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1.
Exp Cell Res ; 391(1): 111987, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protein plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor specific for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), has been shown to have a key role in cancer metastases. Currently, it is unknown as to whether the exocellular inhibition of PAI-1 can inhibit the migration of cancer cells. METHODS: By fusing the mutated serine protease domain (SPD) of uPA and human serum albumin (HSA), PAItrap3, a protein that traps PAI-1, was synthesized and experiments were conducted to determine if exocellular PAItrap3 attenuates PAI-1-induced cancer cell migration in vitro. RESULTS: PAItrap3 (0.8 µM) significantly inhibited the motility of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HeLa and 4T1 cancer cells, by 90%, 50%, 30% and 20%, respectively, without significantly altering their proliferation. The PAI-1-induced rearrangement of F-actin was significantly inhibited by PAItrap3, which produced a decrease in the number of cell protrusions by at least 20%. CONCLUSIONS: In vitro, PAItrap3 inhibited PAI-1-induced cancer cell migration, mainly through inhibiting the rearrangement of F-actin. Overall, these results, provided they can be extrapolated to humans, suggest that the PAItrap3 protein could be used as an exocellular inhibitor to attenuate cancer metastases.

2.
Mol Cancer ; 19(1): 54, 2020 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164712

RESUMO

Chemoresistance, whether intrinsic or acquired, is a major obstacle in the treatment of cancer. The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs can result from various mechanisms. Over the last decade, it has been reported that 1ong noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) can mediate carcinogenesis and drug resistance/sensitivity in cancer cells. This article reviews, in detail, recent studies regarding the roles of lncRNAs in mediating drug resistance.

3.
Mol Med ; 26(1): 16, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013888

RESUMO

The Editors-in-Chief would like to alert readers that this article (Sitapara et al. 2014) is part of an investigation being conducted by the journal following the conclusions of an institutional enquiry at the University of Liverpool with respect to the quantitative mass spectrometry-generated results regarding acetylated and redox-modified HMGB1.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024151

RESUMO

Mechanical ventilation with hyperoxia is the major supportive measure to treat patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can induce oxidative inflammatory lung injury. Previously, we have shown that high levels of airway high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) mediate hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury (HALI). Using both ascorbic acid (AA, also known as vitamin C) and sulforaphane (SFN), an inducer of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), we tested the hypothesis that dietary antioxidants can mitigate HALI by ameliorating HMGB1-compromised macrophage function in phagocytosis by attenuating hyperoxia-induced extracellular HMGB1 accumulation. Our results indicated that SFN, which has been shown to attenute HALI in mice exposed to hyperoxia, dose-dependently restored hyperoxia-compromised macrophage function in phagocytosis (75.9 ± 3.5% in 0.33 µM SFN versus 50.7 ± 1.8% in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control, p < 0.05) by reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release from cultured macrophages (47.7 ± 14.7% in 0.33 µM SFN versus 93.1 ± 14.6% in DMSO control, p < 0.05). Previously, we have shown that AA enhances hyperoxic macrophage functions by reducing hyperoxia-induced HMGB1 release. Using a mouse model of HALI, we determined the effects of AA on hyperoxia-induced inflammatory lung injury. The i.p. administration of 50 mg/kg of AA to mice exposed to 72 h of ≥98% O2 significantly decreased hyperoxia-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress in mouse lungs. There was a significant decrease in the levels of airway HMGB1 (43.3 ± 12.2% in 50 mg/kg AA versus 96.7 ± 9.39% in hyperoxic control, p < 0.05), leukocyte infiltration (60.39 ± 4.137% leukocytes numbers in 50 mg/kg AA versus 100 ± 5.82% in hyperoxic control, p < 0.05) and improved lung integrity in mice treated with AA. Our study is the first to report that the dietary antioxidants, ascorbic acid and sulforaphane, ameliorate HALI and attenuate hyperoxia-induced macrophage dysfunction through an HMGB1-mediated pathway. Thus, dietary antioxidants could be used as potential treatments for oxidative-stress-induced acute inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving mechanical ventilation.

5.
Drug Resist Updat ; 49: 100681, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014648

RESUMO

The presence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in malignant tumors is one of the primary causes of treatment failure in cancer chemotherapy. The overexpression of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which significantly increases the efflux of certain anticancer drugs from tumor cells, produces MDR. Therefore, inhibition of P-gp may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to overcome cancer MDR. Over the past 4 decades, many compounds with P-gp inhibitory efficacy (referred to as first- and second-generation P-gp inhibitors) have been identified or synthesized. However, these compounds were not successful in clinical trials due to a lack of efficacy and/or untoward toxicity. Subsequently, third- and fourth-generation P-gp inhibitors were developed but dedicated clinical trials did not indicate a significant therapeutic effect. In recent years, an extraordinary array of highly potent, selective, and low-toxicity P-gp inhibitors have been reported. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the synthetic and natural products that have specific inhibitory activity on P-gp drug efflux as well as promising chemosensitizing efficacy in MDR cancer cells. The present review focuses primarily on the structural features, design strategies, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of these compounds.

6.
Curr Pharm Des ; 26(15): 1712-1728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003663

RESUMO

Flavonoids are low molecular weight, polyphenolic phytochemicals, obtained from secondary metabolism of various plant compounds. They have a spectrum of pharmacological efficacies, including potential anticancer efficacy. Natural flavonoids are present in fruits, vegetables, grains, bark, roots, stems, flowers, tea and wine. Flavonoids can attenuate or inhibit the initiation, promotion and progression of cancer by modulating various enzymes and receptors in diverse pathways that involve cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, in vitro, flavonoids have been shown to reverse multidrug resistance when used as chemo-adjuvants. Flavonoids (both natural and synthetic analogues) interact with several oncogenic targets through dependent and independent mechanisms to mediate their anticancer efficacy in different types of cancer cells.

7.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 113817, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972169

RESUMO

Mechanical ventilation (MV) with supraphysiological levels of oxygen (hyperoxia) is a life-saving therapy for the management of patients with respiratory distress. However, a significant number of patients on MV develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Previously, we have reported that prolonged exposure to hyperoxia impairs the capacity of macrophages to phagocytize Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), which can contribute to the compromised innate immunity in VAP. In this study, we show that the high mortality rate in mice subjected to hyperoxia and PA infection was accompanied by a significant decrease in the airway levels of nitric oxide (NO). Decreased NO levels were found to be, in part, due to a significant reduction in NO release by macrophages upon exposure to PA lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Based on these findings, we postulated that NO supplementation should restore hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity and decrease mortality by increasing the clearance of PA under hyperoxic conditions. To test this hypothesis, cultured macrophages were exposed to hyperoxia (95% O2) in the presence or absence of the NO donor, (Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA-NONOate/D-NO). Interestingly, D-NO (up to 37.5 µM) significantly attenuated hyperoxia-compromised macrophage migratory, phagocytic, and bactericidal function. To determine whether the administration of exogenous NO enhances the host defense in bacteria clearance, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hyperoxia (99% O2) and intranasally inoculated with PA in the presence or absence of D-NO. D-NO (300 µM-800 µM) significantly increased the survival of mice inoculated with PA under hyperoxic conditions, and significantly decreased bacterial loads in the lung and attenuated lung injury. These results suggest the NO donor, D-NO, can improve the clinical outcomes in VAP by augmenting the innate immunity in bacterial clearance. Thus, provided these results can be extrapolated to humans, NO supplementation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating patients with VAP.

8.
Drug Resist Updat ; 48: 100663, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785545

RESUMO

Drug resistance is a major obstacle in the field of pre-clinical and clinical therapeutics. The development of novel technologies and targeted therapies have yielded new modalities to overcome drug resistance, but multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major challenges in the treatment of cancer. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has a central role in regulating the levels and activities of a multitude of proteins as well as regulation of cell cycle, gene expression, response to oxidative stress, cell survival, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Therefore, inhibition of the UPS could represent a novel strategy for the treatment and overcoming of drug resistance in chemoresistant malignancies. In 2003, bortezomib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). However, due to its limitations, second generation proteasome inhibitors (PIs) like carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, delanzomib and marizomib were introduced which displayed clinical activity in bortezomib-resistant tumors. Past studies have demonstrated that proteasome inhibition potentiates the anti-cancer efficacy of other chemotherapeutic drugs by: i) decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins such as TNF-α and NF-kB, ii) increasing the levels of Noxa, a pro-apoptotic protein, iii) activating caspases and inducing apoptosis, iv) degrading the pro-survival protein, induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (MCL1), and v) inhibiting drug efflux transporters. In addition, the mechanism of action of the immunoproteasome inhibitors, ONX-0914 and LU-102, suggested their therapeutic role in the combination treatment with PIs. In the current review, we discuss various PIs and their underlying mechanisms in surmounting anti-tumor drug resistance when used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

9.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 817-837, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585919

RESUMO

Isochrysis is commercially available marine algae used for animal feed, human nutrient supplements, and biodiesel. The Isochrysis species is one of five genera of haptophytes that produces unique, long-chain lipids known as alkenones that are promising new ingredients for green cosmetics, personal care products and pharmaceutical delivery. However, there is a lack of toxicity data for alkenones in animals, thus limiting their use in humans. In this study, we performed acute oral, acute dermal, and repeated 28-day dermal toxicity studies, using female SAS Sprague Dawley Rats. Our behavioral studies indicated that the specific alkenones had no overt behavioural effects at oral doses up to 4000 mg/kg. In the acute and chronic dermal toxicity studies, the alkenones produced less irritation and did not significantly damage the skin based on the Draize skin reaction scale and trans-epidermal water loss readings compared to the positive control, 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. Overall, our results indicated that alkenones are safe in Sprague Dawley rats, suggesting that they could be used for both oral and dermal formulations, although additional studies will be required.

10.
Nanomedicine (Lond) ; 14(21): 2835-2851, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793846

RESUMO

Aim: Previously, we have shown that inhibition of SphK by the SphK inhibitor-II (SKI II) prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth in mice. The aim of this study was to develop a vaginal self-nanoemulsifying drug-delivery system (SNEDDS) for SKI II. Materials & methods: A SKI II-loaded SNEDDS was characterized and tested in a murine preterm birth model. Results: The SNEDDS immediately formed a gel and then slowly emulsified to nanoglobules with over 500-fold enhancement of SKI II solubility at vaginal pH. Intravaginal administration of the SKI II SNEDDS significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth in mice. Conclusion: A vaginal nanoformulation of SKI II represents a novel, noninvasive approach to prevent preterm birth.

11.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(6): 250, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297635

RESUMO

Melanoma is regarded as the fifth and sixth most common cancer in men and women, respectively, and it is estimated that one person dies from melanoma every hour in the USA. Unfortunately, the treatment of melanoma is difficult because of its aggressive metastasis and resistance to treatment. The treatment of melanoma continues to be a challenging issue due to the limitations of available treatments such as a low response rate, severe adverse reactions, and significant toxicity. Natural polyphenols have attracted considerable attention from the scientific community due to their chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy. It has been suggested that poorly soluble polyphenols such as curcumin, resveratrol, quercetin, coumarin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate may have significant benefits in the treatment of melanoma due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, and chemoprotective efficacies. The major obstacles for the use of polyphenolic compounds are low stability and poor bioavailability. Numerous nanoformulations, including solid lipid nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, and liposomes, have been formulated to enhance the bioavailability and stability, as well as the therapeutic efficacy of polyphenols. This review will provide an overview of poorly soluble polyphenols that have been reported to have antimetastatic efficacy in melanomas.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/química , Catequina/metabolismo , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Humanos , Melanoma/metabolismo , Melanoma/prevenção & controle , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/metabolismo , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Resveratrol/química , Resveratrol/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Solubilidade
12.
Heliyon ; 5(5): e01603, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193218

RESUMO

A novel series of 3-((2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones were synthesized, using the 'molecular hybridization approach' and evaluated for anticancer efficacy. Eleven 3-((2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methylene)indolin-2-ones (LM01 to LM11) were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic efficacy in cancer (ovarian, prostate and colon) and two non-cancerous cell lines. Among the 3-((2-chloroquinolin-3-yl)methylene)indolin-2-one derivatives, LM08, with a 6-Cl substitution in the 3-quinolinyl moiety, had selective and potent cytotoxic efficacy in the ovarian cancer cell line A2780. Further mechanistic investigations indicated that LM08 significantly inhibited the clonogenic survival of A2780 cancer cells, which was mediated by inducing apoptosis.

13.
Oncol Rep ; 42(1): 20-34, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059075

RESUMO

Curcumin [(1E,6E)­1,7­bis(4­hydroxy­3­-methoxyphenyl) hepta­1,6­diene­3,5­dione] is a natural polyphenol that is derived from the turmeric plant (curcuma longa L.). Curcumin is widely used in food coloring, preservatives, and condiments. Curcumin possesses anti­tumor, anti­oxidative and anti­inflammatory efficacy, as well as other pharmacological effects. Emerging evidence indicates that curcumin alters microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in various types of cancers. Both miRNAs and lncRNAs are non­coding RNAs that can epigenetically modulate the expression of multiple genes via post­transcriptional regulation. In the present review, the interactions between curcumin and non­coding RNAs are summarized in numerous types of cancers, including lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, nasopharyngeal, pancreatic, blood, and ovarian cancer, and the vital non­coding RNAs and their downstream targets are described.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126091

RESUMO

Thienopyrimidines containing a thiophene ring fused to pyrimidine are reported to have a wide-spectrum of anticancer efficacy in vitro. Here, we report for the first time that thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine-based compounds, also known as the RP series, have efficacy in prostate cancer cells. The compound RP-010 was efficacious against both PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer (PC) cells (IC50 < 1 µM). The cytotoxicity of RP-010 was significantly lower in non-PC, CHO, and CRL-1459 cell lines. RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 µM) arrested prostate cancer cells in G2 phase of the cell cycle, and induced mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis in both PC cell lines. Mechanistic studies suggested that RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) affected the wingless-type MMTV (Wnt)/ß-catenin signaling pathway, in association with ß-catenin fragmentation, while also downregulating important proteins in the pathway, including LRP-6, DVL3, and c-Myc. Interestingly, RP-010 (1 and 2 µM) induced nuclear translocation of the negative feedback proteins, Naked 1 and Naked 2, in the Wnt pathway. In addition, RP-010 (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 µM) significantly decreased the migration of PC cells in vitro. Finally, RP-010 did not produce significant toxic effects in zebrafish at concentrations of up to 6 µM. In conclusion, RP-010 may be an efficacious and relatively nontoxic anticancer compound for prostate cancer. Future mechanistic and in vivo efficacy studies are needed to optimize the hit compound RP-010 for lead optimization and clinical use.

15.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(26): 3833-3836, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869688
16.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 220(6): 596.e1-596.e28, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery accounts for 85% of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Although the consumption of a high-fat diet leads to exaggerated proinflammatory responses and, in pregnant women, increased rates of spontaneous preterm birth, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which maternal consumption of a high-fat diet leads to a dysregulated immune response and, subsequently, spontaneous preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN: We performed 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing of DNA extracted and amplified from stool samples and compared the gut microbiomes of lipopolysaccharide-induced pregnant mice that were maintained on a high-fat diet compared to a normal control diet. Next, we sequenced the uterine transcriptomes of the mice. To test the effect of dampening of the immune response on the microbiome, transcriptome, and risk of spontaneous preterm birth, we induced immune tolerance with repetitive subclinical doses (0.2 mg/kg/week for 8 weeks) of endotoxin and performed 16S ribosomal RNA and uterine transcriptome sequencing on these immunotolerized mice. RESULTS: High-fat diet potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth by affecting the maternal gut microbiome and uterine transcriptome and reduces antioxidant capacity in a murine model. High-fat diet consumption also increases the colonization of the gut by 5 immunogenic bacteria and decreases colonization by Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. Uteri from high-fat diet mice had increased expression of genes that stimulate the inflammatory-oxidative stress axis, autophagy/apoptosis, and smooth muscle contraction. Repetitive endotoxin priming protects high-fat diet dams from spontaneous preterm birth, increases colonization of the gut by Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, decreases levels of immunogenic bacteria in the gut microbiome, and reduces the number of dysregulated genes after high-fat diet consumption from 994 to 74. CONCLUSION: High-fat diet-potentiated spontaneous preterm birth is mediated by increased inflammation, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis. The induction of immune tolerance via endotoxin priming reverses these effects and protects high-fat diet dams from spontaneous preterm birth. Based on this work, the role of immunomodulation as a novel therapeutic approach to prevent preterm birth among women who consume high-fat diets should be explored.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Disbiose/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Inflamação/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Nascimento Prematuro/imunologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Útero/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/genética , Autofagia/genética , Feminino , Tolerância Imunológica , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Contração Muscular/genética , Músculo Liso , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/genética , Transcriptoma
17.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 463-481, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468667

RESUMO

The present study determines the cytokine gene expression in chickens following RSV-A infection, using RT-qPCR. In susceptible chickens tumors progressed to  fulminating metastatic tumors while it regressed in  regressors  chickens and some resistant non-responder chickens did not respond to RSV-A infection and thus did not develop tumors at all. The in vivo expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 cytokines and Th2 cytokines was determined at the primary site of infection, as well as in different organs of progressor, regressor and non-responder chicks at different time intervals. Our results indicated a significant upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, in all the organs of progressor chicks, while they were significantly lower in regressor and non-responder chicks. The expression of the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α was low in all of the organs of the progressor group, except that in  spleen. In contrast, regressor and non-responder groups showed high expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Further, there was an early upregulation of the expression of the Th2 cytokine, IL-10, TGF-ß and GM-CSF, in all of the organs of progressors as compared to uninfected control.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Vírus do Sarcoma de Rous/imunologia , Sarcoma Aviário/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Citocinas/genética , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Vírus do Sarcoma de Rous/fisiologia , Sarcoma Aviário/genética , Sarcoma Aviário/virologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/virologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/virologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
18.
Drug Resist Updat ; 41: 1-25, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471641

RESUMO

The successful treatment of cancer has significantly improved as a result of targeted therapy and immunotherapy. However, during chemotherapy, cancer cells evolve and can acquire "multidrug resistance" (MDR), which significantly limits the efficacy of cancer treatment and impacts patient survival and quality of life. Among the approaches to reverse MDR, modulating reactive oxidative species (ROS) may represent a strategy to kill MDR cancer cells that are mechanistically diverse. ROS in cancer cells play a central role in regulating and inducing apoptosis, thereby modulating cancer cells proliferation, survival and drug resistance. The levels of ROS and the activity of scavenging/anti-oxidant enzymes in drug resistant cancer cells are typically increased compared to non-MDR cancer and normal cells. Consequently, MDR cancer cells may be more susceptible to alterations in ROS levels. Numerous studies suggest that compounds modulating cellular ROS levels can enhance MDR cancer cell death and sensitize MDR cancer cells to certain chemotherapeutic drugs. In the current review, we discuss the critical and targetable redox-regulating enzymes, including mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, NADPH oxidases (NOXs), enzymes related to glutathione metabolism, glutamate/cystine antiporter xCT, thioredoxin reductases (TrxRs), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and their roles in regulating cellular ROS levels, drug resistance as well as their clinical significance. We also discuss and summarize the findings in the past decade regarding the efficacy of ROS modulators for the treatment of MDR cancer alone or as sensitizing compounds. Compounds that are efficacious in modulating ROS generation represent a prominent class of drug candidates that warrants evaluation in clinical trials for patients harboring MDR cancers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/métodos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade de Vida
19.
20.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(9)2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181510

RESUMO

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a continuing clinical problem that limits the efficacy of chemotherapy in cancer. The over expression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family G2 (ABCG2) transporter is one of the main mechanisms that mediates MDR in cancer. Molecular modeling data indicated that cariprazine, a dopamine D2/D3 receptor partial agonist, had a significant binding affinity for ABCG2 transporter with a Glide XP score of -6.515. Therefore, in this in vitro study, we determined the effect of cariprazine on MDR resulting from the overexpression of ABCG2 transporters. Alone, cariprazine, at concentrations up to 20 µM, did not significantly decrease cell viability. Cariprazine, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 µM, did not significantly alter the cytotoxicity of mitoxantrone (MX) in the parental non-small cell cancer cell line, H460 and colon cancer cell S1. However, cariprazine (1⁻20 µM) significantly enhanced the efficacy of ABCG2 substrate antineoplastic drug MX in the ABCG2-overexpressing MDR cell line, H460-MX20 and S1M1-80, by reducing the resistance fold from 28 to 1 and from 93 to 1.33, respectively. Cariprazine, in a concentration-dependent (1⁻20 µM), significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123 in S1M1-80. Interestingly, 10 or 20 µM of cariprazine significantly decreased the expression levels of the ABCG2 protein in the colon and lung cancer cell lines, suggesting that cariprazine inhibits both the function and expression of ABCG2 transporters at nontoxic concentrations. Overall, our results suggest that cariprazine, via several distinct mechanisms, can resensitize resistant cancer cells to mitoxantrone.

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