level of MAP (80-85 mmHg) versus the recommended "low-target" MAP (65-70 mm Hg) on mortality in patients with septic shock. Among the 776 patients originally recruited in SEPSISPAM trial, we selected those who were mechanically ventilated and sedated and with available evaluation of arousal level assessed by the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (RASS). RESULTS: We restricted our analysis to the period in which patients were treated with vasoactive drugs. Cumulative sedative drugs were assessed daily. A total of 532 patients were included in this study: 253 (47.6%) in the low-target group and 279 (52.4%) in the high-target group. Daily cumulative sedative drugs were similar in both groups. Compared to the low-target group, minimal and maximal RASS were significantly higher in the high-target group at day 2, 4 and 5. Furthermore, in order to consider the fact that multiple measures were done for each patient and to consider the global effect of time on these measures, we used a mixed linear regression and multivariate models: we confirmed that maximal RASS values were significantly higher in the high-target group. CONCLUSION: In patients with septic shock who were mechanically ventilated and sedated, resuscitation with MAP target between 80 and 85 mmHg was associated with higher arousal level as compared to a MAP target between 65 and 70 mmHg.

19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 51, 2019 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased renal resistive index (RI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography has been shown to be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) in septic patients. However, its clinical use is limited by poor sensitivity and specificity which may be explained by its numerous determinants [in particular mean arterial pressure (MAP)]. We measured, in patients with septic shock, RI at different MAP levels over a short period of time on the admission day to ICU (D1) and every 3 days until day 10 (D10) to define the determinants of RI and study specifically the relationship between RI and MAP. RESULTS: Consecutive patients with septic shock without preexisting chronic renal dysfunction were included in this prospective cohort study in two ICUs. Sixty-five patients were included in the study. Thirty-three (50.8%) and 15 (23.1%) patients had a history of chronic hypertension or diabetes, respectively. At D3, 35 patients presented AKI with AKIN 2 or 3 criteria (severe AKI, AKIN2-3 group) and 30 presented no AKIN or AKIN 1 criteria (AKIN0-1 group). As previously described, RI at D1 was higher in the AKIN2-3 group than in the AKIN0-1 group (0.73 interquartile range [0.67; 0.78] vs. 0.67 [0.59; 0.72], p = 0.001). A linear mixed model for predicting RI from D1 to D10 showed that an increase in pulse pressure, presence of severe AKI and additional day of ICU hospitalization were associated with an increase in RI. An increase in MAP and recovery from severe AKI were associated with a decrease in RI. In the presence of chronic hypertension or diabetes, an increase in MAP resulted in a lower decrease in RI, than in the absence of such factors. Presence of AKI at D3 did not impact the relationship between MAP and RI. CONCLUSIONS: Severe AKI was associated with a reversible increase in RI without significant interaction with the relationship between MAP and RI. Conversely, the presence of chronic hypertension and/or diabetes interacted with this relationship.

20.
Ann Intensive Care ; 9(1): 20, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressors are commonly applied to restore and maintain blood pressure in patients with sepsis. We aimed to evaluate the current practice and therapeutic goals regarding vasopressor use in septic shock as a basis for future studies and to provide some recommendations on their use. METHODS: From November 2016 to April 2017, an anonymous web-based survey on the use of vasoactive drugs was accessible to members of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM). A total of 17 questions focused on the profile of respondents, triggering factors, first choice agent, dosing, timing, targets, additional treatments, and effects of vasopressors. We investigated whether the answers complied with current guidelines. In addition, a group of 34 international ESICM experts was asked to formulate recommendations for the use of vasopressors based on 6 questions with sub-questions (total 14). RESULTS: A total of 839 physicians from 82 countries (65% main specialty/activity intensive care) responded. The main trigger for vasopressor use was an insufficient mean arterial pressure (MAP) response to initial fluid resuscitation (83%). The first-line vasopressor was norepinephrine (97%), targeting predominantly a MAP > 60-65 mmHg (70%), with higher targets in patients with chronic arterial hypertension (79%). The experts agreed on 10 recommendations, 9 of which were based on unanimous or strong (≥ 80%) agreement. They recommended not to delay vasopressor treatment until fluid resuscitation is completed but rather to start with norepinephrine early to achieve a target MAP of ≥ 65 mmHg. CONCLUSION: Reported vasopressor use in septic shock is compliant with contemporary guidelines. Future studies should focus on individualized treatment targets including earlier use of vasopressors.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...