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J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(7): 1363-1368, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156561


OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of cognition improvement strategies on academic performance, stress and sleep quality of medical students. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from March 2019 to March 2020, and comprised medical students regardless of gender and academic year. Academic performance was assessed through grade point average, while stress and sleep were assessed using the Perceived Stress Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 770 subjects, 748(97%) formed the final sample with mean age 20.32±1.49 years; 619(82.7%) females and 129(17.2%) males. Overall, there were 655(87.6%) consumers of cognitive enhancers and 93(12.4%) non-cunsumers. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score of consumers was 6.05±3.306, while that of non-consumers was 5.80±3.701. The respective mean Perceived Stress Scale scores were 21.18±6.09 and 20.5±6.8. There was no significant association of consumption of cognitive enhancers with academic performance and stress levels (p>0.05), but it was significant with sleep quality (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Majority of the students were found to be consuming cognitive enhancers, but no significant association of the stimulants was found with either academic performance or stress.

Nootrópicos , Estudantes de Medicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
J Pak Med Assoc ; 72(2): 253-259, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320172


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the depiction of violence and vulgarity in television programmes for children, and to assess the perception and practices of parents and children about television programmes meant for children. METHODS: We conducted this mixed-methods cross-sectional study in Karachi, Pakistan in the months of August-September 2018, after approval from the ethics review board of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi. First, a content analysis of over 102 hours of various television programmes meant for children was performed in the light of the guidelines set out by the World Health Organisation, the United States Federal Communication Commission and the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Seven trained researchers sampled the children prime time throughout a week, including the weekends, using a structured tally sheet. Subsequently, interviews were conducted with dyad of parent-children from the employees' list of a public-sector university. A questionnaire was also administered to assess the practices and perceptions of the parents-children dyad about the programmes. Data was analysed using SPSS 24. RESULTS: Of the 173 subjects, 84(48.6%) were parents and 89(51.4%) were children. The mean age of the children was 9.8±3.7 years. Content analysis comprised 6130 minutes, of which 5442(88.8%) had depictions of violence and vulgarity. Depiction of violence and vulgarity was prevalent on television channels that were watched the most, but there was no significant difference in this regard (p=0.238). Of the parents, 68(81%) expressed concern over the effect of screen time and content on the mental health of their children. CONCLUSIONS: Television programmes meant for children were found to be inappropriate with seriously high proportion of violence and vulgarity in their contents.

Pais , Televisão , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pais/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência