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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is heritable and a potential consequence of exposure to traumatic stress. Evidence suggests that a quantitative approach to PTSD phenotype measurement and incorporation of lifetime trauma exposure (LTE) information could enhance the discovery power of PTSD genome-wide association studies (GWASs). METHODS: A GWAS on PTSD symptoms was performed in 51 cohorts followed by a fixed-effects meta-analysis (N = 182,199 European ancestry participants). A GWAS of LTE burden was performed in the UK Biobank cohort (N = 132,988). Genetic correlations were evaluated with linkage disequilibrium score regression. Multivariate analysis was performed using Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS. Functional mapping and annotation of leading loci was performed with FUMA. Replication was evaluated using the Million Veteran Program GWAS of PTSD total symptoms. RESULTS: GWASs of PTSD symptoms and LTE burden identified 5 and 6 independent genome-wide significant loci, respectively. There was a 72% genetic correlation between PTSD and LTE. PTSD and LTE showed largely similar patterns of genetic correlation with other traits, albeit with some distinctions. Adjusting PTSD for LTE reduced PTSD heritability by 31%. Multivariate analysis of PTSD and LTE increased the effective sample size of the PTSD GWAS by 20% and identified 4 additional loci. Four of these 9 PTSD loci were independently replicated in the Million Veteran Program. CONCLUSIONS: Through using a quantitative trait measure of PTSD, we identified novel risk loci not previously identified using prior case-control analyses. PTSD and LTE have a high genetic overlap that can be leveraged to increase discovery power through multivariate methods.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 637, 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916497

RESUMO

The volume of subcortical structures represents a reliable, quantitative, and objective phenotype that captures genetic effects, environmental effects such as trauma, and disease effects such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Trauma and PTSD represent potent exposures that may interact with genetic markers to influence brain structure and function. Genetic variants, associated with subcortical volumes in two large normative discovery samples, were used to compute polygenic scores (PGS) for the volume of seven subcortical structures. These were applied to a target sample enriched for childhood trauma and PTSD. Subcortical volume PGS from the discovery sample were strongly associated in our trauma/PTSD enriched sample (n = 7580) with respective subcortical volumes of the hippocampus (p = 1.10 × 10-20), thalamus (p = 7.46 × 10-10), caudate (p = 1.97 × 10-18), putamen (p = 1.7 × 10-12), and nucleus accumbens (p = 1.99 × 10-7). We found a significant association between the hippocampal volume PGS and hippocampal volume in control subjects from our sample, but was absent in individuals with PTSD (GxE; (beta = -0.10, p = 0.027)). This significant GxE (PGS × PTSD) relationship persisted (p < 1 × 10-19) in four out of five threshold peaks (0.024, 0.133, 0.487, 0.730, and 0.889) used to calculate hippocampal volume PGSs. We detected similar GxE (G × ChildTrauma) relationships in the amygdala for exposure to childhood trauma (rs4702973; p = 2.16 × 10-7) or PTSD (rs10861272; p = 1.78 × 10-6) in the CHST11 gene. The hippocampus and amygdala are pivotal brain structures in mediating PTSD symptomatology. Trauma exposure and PTSD modulate the effect of polygenic markers on hippocampal volume (GxE) and the amygdala volume PGS is associated with PTSD risk, which supports the role of amygdala volume as a risk factor for PTSD.

3.
Mol Neurodegener ; 16(1): 58, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the post-GWAS era, there is an unmet need to decode the underpinning genetic etiologies of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and translate the associations to causation. METHODS: We conducted ATAC-seq profiling using NeuN sorted-nuclei from 40 frozen brain tissues to determine LOAD-specific changes in chromatin accessibility landscape in a cell-type specific manner. RESULTS: We identified 211 LOAD-specific differential chromatin accessibility sites in neuronal-nuclei, four of which overlapped with LOAD-GWAS regions (±100 kb of SNP). While the non-neuronal nuclei did not show LOAD-specific differences, stratification by sex identified 842 LOAD-specific chromatin accessibility sites in females. Seven of these sex-dependent sites in the non-neuronal samples overlapped LOAD-GWAS regions including APOE. LOAD loci were functionally validated using single-nuclei RNA-seq datasets. CONCLUSIONS: Using brain sorted-nuclei enabled the identification of sex-dependent cell type-specific LOAD alterations in chromatin structure. These findings enhance the interpretation of LOAD-GWAS discoveries, provide potential pathomechanisms, and suggest novel LOAD-loci.

4.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 678548, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393704

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that can develop following exposure to traumatic events. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group (PGC-PTSD) has collected over 20,000 multi-ethnic PTSD cases and controls and has identified both genetic and epigenetic factors associated with PTSD risk. To further investigate biological correlates of PTSD risk, we examined three PGC-PTSD cohorts comprising 977 subjects to identify differentially expressed genes among PTSD cases and controls. Whole blood gene expression was quantified with the HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip for 726 OEF/OIF veterans from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center (MIRECC), 155 samples from the Injury and Traumatic Stress (INTRuST) Clinical Consortium, and 96 Australian Vietnam War veterans. Differential gene expression analysis was performed in each cohort separately followed by meta-analysis. In the largest cohort, we performed co-expression analysis to identify modules of genes that are associated with PTSD and MDD. We then conducted expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and assessed the presence of eQTL interactions involving PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD). Finally, we utilized PTSD and MDD GWAS summary statistics to identify regions that colocalize with eQTLs. Although not surpassing correction for multiple testing, the most differentially expressed genes in meta-analysis were interleukin-1 beta (IL1B), a pro-inflammatory cytokine previously associated with PTSD, and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which is highly expressed in brain and can rescue dysregulated hippocampal neurogenesis and memory deficits. Pathway analysis revealed enrichment of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor genes, which are integral to cellular innate immune response. Co-expression analysis identified four modules of genes associated with PTSD, two of which are also associated with MDD, demonstrating common biological pathways underlying the two conditions. Lastly, we identified four genes (UBA7, HLA-F, HSPA1B, and RERE) with high probability of a shared causal eQTL variant with PTSD and/or MDD GWAS variants, thereby providing a potential mechanism by which the GWAS variant contributes to disease risk. In summary, we provide additional evidence for genes and pathways previously reported and identified plausible novel candidates for PTSD. These data provide further insight into genetic factors and pathways involved in PTSD, as well as potential regions of pleiotropy between PTSD and MDD.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 678503, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248484

RESUMO

Growing research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be a risk factor for poor cardiovascular health, and yet our understanding of who might be at greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes after trauma is limited. In this study, we conducted the first examination of the individual and synergistic contributions of PTSD symptoms and blood pressure genetics to continuous blood pressure levels. We harnessed the power of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium-PTSD Physical Health Working Group and investigated these associations across 11 studies of 72,224 trauma-exposed individuals of European (n = 70,870) and African (n = 1,354) ancestry. Genetic contributions to blood pressure were modeled via polygenic scores (PGS) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) that were derived from a prior trans-ethnic blood pressure genome-wide association study (GWAS). Results of trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed significant main effects of the PGS on blood pressure levels [SBP: ß = 2.83, standard error (SE) = 0.06, p < 1E-20; DBP: ß = 1.32, SE = 0.04, p < 1E-20]. Significant main effects of PTSD symptoms were also detected for SBP and DBP in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, though there was significant heterogeneity in these results. When including data from the largest contributing study - United Kingdom Biobank - PTSD symptoms were negatively associated with SBP levels (ß = -1.46, SE = 0.44, p = 9.8E-4) and positively associated with DBP levels (ß = 0.70, SE = 0.26, p = 8.1E-3). However, when excluding the United Kingdom Biobank cohort in trans-ethnic meta-analyses, there was a nominally significant positive association between PTSD symptoms and SBP levels (ß = 2.81, SE = 1.13, p = 0.01); no significant association was observed for DBP (ß = 0.43, SE = 0.78, p = 0.58). Blood pressure PGS did not significantly moderate the associations between PTSD symptoms and blood pressure levels in meta-analyses. Additional research is needed to better understand the extent to which PTSD is associated with high blood pressure and how genetic as well as contextual factors may play a role in influencing cardiovascular risk.

7.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 86: 102504, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949984

RESUMO

In a recent clinical trial, the metabolite l-glutamine was shown to reduce painful crises in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. To support this observation and identify other metabolites implicated in SCD clinical heterogeneity, we profiled 129 metabolites in the plasma of 705 SCD patients. We tested correlations between metabolite levels and six SCD-related complications (painful crises, cholecystectomy, retinopathy, leg ulcer, priapism, aseptic necrosis) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess causality. We found a potential causal relationship between l-glutamine levels and painful crises (N = 1278, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] = 0.68 [0.52-0.89], P = 0.0048). In two smaller SCD cohorts (N = 299 and 406), the protective effect of l-glutamine was observed (OR = 0.82 [0.50-1.34]), although the MR result was not significant (P = 0.44). We identified 66 significant correlations between the levels of other metabolites and SCD-related complications or eGFR. We tested these correlations for causality using MR analyses and found no significant causal relationship. The baseline levels of quinolinic acid were associated with prospectively ascertained survival in SCD patients, and this effect was dependent on eGFR. Metabolomics provide a promising approach to prioritize small molecules that may serve as biomarkers or drug targets in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Glutamina/sangue , Dor/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/sangue , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5903, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214552

RESUMO

The neuronal primary cilium and centriolar satellites have functions in neurogenesis, but little is known about their roles in the postnatal brain. We show that ablation of pericentriolar material 1 in the mouse leads to progressive ciliary, anatomical, psychomotor, and cognitive abnormalities. RNAseq reveals changes in amine- and G-protein coupled receptor pathways. The physiological relevance of this phenotype is supported by decreased available dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) levels and the failure of antipsychotic drugs to rescue adult behavioral defects. Immunoprecipitations show an association with Pcm1 and D2Rs. Finally, we sequence PCM1 in two human cohorts with severe schizophrenia. Systematic modeling of all discovered rare alleles by zebrafish in vivo complementation reveals an enrichment for pathogenic alleles. Our data emphasize a role for the pericentriolar material in the postnatal brain, with progressive degenerative ciliary and behavioral phenotypes; and they support a contributory role for PCM1 in some individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Cílios/patologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Aminas/metabolismo , Animais , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Cílios/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transdução de Sinais , Adulto Jovem , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5965, 2020 11 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235198

RESUMO

Epigenetic differences may help to distinguish between PTSD cases and trauma-exposed controls. Here, we describe the results of the largest DNA methylation meta-analysis of PTSD to date. Ten cohorts, military and civilian, contribute blood-derived DNA methylation data from 1,896 PTSD cases and trauma-exposed controls. Four CpG sites within the aryl-hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR) associate with PTSD after adjustment for multiple comparisons, with lower DNA methylation in PTSD cases relative to controls. Although AHRR methylation is known to associate with smoking, the AHRR association with PTSD is most pronounced in non-smokers, suggesting the result was independent of smoking status. Evaluation of metabolomics data reveals that AHRR methylation associated with kynurenine levels, which are lower among subjects with PTSD. This study supports epigenetic differences in those with PTSD and suggests a role for decreased kynurenine as a contributor to immune dysregulation in PTSD.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Metilação de DNA , Proteínas Repressoras , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/sangue , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Feminino , Humanos , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Masculino , Militares , Proteínas Repressoras/sangue , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo
10.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1785994, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029326

RESUMO

Behavioural, structural, and functional neuroimaging have implicated the hippocampus as a critical brain region in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) pathogenesis. Recent work in a normative, primarily European, sample identified 15 unique genetic loci contributing to structural variability in six hippocampal subfield volumes. We explored the relevance of these loci in two samples (Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Centre [MIRECC] and Grady; n = 290) of trauma-exposed individuals enriched for PTSD and of diverse ancestry. Four of the previous loci demonstrated nominal evidence of replication in the MIRECC dataset, primarily within non-Hispanic whites (NHW). One locus replicated in the Grady cohort, which was composed exclusively of non-Hispanic blacks (NHB). Our data supported genetic interactions with diagnosis of lifetime PTSD and genetic interactions with childhood trauma in the MIRECC sample, but not the Grady sample. Given the racial, diagnostic, and trauma-exposure differences with the original genome-wide association study (GWAS) report, we conducted a full GWAS in the MIRECC and Grady datasets. Interactions between genetic variants and lifetime PTSD or childhood trauma were interrogated for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with evidence of main effects. Genetic associations surpassed false discovery rate (FDR)-correction within hippocampal subfields in fimbria, subiculum, cornu ammonis-1 (CA1), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (HATA). One association was replicated in the Grady cohort (rs12880795 in TUNAR with left (L)-HATA volume). The most significant association in the MIRECC dataset was between rs6906714 in LINC02571 and right (R)-fimbria volume (p = 5.99×10-8, q = 0.0056). Interestingly, the effect of rs6906714 on R-fimbria volume increased with exposure to childhood trauma (gene*environment [G*E] interaction p = 0.022). These preliminary results argue for G*E interactions between genetic loci with PTSD and childhood trauma on hippocampal phenotypes. Our results underscore the need for larger neuroimaging-genetic studies in PTSD, trauma, and ancestrally diverse populations.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237543, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776978

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) impacts liver and kidney function as well as skin integrity. These complications, as well as the hyperinflammatory state of SCD, could affect serum albumin. Serum albumin has key roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic pathways and maintains vascular integrity. In SCD, these pathways modulate disease severity and clinical outcomes. We used three independent SCD adult cohorts to assess clinical predictors of serum albumin as well its association with mortality. In 2553 SCD adult participants, the frequency of low (<35 g/L) serum albumin was 5%. Older age and lower hemoglobin (P <0.001) were associated with lower serum albumin in all three cohorts. In age and hemoglobin adjusted analysis, higher liver enzymes (P <0.05) were associated with lower serum albumin. In two of the three cohorts, lower kidney function as measured by Glomerular Filtration Rate (P<0.001) was associated with lower serum albumin. Lower serum albumin predicted higher risk of tricuspid regurgitation velocity ≥ 2.5 m/s (OR = 1.1 per g/L, P ≤0.01). In all three cohorts, patients with low serum albumin had higher mortality (adjusted HR ≥2.9, P ≤0.003). This study confirms the role of serum albumin as a biomarker of disease severity and prognosis in patients with SCD. Albumin as a biomarker and possible mediator of SCD severity should be studied further.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Hemoglobinas/análise , Albumina Sérica/análise , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida
12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 46, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies using candidate gene and genome-wide approaches have identified epigenetic changes in DNA methylation (DNAm) associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS: In this study, we performed an EWAS of PTSD in a cohort of Veterans (n = 378 lifetime PTSD cases and 135 controls) from the Translational Research Center for TBI and Stress Disorders (TRACTS) cohort assessed using the Illumina EPIC Methylation BeadChip which assesses DNAm at more than 850,000 sites throughout the genome. Our model included covariates for ancestry, cell heterogeneity, sex, age, and a smoking score based on DNAm at 39 smoking-associated CpGs. We also examined in EPIC-based DNAm data generated from pre-frontal cortex (PFC) tissue from the National PTSD Brain Bank (n = 72). RESULTS: The analysis of blood samples yielded one genome-wide significant association with PTSD at cg19534438 in the gene G0S2 (p = 1.19 × 10-7, padj = 0.048). This association was replicated in an independent PGC-PTSD-EWAS consortium meta-analysis of military cohorts (p = 0.0024). We also observed association with the smoking-related locus cg05575921 in AHRR despite inclusion of a methylation-based smoking score covariate (p = 9.16 × 10-6), which replicates a previously observed PGC-PTSD-EWAS association (Smith et al. 2019), and yields evidence consistent with a smoking-independent effect. The top 100 EWAS loci were then examined in the PFC data. One of the blood-based PTSD loci, cg04130728 in CHST11, which was in the top 10 loci in blood, but which was not genome-wide significant, was significantly associated with PTSD in brain tissue (in blood p = 1.19 × 10-5, padj = 0.60, in brain, p = 0.00032 with the same direction of effect). Gene set enrichment analysis of the top 500 EWAS loci yielded several significant overlapping GO terms involved in pathogen response, including "Response to lipopolysaccharide" (p = 6.97 × 10-6, padj = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: The cross replication observed in independent cohorts is evidence that DNA methylation in peripheral tissue can yield consistent and replicable PTSD associations, and our results also suggest that that some PTSD associations observed in peripheral tissue may mirror associations in the brain.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Sulfotransferases/genética , Veteranos , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/sangue , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/química , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Proteínas Repressoras/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/sangue , Estados Unidos
13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 62(6): 750-757, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691959

RESUMO

AIM: To determine if genetic variation associated with decreased dopamine neurotransmission predicts a decrease in motor development in a convenience cohort study of infants born extremely-low-birthweight (ELBW). METHOD: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants born ELBW had genome-wide genotyping and a neurodevelopmental evaluation at 18 to 22 months of age, corrected for preterm birth. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was created to combine into one predictor variable the hypothesized influences on motor development of alleles at seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with relative decreases in both dopamine neurotransmission and motor learning, by summing the number of alleles present in each infant (range=0-14). The motor development outcome was the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition. The linear regression models were adjusted for seven clinical and four genetic ancestry covariates. The mean PRS of infants with cerebral palsy (CP) was compared to those without CP. RESULTS: PRS was inversely related to PDI (p=0.011). Each 1-point increase in PRS resulted in an average decrease in PDI of 1.37 points. Patients with CP did not have a greater mean PRS than those without (p=0.67), both with and without adjustment for covariates. INTERPRETATION: Genetic variation that favors a decrease in dopamine neurotransmission predisposes to a decrease in motor development in infants born ELBW, but not to the diagnosis of CP. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Genetic variation in dopamine neurotransmission was associated with a decrease in motor development in infants born at an extremely-low-birthweight. It does not predispose to the diagnosis of cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Dopamina/fisiologia , Variação Genética/genética , Doenças do Prematuro/genética , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos das Habilidades Motoras/metabolismo
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(5): 974-986, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668702

RESUMO

The advent of inexpensive, clinical exome sequencing (ES) has led to the accumulation of genetic data from thousands of samples from individuals affected with a wide range of diseases, but for whom the underlying genetic and molecular etiology of their clinical phenotype remains unknown. In many cases, detailed phenotypes are unavailable or poorly recorded and there is little family history to guide study. To accelerate discovery, we integrated ES data from 18,696 individuals referred for suspected Mendelian disease, together with relatives, in an Apache Hadoop data lake (Hadoop Architecture Lake of Exomes [HARLEE]) and implemented a genocentric analysis that rapidly identified 154 genes harboring variants suspected to cause Mendelian disorders. The approach did not rely on case-specific phenotypic classifications but was driven by optimization of gene- and variant-level filter parameters utilizing historical Mendelian disease-gene association discovery data. Variants in 19 of the 154 candidate genes were subsequently reported as causative of a Mendelian trait and additional data support the association of all other candidate genes with disease endpoints.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , /genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , /genética
16.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158233

RESUMO

Kidney failure occurs in 5-13% of individuals with sickle cell disease and is associated with early mortality. Two APOL1 alleles (G1 and G2) have been identified as risk factors for sickle cell disease nephropathy. Both risk alleles are prevalent in individuals with recent African ancestry and have been associated with nephropathic complications in other diseases. Despite the association of G1 and G2 with kidney dysfunction, the mechanisms by which these variants contribute to increased risk remain poorly understood. Previous work in zebrafish models suggest that the G2 risk allele functions as a dominant negative, whereas the G1 allele is a functional null. To understand better the cellular pathology attributed to APOL1 G2, we investigated the in vivo effects of the G2 risk variant on distinct cell types using RNA sequencing. We surveyed APOL1 G2 associated transcriptomic alterations in podocytes and vascular endothelial cells isolated from zebrafish larvae expressing cell-type specific reporters. Our analysis identified many transcripts (n = 7,523) showing differential expression between APOL1 G0 (human wild-type) and APOL1 G2 exposed podocytes. Conversely, relatively few transcripts (n = 107) were differentially expressed when comparing APOL1 G0 and APOL1 G2 exposed endothelial cells. Pathway analysis of differentially expressed transcripts in podocytes showed enrichment for autophagy associated terms such as "Lysosome" and "Phagosome", implicating these pathways in APOL1 G2 associated kidney dysfunction. This work provides insight into the molecular pathology of APOL1 G2 nephropathy which may offer new therapeutic strategies for multiple disease contexts such as sickle cell nephropathy.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Apolipoproteína L1/genética , Variação Genética , Nefropatias/patologia , Podócitos/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Larva/genética , Podócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Risco , Transcrição Genética
18.
Am J Hematol ; 93(12): 1451-1460, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144150

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) nephropathy and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are risk factors for early mortality. Furthermore, rate of eGFR decline predicts progression to end-stage renal disease in many clinical settings. However, factors predicting renal function decline in SCD are poorly documented. Using clinical, laboratory, genetic, and metabolomic data, we evaluated predictors of renal function decline in a longitudinal cohort of 288 adults (mean age 33.0 years). In 193 subjects with 5-year follow-up data, mean rate of eGFR decline was 2.35 mL/min/1.73 m2 /year, nearly twice that of African American adults overall. Hyperfiltration was prevalent at baseline (61.1%), and 36.8% of subjects experienced rapid eGFR decline (≥3 mL/min/1.73 m2 /year). Severe Hb genotype; proteinuria; higher platelet and reticulocyte counts, and systolic BP; and lower Hb level and BMI were associated with rapid decline. A risk scoring system was created using these 7 variables and was highly predictive of rapid eGFR decline, with odds of rapid decline increasing 1.635-fold for every point increment (P < 0.0001). Rapid eGFR decline was also associated with higher organ system severity score and peak creatinine. Additionally, two metabolites (asymmetric dimethylarginine and quinolinic acid) were associated with rapid decline. Further investigation into longitudinal SCD nephropathy (SCDN) trajectory, early markers of SCDN, and tools for risk stratification should inform interventional studies targeted to slowing GFR decline and improving SCD outcomes.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 269: 64-69, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30145303

RESUMO

Death by suicide and suicidal behavior are major concerns among U.S. military veterans; however, no genome-wide association studies (GWAS) studies of suicidal behavior have been conducted among U.S. military veterans to date, despite the elevated rate of suicidal behavior observed within this population. Accordingly, the primary objective of the present research was to conduct the first GWAS of suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in a large and well-characterized sample of U.S. military veterans. The gene most significantly associated (p = 9.28 × 10-7) with suicide attempts was the Potassium Calcium-Activated Channel Subfamily M Regulatory Beta Subunit 2 (KCNMB2) gene, which plays a key role in neuronal excitability. In addition, replication analyses provided additional support for the potential role of the ABI Family Member 3 Binding Protein (ABI3BP) gene in the pathogenesis of suicidal behavior, as numerous nominal associations were found between this gene and both suicide attempts and suicidal ideation. Additional work aimed at replicating and extending these findings is needed.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Militares/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Biol Psychiatry ; 83(10): 831-839, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555185

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after exposure to a traumatic event is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder. Heritability estimates from twin studies as well as from recent molecular data (single nucleotide polymorphism-based heritability) indicate moderate to high heritability, yet robust genetic variants for PTSD have not yet been identified and the genetic architecture of this polygenic disorder remains largely unknown. To date, fewer than 10 large-scale genome-wide association studies of PTSD have been published, with findings that highlight the unique challenges for PTSD genomics, including a complex diagnostic entity with contingency of PTSD diagnosis on trauma exposure and the large genetic diversity of the study populations. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group has brought together more than 200 scientists with the goal to increase sample size for genome-wide association studies and other genomic analyses to sufficient numbers where robust discoveries of molecular signatures can be achieved. The sample currently includes more than 32,000 PTSD cases and 100,000 trauma-exposed control subjects, and collection is ongoing. The first results found a significant shared genetic risk of PTSD with other psychiatric disorders and sex-biased heritability estimates with higher heritability in female individuals compared with male individuals. This review describes the scope and current focus of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium PTSD group and its expansion from the initial genome-wide association study group to nine working groups, including epigenetics, gene expression, imaging, and integrative systems biology. We further briefly outline recent findings and future directions of "omics"-based studies of PTSD, with the ultimate goal of elucidating the molecular architecture of this complex disorder to improve prevention and intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Epigenômica , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genômica/métodos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
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