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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2085, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837194

RESUMO

Long-term infection of the stomach with Helicobacter pylori can cause gastric cancer. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adapt to the stomach environment are poorly understood. Here, we show that a small non-coding RNA of H. pylori (HPnc4160, also known as IsoB or NikS) regulates the pathogen's adaptation to the host environment as well as bacterial oncoprotein production. In a rodent model of H. pylori infection, the genomes of bacteria isolated from the stomach possess an increased number of T-repeats upstream of the HPnc4160-coding region, and this leads to reduced HPnc4160 expression. We use RNA-seq and iTRAQ analyses to identify eight targets of HPnc4160, including genes encoding outer membrane proteins and oncoprotein CagA. Mutant strains with HPnc4160 deficiency display increased colonization ability of the mouse stomach, in comparison with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, HPnc4160 expression is lower in clinical isolates from gastric cancer patients than in isolates derived from non-cancer patients, while the expression of HPnc4160's targets is higher in the isolates from gastric cancer patients. Therefore, the small RNA HPnc4160 regulates H. pylori adaptation to the host environment and, potentially, gastric carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/microbiologia , Animais , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carcinogênese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Gerbillinae , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , RNA Bacteriano/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , RNA-Seq , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1067, 2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594081

RESUMO

Increases in adhesive and invasive commensal bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, and subsequent disruption of the epithelial barrier is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the protective systems against such barrier disruption are not fully understood. Here, we show that secretion of luminal glycoprotein 2 (GP2) from pancreatic acinar cells is induced in a TNF-dependent manner in mice with chemically induced colitis. Fecal GP2 concentration is also increased in Crohn's diease patients. Furthermore, pancreas-specific GP2-deficient colitis mice have more severe intestinal inflammation and a larger mucosal E. coli population than do intact mice, indicating that digestive-tract GP2 binds commensal E. coli, preventing epithelial attachment and penetration. Thus, the pancreas-intestinal barrier axis and pancreatic GP2 are important as a first line of defense against adhesive and invasive commensal bacteria during intestinal inflammation.


Assuntos
Inflamação/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Células Acinares/metabolismo , Células Acinares/patologia , Animais , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Fezes , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pâncreas/patologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
3.
Front Psychol ; 11: 577305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123058

RESUMO

We investigated postural responses (head displacements) and self-motion perception (vection) to radial and lateral optic flows while sitting and standing by using a head-mounted display. We found that head displacement directions varied across postures. In the standing posture, radial optic flow generally produced the opposed head displacement against the perceived vection direction, consistent with the literature; however, in the sitting posture, the optic flow generally produced the following head displacement in the vection direction. In the standing posture, responses were evident soon after the onset of the optic flow presentation but became less clear in the latter half of a trial. The results, while less clear for lateral flows, were similar for both flow types. Our findings suggest partially distinct processes underlying vection and postural control.

4.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 59: 1-7, 2020 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784063

RESUMO

In response to bacterial infection, epithelial cells undergo several types of cell death, including apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and necroptosis, which serve to expel the infected cells and activate the innate and acquired immune responses. Shigella initially invades macrophages and subsequently surrounding enterocytes; the pathogen executes macrophage cell death but prevents epithelial cell death in order to maintain its foothold for replication. To this end, Shigella delivers versatile effector proteins via the type III secretion system (T3SS), allowing it to efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. In this article, we review insights into the mechanisms underlying circumvention of the host cell death by Shigella, as an example of bacterial fine-tuning of host cell death pathways.

5.
EMBO J ; 39(17): e104469, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657447

RESUMO

Upon invasive bacterial infection of colonic epithelium, host cells induce several types of cell death to eliminate pathogens. For instance, necroptosis is a RIPK-dependent lytic cell death that serves as a backup system to fully eliminate intracellular pathogens when apoptosis is inhibited; this phenomenon has been termed "cell death crosstalk". To maintain their replicative niche and multiply within cells, some enteric pathogens prevent epithelial cell death by delivering effectors via the type III secretion system. In this study, we found that Shigella hijacks host cell death crosstalk via a dual mechanism: inhibition of apoptosis by the OspC1 effector and inhibition of necroptosis by the OspD3 effector. Upon infection by Shigella, host cells recognize blockade of caspase-8 apoptosis signaling by OspC1 effector as a key danger signal and trigger necroptosis as a backup form of host defense. To counteract this backup defense, Shigella delivers the OspD3 effector, a protease, to degrade RIPK1 and RIPK3, preventing necroptosis. We believe that blockade of host cell death crosstalk by Shigella is a unique intracellular survival tactic for prolonging the bacterium's replicative niche.

6.
Iperception ; 10(6): 2041669519886903, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803463

RESUMO

Optic flow that simulates self-motion often produces postural adjustment. Although literature has suggested that human postural control depends largely on visual inputs from the lower field in the environment, effects of the vertical location of optic flow on postural responses are not well investigated. Here, we examined whether optic flow presented in the lower visual field produces stronger responses than optic flow in the upper visual field. Either expanding or contracting optic flow was presented in upper, lower, or full visual fields through an Oculus Rift head-mounted display. Head displacement and vection strength were measured. Results showed larger head displacement under the optic flow presentation in the full visual field and the lower visual field than the upper visual field, during early period of presentation of the contracting optic flow. Vection was strongest in the full visual field and weakest in the upper visual field. Our findings of lower field superiority in head displacement and vection support the notion that ecologically relevant information has a particularly important role in human postural control and self-motion perception.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708887

RESUMO

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is Gram-positive anaerobic, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterial pathogen that is widely distributed in nature. This bacterium is known as the causative agent of a foodborne illness and of gas gangrene. While the major virulence factors are the α-toxin and perfringolysin O (PFO) produced by type A strains of C. perfringens, the precise mechanisms of how these toxins induce the development of gas gangrene are still not well understood. In this study, we analyzed the host responses to these toxins, including inflammasome activation, using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). Our results demonstrated, for the first time, that C. perfringens triggers the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1ß through PFO-mediated inflammasome activation via a receptor of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin-domain containing 3 protein (NLRP3). The PFO-mediated inflammasome activation was not induced in the cultured myocytes. We further analyzed the functional roles of the toxins in inducing myonecrosis in a mouse model of gas gangrene. Although the myonecrosis was found to be largely dependent on the α-toxin, PFO also induced myonecrosis to a lesser extent, again through the mediation of NLRP3. These results suggest that C. perfringens triggers inflammatory responses via PFO-mediated inflammasome activation via NLRP3, and that this axis contributes in part to the progression of gas gangrene. Our findings provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of gas gangrene caused by C. perfringens.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14440, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595003

RESUMO

Changes in the retinal size of stationary objects provide a cue to the observer's motion in the environment: Increases indicate the observer's forward motion, and decreases backward motion. In this study, a series of images each comprising a pair of pine-tree figures were translated into auditory modality using sensory substitution software. Resulting auditory stimuli were presented in an ascending sequence (i.e. increasing in intensity and bandwidth compatible with forward motion), descending sequence (i.e. decreasing in intensity and bandwidth compatible with backward motion), or in a scrambled order. During the presentation of stimuli, blindfolded participants estimated the lengths of wooden sticks by haptics. Results showed that those exposed to the stimuli compatible with forward motion underestimated the lengths of the sticks. This consistent underestimation may share some aspects with visual size-contrast effects such as the Ebbinghaus illusion. In contrast, participants in the other two conditions did not show such magnitude of error in size estimation; which is consistent with the "adaptive perceptual bias" towards acoustic increases in intensity and bandwidth. In sum, we report a novel cross-modal size-contrast illusion, which reveals that auditory motion cues compatible with listeners' forward motion modulate haptic representations of object size.

9.
Multisens Res ; : 1-18, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648194

RESUMO

In the dynamic 3D space, it is critical for survival to perceive size of an object and rescale it with distance from an observer. Humans can perceive distance via not only vision but also audition, which plays an important role in the localization of objects, especially in visually ambiguous environments. However, whether and how auditory distance information contributes to visual size perception is not well understood. To address this issue, we investigated the efficiency of size-distance scaling by using auditory distance information that was conveyed by binaurally recorded auditory stimuli. We examined the effects of absolute distance information of a single sound sequence (Experiment 1) and relative distance information between two sound sequences (Experiment 2) on visual size estimation performances in darkened and well-lit environments. We demonstrated that humans could perform size-distance disambiguation by using auditory distance information even in darkness. Curiously, relative distance information was more efficient in size-distance scaling than absolute distance information, suggesting a high reliance on relative auditory distance information in our visual spatial experiences. The results highlight a benefit of audiovisual interaction for size-distance processing and calibration of external events under visually degraded situations.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553780

RESUMO

Lipid and fatty acid composition of female Pacific bluefin tuna (PBF, Thunnus orientalis) reproductive and somatic tissues in southwestern North Pacific and Sea of Japan spawning grounds are compared. Total lipid (TL) levels are higher in liver than white muscle tissues. An increased gonadosomatic index (GSI) during the early spawning season coincided with decreased TL. Levels of triacylglycerols (TAG) in PBF liver tissues from the Nansei Islands and Sea of Japan, and white muscle in fishes from the Sea of Japan, decreased during the spawning season, while TAG in ovary tissues did not. Concurrent reductions in TL and increases in GSI early in the spawning season suggest TAG depletion was caused by allocation from liver and white muscle tissues to oocytes, that the liver is one of the important lipid-storage organs in PBF, and this species mostly reliant on capital deposits as a mixed capital-income breeder. Differences of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels between spawning grounds were lower in ovary than in muscle and liver tissues. However, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels that influence egg development and embryo and larval growth are significantly higher in PBF tissues from the Sea of Japan than Nansei Islands, which coincided with larval quality. These suggest a maternal effect exists, with egg quality influencing offspring survival, and that the reproductive strategy of PBF varies according to local variation at each spawning ground.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Mães , Reprodução/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Atum/metabolismo , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Feminino , Japão , Larva/fisiologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Oceano Pacífico , Estações do Ano , Triglicerídeos/análise
11.
Iperception ; 10(4): 2041669519856906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384414

RESUMO

Reversed apparent motion (or reversed phi) can be seen during a continuous dissolve between a positive and a spatially shifted negative version of the same image. Similar reversed effects can be seen in stereo when positive and spatially shifted negative images are presented separately to the two eyes or in a Vernier alignment task when the two images are juxtaposed one above the other. Gregory and Heard reported similar effects that they called "phenomenal phenomena." Here, we investigate the similarities between these different effects and put forward a simple, spatial-smoothing explanation that can account for both the direction and magnitude of the reversed effects in the motion, stereo and Vernier domains. In addition, we consider whether the striking motion effects seen when viewing Kitaoka's colour-dependent Fraser-Wilcox figures are related to the reversed phi illusion, given the similarity of the luminance profiles.

12.
Sci Technol Adv Mater ; 20(1): 589-598, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258824

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by oral microorganisms in the subgingival biofilm. Stable aqueous ozone ultrafine bubble water (OUFBW) has recently begun to be used as an antiseptic in the treatment of periodontitis. The effectiveness of OUFBW is thought to depend on the bactericidal actions of dissolved ozone exerted via its oxidizing effect. On the other hand, the effects of ozone on the periodontal tissues are largely unknown. In this paper we examined the cellular responses after OUFBW treatment. Human primary periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) or Ca9-22 human gingival epithelial cells were treated with OUFBW or UV-inactivated OUFBW. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation were analyzed. The transcript profiles of hPDLFs after OUFBW treatment were also analyzed by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Our results showed that OUFBW induces oxidative stress by generating ROS, which, in turn, activated the MAPK pathway. OUFBW triggered activation of c-Fos, a major component of the transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1), and also nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which possessed a high sensitivity to oxidative stress. The results of RNA-seq analysis revealed that the numerous genes involved in oxidative stress responses or MAPK signaling pathway were up-regulated after OUFBW treatment. Investigation of the signaling pathways activated by OUFBW highlights another aspect of the biological roles of OUFBW, in addition to its bactericidal activity, in the treatment of periodontitis.

13.
Multisens Res ; 32(1): 25-44, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059493

RESUMO

Cognition of space and time affect each other; a line with longer length appears to be longer in exposure duration (space on time), and a line with longer exposure duration appears to be longer in length (time on space). This cognitive interaction is known to be asymmetric; the effect of space on time is larger than that of time on space. We conjectured that this asymmetry is not intrinsic but may depend on the saliency of relevant signals. Participants were asked to judge the visual exposure duration of lines that varied in length or the lengths of the lines with different exposure times. The ranges of task-relevant and -irrelevant stimulus values were the same in the spatial and temporal tasks. Task difficulty was also evaluated by subjective rating. We found that duration affected the judgment of length more than vice versa, when the spatial task was significantly more difficult than the temporal task. Together with our previous results that showed the opposite effect, our conjecture is supported that the saliency of stimuli should affect the balance of interactions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 4(3): 492-503, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643240

RESUMO

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and its frequent complication with ulcerative colitis highlights the pathogenic role of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PSC, yet its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we identify Klebsiella pneumonia in the microbiota of patients with PSC and demonstrate that K. pneumoniae disrupts the epithelial barrier to initiate bacterial translocation and liver inflammatory responses. Gnotobiotic mice inoculated with PSC-derived microbiota exhibited T helper 17 (TH17) cell responses in the liver and increased susceptibility to hepatobiliary injuries. Bacterial culture of mesenteric lymph nodes in these mice isolated K. pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Enterococcus gallinarum, which were prevalently detected in patients with PSC. A bacterial-organoid co-culture system visualized the epithelial-damaging effect of PSC-derived K. pneumoniae that was associated with bacterial translocation and susceptibility to TH17-mediated hepatobiliary injuries. We also show that antibiotic treatment ameliorated the TH17 immune response induced by PSC-derived microbiota. These results highlight the role of pathobionts in intestinal barrier dysfunction and liver inflammation, providing insights into therapeutic strategies for PSC.


Assuntos
Colangite Esclerosante/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestinos/patologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Fígado/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Translocação Bacteriana , Colangite Esclerosante/microbiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Fígado/patologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Organoides/microbiologia , Proteus mirabilis/isolamento & purificação
15.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(4): 832-846, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29792373

RESUMO

Using different types of stimuli, such as pictures, horizontally written Japanese words, and vertically written Japanese words, this study investigated the spatial patterns of the sense of familiarity within the visual field. The perceptual asymmetry theory predicted that stimuli in the lower visual field would be processed more fluently and would therefore be perceived as more familiar. The working memory theory, originally proposed in space-number research, envisaged type-specific spatial patterns for different stimuli. Participants made old/new recognition memory judgements for stimuli, presented at random positions, while their eye movements were recorded. The observed spatial patterns changed according to the stimulus type (e.g., "more left = older" for horizontally written words and "upper = older" for vertically written words), and this flexibility is encapsulated by the working memory theory as follows: (a) stimulus-type-specific spatial configurations are encoded in long-term memory on the basis of one's experience (e.g., vertically written words are empirically associated with the "upper = older" spatial configuration), (b) the presentation of a stimulus automatically cues the temporal activation of the associated spatial configuration in working memory, and (c) the referential process between the stimulus and configuration unconsciously affects the viewer's sense of familiarity.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Julgamento/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Estimulação Luminosa , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Cell Microbiol ; 21(3): e12974, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414351

RESUMO

Subversion of antigen-specific immune responses by intracellular pathogens is pivotal for successful colonisation. Bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, deliver effectors into host cells via the type III secretion system (T3SS) in order to manipulate host innate and adaptive immune responses, thereby promoting infection. However, the strategy for subverting antigen-specific immunity is not well understood. Here, we show that Shigella flexneri invasion plasmid antigen H (IpaH) 4.5, a member of the E3 ubiquitin ligase effector family, targets the proteasome regulatory particle non-ATPase 13 (RPN13) and induces its degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). IpaH4.5-mediated RPN13 degradation causes dysfunction of the 19S regulatory particle (RP) in the 26S proteasome, inhibiting guidance of ubiquitinated proteins to the proteolytically active 20S core particle (CP) of 26S proteasome and thereby suppressing proteasome-catalysed peptide splicing. This, in turn, reduces antigen cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in vitro. In RPN13 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), loss of RPN13 suppressed CD8+ T cell priming during Shigella infection. Our results uncover the unique tactics employed by Shigella to dampen the antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Shigella flexneri/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/patologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Modelos Teóricos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Shigella flexneri/imunologia , Shigella flexneri/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
17.
Eur J Immunol ; 48(12): 1965-1974, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280383

RESUMO

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium that has been considered to be one of the bacteria associated with progression of human periodontitis. Subgingival biofilms formed by bacteria, including P. gingivalis, induce chronic inflammation, and activation of inflammasome in the gingival tissue. However, the mechanisms of P. gingivalis-triggering inflammasome activation and the role of bacteria-host interactions are controversial. In this study, we investigated the potential of P. gingivalis for triggering inflammasome activation in human cells and mouse models. We demonstrated that secreted or released factors from bacteria are involved in triggering NLR family, pyrin-domain containing 3 protein (NLRP3) inflammasome in a gingipain-independent manner. Our data indicated that released active caspase-1 and mature IL-1ß are eliminated by proteolytic activity of secreted gingipains. These results elucidate the molecular bases for the mechanisms underlying P. gingivalis-triggered inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Adesinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções por Bacteroidaceae/imunologia , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Periodontite/imunologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/fisiologia , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Cisteína Endopeptidases Gingipaínas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Células THP-1
18.
J Fish Biol ; 93(6): 1233-1237, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30345516

RESUMO

Hermaphroditic gonads were collected from three skipjack tuna Katsuwonus pelamis in the western and central Pacific Ocean. Both ovarian and testicular tissues were found in the same gonad lobe for each of the three fish. Histological sections of the hermaphroditic gonad from one K. pelamis showed postovulatory follicles, which is evidence of spawning.


Assuntos
Organismos Hermafroditas/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Atum/fisiologia , Animais , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas/fisiologia , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oceano Pacífico , Atum/anatomia & histologia
19.
Perception ; 47(7): 751-771, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783921

RESUMO

In spite of accumulating evidence for the spatial rule governing cross-modal interaction according to the spatial consistency of stimuli, it is still unclear whether 3D spatial consistency (i.e., front/rear of the body) of stimuli also regulates audiovisual interaction. We investigated how sounds with increasing/decreasing intensity (looming/receding sound) presented from the front and rear space of the body impact the size perception of a dynamic visual object. Participants performed a size-matching task (Experiments 1 and 2) and a size adjustment task (Experiment 3) of visual stimuli with increasing/decreasing diameter, while being exposed to a front- or rear-presented sound with increasing/decreasing intensity. Throughout these experiments, we demonstrated that only the front-presented looming sound caused overestimation of the spatially consistent looming visual stimulus in size, but not of the spatially inconsistent and the receding visual stimulus. The receding sound had no significant effect on vision. Our results revealed that looming sound alters dynamic visual size perception depending on the consistency in the approaching quality and the front-rear spatial location of audiovisual stimuli, suggesting that the human brain differently processes audiovisual inputs based on their 3D spatial consistency. This selective interaction between looming signals should contribute to faster detection of approaching threats. Our findings extend the spatial rule governing audiovisual interaction into 3D space.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção de Tamanho/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Iperception ; 9(1): 2041669517752372, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29375752

RESUMO

We report a confusing stimulus which demonstrates the power of local interpretation of three-dimensional structure to disrupt a coherent global perception.

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