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1.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443460

RESUMO

Synthetic heterocyclic compounds have incredible potential against different diseases; pyridines, phenolic compounds and the derivatives of azo moiety have shown excellent antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-melanogenic, anti-ulcer, anticancer, anti-mycobacterial, anti-inflammatory, DNA binding and chemosensing activities. In the present review, the above-mentioned activities of the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds (pyridines), hydroxyl (phenols) and azo derivatives are discussed with reference to the minimum inhibitory concentration and structure-activity relationship, which clearly indicate that the presence of nitrogen in the phenyl ring; in addition, the hydroxyl substituent and the incorporation of a diazo group is crucial for the improved efficacies of the compounds in probing different diseases. The comparison was made with the reported drugs and new synthetic derivatives that showed recent therapeutic perspectives made in the last five years.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fenóis/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química
2.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 1509-1520, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238110

RESUMO

In the present study, a series of azo derivatives (TR-1 to TR-9) have been synthesised via the diazo-coupling approach between substituted aromatic amines with phenol or naphthol derivatives. The compounds were evaluated for their therapeutic applications against alpha-glucosidase (anti-diabetic) and pathogenic bacterial strains E. coli (gram-negative), S. aureus (gram-positive), S. aureus (gram-positive) drug-resistant strain, P. aeruginosa (gram-negative), P. aeruginosa (gram-negative) drug-resistant strain and P. vulgaris (gram-negative). The IC50 (µg/mL) of TR-1 was found to be most effective (15.70 ± 1.3 µg/mL) compared to the reference drug acarbose (21.59 ± 1.5 µg/mL), hence, it was further selected for the kinetic studies in order to illustrate the mechanism of inhibition. The enzyme inhibitory kinetics and mode of binding for the most active inhibitor (TR-1) was performed which showed that the compound is a non-competitive inhibitor and effectively inhibits the target enzyme by binding to its binuclear active site reversibly.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Compostos Azo/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/síntese química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 602: 43-54, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118604

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers are very interesting materials for their attractive applications. A novel 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) was derived from copper(II) and amino benzoic acid under both room temperature and solvothermal reaction conditions using different solvents. From both of the synthesis methods, an identical MOF was crystalized with monoclinic crystal system having P21/c space group. Hirshfeld surface analysis is carried out to explore the non-covalent interactions obtained from single crystal XRD investigation in terms of percentage contribution of each interatomic contact involved in packing of molecules into MOF structure. The microstructure analysis and surface morphology studies revealed the 2D layered regular pattern of rhombus disks of ~5 µm thickness throng together via clustering of these rhombic shaped flakes as flowers (ranging 50-100 µm in size) having uniform elemental composition. This 2D MOF efficiently adsorbed organic dyes (methylene blue, methyl orange, and methyl red) from their aqueous solutions. The 2D copper-carboxylate framework (1.2 g/L) exhibited high adsorption rates for organic dyes (0.15-0.19 mM), and >90% of these dyes could be captured as soon as they are exposed to MOF suspension (1 min) in each case. The dye removal efficiency is credited to synergy among structure, ionic strength, shapes and dimensions of dyes with respect to MOF structure. The microstructure of MOF along with electronic interactions like electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, π-π interactions and coordination to open metal sites, might contribute to the ultrafast dye adsorption process by MOF. The adsorption phenomenon is spontaneous and followed the pseudo-second order kinetic mechanism. DFT calculations revealed important electronic parameters of the dyes and model MOF systems, and novel insights with respect to possible dye-MOF interactions. The MOF remained quite stable during the dye adsorption and was regenerated easily for the successful subsequent use.

4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 154: 112312, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102214

RESUMO

Malachite green (MG) is extensively applied in aquaculture worldwide as a therapeutic agent. MG and its primary metabolite leucomalachite green (LMG) are commonly detected in aquaculture products. MG can cause serious health concerns (in vivo carcinogenic/genotoxic). The extensive water solubility of MG leads to water pollution and hence it is mandatory to remove MG from water. The current study explores adsorptive removal of MG from water using highly water stable Zeolitic Imidazolate framework/graphene oxide composites (ZIF-67@GO). Adsorption performance of newly synthesized composites is justified for MG removal with excellent results of pseudo second order (R2 = 0.99955) which is well-fitted in this case. ZIF-67@GO data of adsorption isotherm for MG is observed using Freundlich Model (R2 = 0.99999) and with adsorption capacity value observed (134.79 mg/g) with removal efficiency of 99.18%, indicates π-staking and electrostatic association between ZIF-67@GO and MG molecules. Synthesized material has retained reusability while removal efficiency reduced only by 6% after many cycles. Furthermore, factors effecting absorption like contact time, pH, adsorbent dose and quantity and temperature are also determined.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156617

RESUMO

This study investigates the impacts of climate change on yield of selected cereal crops (wheat and maize) in the northern climatic region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan for the period 1986-2015. The first-generation unit root tests such as the Levin, Lin, and Chu (LLC), augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF)-Fisher, and the second-generation unit root tests such as cross-sectional augmented Im-Pesaran-Shin (CIPS) and cross-sectional ADF (CADF) are used to check stationarity of the series. The cointegration among the variables is discovered via Pedroni test and Westerlund method. The long- and short-run impacts of climatic variables (average precipitation, maximum temperature, and minimum temperature) on yield of wheat and maize crops are assessed through the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The empirical findings reveal that average precipitation has a significantly positive impact on yield of both crops in long- as well as short-run. The results further reveal that the effect of average minimum temperature on both crops is insignificant in long-run. However, the short-run effect of average minimum temperature is significantly positive on yield of maize crop but insignificant on yield of wheat crop. In long-run, an increase in average maximum temperature negatively affects crop yield. In short-run, however, it positively affects the yield of wheat and maize crops. The study recommends that increase in area under cultivation, development of advanced irrigation system, and farmers' access to metrological information will help in lowering the drastic impacts of climate change on crop productivity.

6.
Microsc Res Tech ; 84(10): 2286-2290, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876882

RESUMO

Grass taxonomy is quite problematic and insignificant taxonomic work has been done on Echinochloa with special reference to Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was carried out to provide taxonomic keys for the identification of this genus through microscopic epidermal leaf anatomical parameters. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were done to delimit the different species. Special structures like hook cells, short and long cells, stomata, macro- and micro-hairs, prickles and silica bodies showed a lot of variation among each species. For instance, E. frumentacea can be distinguished from E. walteri by the presence of macro hairs between the veins. Furthermore, E. crus-galli can be distinguished from E. frumentacea in terms of macro hair size, that is, 45-60 µm and 20-60 µm, respectively. Similarly, E. colona showed marked variations in terms of prickles abundance from E. frumentacea. Overall results of this research reports valuable qualitative and quantitative diagnostic futures for the genus Echinochloa.


Assuntos
Echinochloa , Epiderme Vegetal , Elétrons , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta , Estômatos de Plantas
7.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(7): 1905-1911, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797028

RESUMO

The recovery of gastrointestinal functions is an important determinant of course of acute pancreatitis and the timing of hospital discharge. Here, we evaluated association between fluid resuscitation volume and opioid use with clinically significant ileus development in patients with acute pancreatitis. Consecutive adults admitted with acute pancreatitis between January 2014 and December 2019 to our academic and two community hospital were included. The Bedside Index for Severe Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP) and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were used to predict severity of pancreatitis based on their readily availability. Severity of pancreatitis was determined based on the Revised Atlanta classification. Fluid resuscitation volume and opioid use were collected as administered on day 1 and day 2.Clinically significant ileus was determined based on treating physician's assessment. Forty-nine (11%) of 441 unique patients included in the study developed clinically significant ileus. Demographics of patients with or without ileus were similar between the two groups. On univariate analysis, the presence of SIRS syndrome (< 0.001), a > 3 BISAP score (p < 0.001), and severity of pancreatitis (p < 0.001) were associated with ileus, mean fluid resuscitation volume (5.6L vs 5.5L, p = 0.888) and cumulative median morphine-equivalent units (12 vs 12, p = 0.232) on day 1 and day 2 were not. However, ileus development was associated with increased hospital length of stay and admission to intensive care unit. On observations, clinically significant ileus development is associated with severity of acute pancreatitis, not with fluid resuscitation volume or opioid analgesia dose used in current standard of care.

8.
Curr Cardiol Rev ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563170

RESUMO

Red cell distribution width (RDW) serves as an independent predictor towards the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A systematic search of databases such as PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane library was performed on October 10th, 2019 to elaborate the relationship between RDW and in hospital and long term follow up all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with CAD undergoing PCI. Twenty-one studies qualified this strict selection criteria (number of patients = 56,425): one study was prospective, and the rest were retrospective cohorts. Our analysis showed that patients undergoing PCI with high RDW had a significantly higher risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality (OR 2.41), long-term all-cause mortality (OR 2.44), cardiac mortality (OR 2.65), MACE (OR: 2.16) and odds of developing CIN (OR: 1.42) when compared to the patients with low RDW. Therefore, incorporating RDW in the predictive models for the development of CIN, MACE, and mortality can help in triage to improve the outcomes in coronary artery disease patients who undergo PCI.

9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 149: 112008, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508417

RESUMO

Heavy metals especially lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are recognized as most emerging pollutants in underground water and are major threat to public health around the world. Major challenge to mitigate water pollution is construction of effective materials containing a host of deceivingly accessible high-density and high-level efficiency. Herein, we have synthesized two metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with efficient porosity showing the right combination of structures. Representatively, ZIF-8 and ZIF-67 were designed by reacting Zn, Co salts with 2-methyl imidazole showing superior efficacy in removing Pb and Hg (1978.63&1436.11 mg/g respectively) from water. These adsorbents displayed high distribution values permitting them to quickly reduce concentration level of Pb2+, Hg2+ below permissible limit (Pb = 0-15 µg/L, Hg = 1-10 µg/L). EDX, FTIR analysis revealed that Pb2+, Hg2+ bound through weak interactions. Results presented here have shown extraordinary potential with high environmental remediation performance having 99.5% and 98.1% removal efficiency for lead & mercury respectively. Results revealed that adsorbents have same organic linker that identifies same morphology required for adsorption. The difference in adsorption capacity and porosity (ZIF-8 = 937&1370 m2/g, ZIF-67 = 1289&1889 m2/g) are deliberately caused due to presence of metal atoms having different electronic distribution, as cobalt in ZIF-67 and in case of ZIF-8 zinc metal.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/química , Chumbo/química , Mercúrio/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Água/química , Adsorção , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Purificação da Água
10.
Int Orthod ; 19(1): 60-66, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Orthodontic treatment is thought as a contributory factor in the development of recession. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with a gingival recession in patients who underwent orthodontic mechano-therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 72 post-orthodontic cases done at the dental clinics of Aga Khan University hospital that were treated from 2009 to 2017. After evaluating dental records patients were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of gingival recession on posttreatment photographs. Patients in each group were further assessed on the following factors: (1) Lower incisor inclination (IMPA). (2) Tissue thickness on the facio-lingual dimension. (3) Alveolar bone height. (4) Alveolar bone thickness. RESULTS: The mean age of patients at the start of treatment was 16.56±5.66years. Gingival recession was found in 40.3% of our patients while 59.7% of patients had no recession found after orthodontic treatment. Univariable logistic regression was applied for factors associated with a gingival recession following orthodontic treatment which showed that the odds ratio of gingival recession in thin gingival biotype are 14.4 times more than in thick gingival biotype. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the cases had 10.2 times more recession in thin biotype than those in the thick gingival biotype while adjusting for pre- and posttreatment alveolar heights following orthodontic treatment and with a confidence interval [95% CI=2.69 to 38.40]. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded from this study that 40% of patients developed gingival recession in one or more teeth during orthodontic treatment. Among different factors pre-treatment, gingival biotype of patients and male gender were the factors that were more associated with the development of gingival recession.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar , Gengiva , Retração Gengival , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Perda do Osso Alveolar , Processo Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Retração Gengival/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Incisivo , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(10): 1152-1172, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33319670

RESUMO

Quinoline derivatives are considered broad-spectrum pharmacological compounds that exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Integration of quinoline moiety can improve its physical and chemical properties and also pharmacological behavior. Due to its wide range of pharmaceutical applications, it is a very popular compound to design new drugs for the treatment of multiple diseases like cancer, dengue fever, malaria, tuberculosis, fungal infections, AIDS, Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. In this review, our major focus is to pay attention to the biological activities of quinoline compounds in the treatment of these diseases such as anti-viral, anti-cancer, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tubercular and anti-diabetic.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Dengue/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/síntese química , Quinolinas/química , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256586

RESUMO

The estimated prevalence of AL CA in the US is approximately 8-12 cases per million. Almost 30-50% diagnosed cases of AL amyloid in the US have multisystem involvement, including cardiac involvement. Even with the availability of advanced diagnostic testing and novel therapies, prognosis remains poor. It is overlooked as a cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction leading to a delay in diagnosis when management options are limited and associated with poor survival outcomes. Therefore, the education of physicians is needed to ensure that it would be highly considered as a differential diagnosis. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the advances in the diagnosis and management of cardiac amyloidosis with the aim of educating colleagues who provide care in the primary care setting. We have summarized the pathogenesis of amyloidosis, its association with plasma cell dyscrasias, novel diagnostic and surveillance approaches including echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, histopathologic techniques, systemic biomarkers, and advanced treatment approaches including supportive symptomatic management and standard of care chemotherapy targeting the amyloid deposits. Given the overall poor prognosis of amyloidosis, we have also discussed the role of palliative and hospice care.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Gerenciamento Clínico , Ecocardiografia , Cardiopatias/complicações , Cardiopatias/patologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Humanos , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/complicações , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/patologia , Amiloidose de Cadeia Leve de Imunoglobulina/terapia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Miocárdio/patologia , Paraproteinemias/complicações
13.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 021301, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312515

RESUMO

Background: Endemic polio in Pakistan is threatening the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI). In recent years, vaccine refusals have surged, spiking polio cases. The current study was conducted to understand the ethnic, religious and cultural roots of vaccine refusals in Charsadda District and explore the remedial options. Methods: We conducted 43 in-depth interviews with parents who had refused polio vaccines for their children and the PEI staff. Interviews were audio-recorded, written in verbatim and analysed with Atlis.ti. We conducted a thematic analysis of our data. Results: The fear of American and Jewish conspiracies was the primary cause of vaccine refusals. Militant groups like Tehrek-i-Taliban Pakistan capitalised on this fear, through social media. The Pashtun ethnic group considers itself at the centre of conspiracies. They are suspicious of mass investment and mobilisation behind the polio campaign. Our respondents feared that polio vaccines were making children vulgar. They also feared a reduction in the male to female ratio in childbirth. In Pashtun communities, the iconic conventional community gatherings ["Hujras"] are being replaced by provocative digital Hujra [social media], which the PEI and the Government of Pakistan (GOP) are failing to influence or regulate. The PEI uses the misleading term 'religious refusal'. Some factions in the clergy are maligning people from vaccinations, but not through religious dictum. The anti-state elements have stirred sentiments to weaken the state initiative. Fear of adverse effects, attitudinal barriers of health care providers, unmet basic needs and alleged haram composition of the vaccine were among the reasons for vaccine refusals. The PEI needs to revise its misleading nomenclature and ensue open discussion to dispel the myths of infertility, vulgarity and gender ratio related to the vaccines. Simultaneously, the GOP should stop disinformation on social media and rebrand polio vaccination with popular initiatives like the government-sponsored health insurance schemes. Conclusions: The ethnic, cultural and religious dispositions of community members shape polio vaccine refusals in Charsadda District, in different ways. In synch with existing conspiracy theories and medical misconceptions, these three factors make refusals harder to counter. Awareness campaigns with content addressing these three dimensions can improve the situation.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Poliomielite , Vacinas contra Poliovirus , Recusa de Vacinação , Criança , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Mídias Sociais , Recusa de Vacinação/psicologia
14.
J Heterocycl Chem ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362294

RESUMO

A one-pot quick and efficient multicomponent reaction has been developed for the synthesis of a new series of functionalized 8-hydroxy-4-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives using 30 mol% ammonium acetate in ethanol as solvent. This economical protocol run smoothly to give variety of quinoline derivatives in 55% to 98% yield from inexpensive reagents and catalyst in mild reaction conditions. Various spectroscopic techniques like FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR, MALDI-TOF-MS, and EI-MS were used to study and confirm their structure.

15.
Heliyon ; 6(9): e05035, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020745

RESUMO

We have developed a new and facile one pot three component protocol catalyzed by ammonium acetate for construction of new functionalized 7-hydroxy-4-phenyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline derivatives. A variety of quinoline derivatives were obtained in good to excellent yield from inexpensive reagents and catalyst in mild reaction conditions that provide atom economy and cost efficacy. Various spectroscopic techniques like FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed to study their structure while mass of the synthesized compounds were confirmed through MALDI-TOF-MS and EI mass spectrometry.

16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 697, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043403

RESUMO

Environmental change is one of the primary issues faced by the farming community. Low rainfall and high temperature in arid and semiarid regions lead to the development of secondary salinisation, thus making the problem more severe. Under saline conditions, sodium is the most crucial cation that competes with potassium (K) and adversely affects plant metabolism by inhibiting plant enzymatic activities. Potassium-solubilising bacteria (KSB) play a vital role in solubilising fixed potassium and making it accessible to plants. In the current study, 42 KSB strains were isolated from paddy rhizosphere soil grown under salt-affected conditions. The plant-growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these rhizobacteria were also evaluated. Thirteen KSB strains, positive for all tested PGP traits, were evaluated for potassium solubilisation under sodium stress, namely, 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% NaCl stress. The five best strains (Acinetobacter pittii strain L1/4, A. pittii strain L3/3, Rhizobium pusense strain L3/4, Cupriavidus oxalaticus strain L4/12 and Ochrobactrum ciceri strain L5/1) based on the K-solubilising potential were identified by amplification, sequencing and bioinformatic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences. The maximum potassium solubilisation was measured at 30 °C and pH 7 with glucose as carbon source. The application of these KSB strains significantly improved the shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight and chlorophyll contents of paddy plants grown under saline conditions. Hence, these strains could be halotolerant KSB bioinoculants that can be used to protect plants against salt stress.


Assuntos
Potássio , Microbiologia do Solo , Acinetobacter , Cupriavidus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Ochrobactrum , Rhizobium
17.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 7(3)2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927705

RESUMO

The number of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and a history of prior cardiac surgery has increased. Prior cardiac surgery increases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement. To evaluate the impact of prior cardiac surgery on clinical endpoints in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), we performed a literature search using PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. The clinical endpoints included in our study were 30-day mortality, 1-2-year mortality, acute kidney injury (AKI), bleeding, stroke, procedural time, and duration of hospital stay. Seven studies, which included a total of 8221 patients, were selected. Our study found that TAVR was associated with a lower incidence of stroke and bleeding complications. There was no significant difference in terms of AKI, 30-day all-cause mortality, and 1-2-year all-cause mortality between the two groups. The average procedure time and duration of hospital stay were 170 min less (p ≤ 0.01) and 3.6 days shorter (p < 0.01) in patients with TAVR, respectively. In patients with prior coronary artery bypass graft and severe AS, both TAVR and SAVR are reasonable options. However, TAVR may be associated with a lower incidence of complications like stroke and perioperative bleeding, in addition to a shorter length of stay.

18.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(12): 1507-1529, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869446

RESUMO

In the present study anatomical characterization of 30 species of Fabaceae endemic to Lahore, Pakistan were done under light and scanning electron microscopy. Variety of qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters like epidermal cells shapes and size, stomata types, length, and width of guard cells, subsidiary cells, trichomes, silica bodies, shapes, and their numbers were studied. Overall polygonal, irregular smooth, thick walled epidermal cells were observed at both abaxial and adaxial surfaces except Dalbergia sisso Roxb in which hexagonal epidermal cells were reported. Milletia ovelifolia Kurz. possessed the largest length of epidermal cell i.e., 273.1 µm whereas Calliandra bella Benth. showed the smallest length i.e., 76.5 µm. Average width of epidermal cells ranged from 44 to 265.5 µm. M. ovelifolia Kurz had largest width while Acacia nilotica L. had the smallest width respectively. In adaxial surface epidermal cells length ranged 317 to 46.4 µm, Glycyrriza glabra L. showed the smallest length whereas Prosopis juliflora DC. had largest length. In adaxial numbers of stomata is high as compare to the abaxial surface, mostly paracytic, anisocytic, and anomocytic stomata were observed. There is not much variations observed in trichomes of studied members. Generally non glandular, unbranched, uniserate, mulicellular bulbous base with pointed tips were reported . Oval, rounded, triangular shaped silica bodies were observed in some species. It is concluded that qualitative and quantitative anatomical variations in epidermal cells, stomata and trichomes are of good taxonomic value for the studied Fabaceae species.

19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 293, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that may occur due to genetic, environmental or lifestyle factors. Natural remedies have been used to treat diabetes since long and many antidiabetic compounds of varied efficacies have been isolated from medicinal plants. Rhazya stricta has been used for decades for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated ailments. Considering the folkloric use of R. stricta against diabetes, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of its root extracts against diabetes through in vitro assays and in vivo studies using animal model along with phytochemical profiling through GCMS. METHODS: Various fractions of Rhazya stricta obtained through column chromatography were evaluated for a variety of assays including α-glucosidase, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), ß-secretase and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion studies. For the in vivo studies the alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated with root extracts and blood glucose levels, HbA1C, and other biochemical markers along with the histological study of the liver were done. The phytochemical identification was performed using an Agilent 7890B GC coupled to a 7010 Triple Quadrupole (MS/MS) system. GraphPad Prism software version 5.01 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Majority of the extract fractions showed excellent results against diabetes by inhibiting enzymes DPP-IV (Up to 61%) and ß-secretase (Up to 83%) with IC50s 979 µg/ml and 169 µg/ml respectively with increase in the GLP1 secretion. The results of in vivo studies indicated a marked reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels along with positive effects on other parameters like lipid profile, liver functions and renal functions of extract-treated mice as compared to control. The histological examination of the liver demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against diabetes led changes and various classes of phytochemicals were also identified through GCMS in different fractions. CONCLUSION: The results revealed strong antidiabetic activity of R. stricta root with the potential to protect body organs against diabetic changes. Moreover, a variety of phytochemicals has also been identified through GCMS that might be responsible for the antidiabetic potential of Rhazya stricta root.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aloxano , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paquistão , Raízes de Plantas
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(8): 874-876, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893804

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is rarely seen in Pakistan and is generally not very high on the list of differential diagnoses. However, it is an important cause of haematuria in certain endemic areas. It can affect multiple organs including the bladder, liver and lungs. We present a case of a young Pakistani male, travelling to and from Africa, who presented with complains of haematuria and suprapubic discomfort. Final pathologic diagnosis was urinary schistosomiasis (hematobium species). This case is particularly notable for the characteristic sago nodules identified on cystoscopy. It is important to consider schistosomiasis in the differential of haematuria in such scenarios as it confers significant morbidity if left untreated. Key Words: Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma hematobium, Haematuria, Urinary bladder.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Urinária , Bexiga Urinária , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Caramujos
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