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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102073

RESUMO

A humanitarian crisis started in Afghanistan after the United States and international Allies withdrew in August 2021, causing numerous challenges and have especially impacted children. Children in Afghanistan have been affected by a long history of suffering from violence, war, and poverty. The US withdraw and COVID-19 pandemic have caused an economic crisis causing high rates of child malnutrition and prevented them from receiving healthcare and education. In the long run, the impacts of the current situation will significantly affect the child growth, education, and psychological health. There is a need for international organizations to intervene now to ensure children do not further suffer and have the option for a bright future. In turn, ensuring a brighter future for Afghanistan.

2.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(8)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While an estimated 70%-75% of the health workforce are women, this is not reflected in the leadership roles of most health organisations-including global decision-making bodies such as the World Health Assembly (WHA). METHODS: We analysed gender representation in WHA delegations of Member States, Associate Members and Observers (country/territory), using data from 10 944 WHA delegations and 75 815 delegation members over 1948-2021. Delegates' information was extracted from WHO documentation. Likely gender was inferred based on prefixes, pronouns and other gendered language. A gender-to-name algorithm was used as a last resort (4.6%). Time series of 5-year rolling averages of the percentage of women across WHO region, income group and delegate roles are presented. We estimated (%) change ±SE of inferred women delegation members at the WHA per year, and estimated years±SE until gender parity from 2010 to 2019 across regions, income groups, delegate roles and countries. Correlations with these measures were assessed with countries' gender inequality index and two Worldwide Governance indicators. RESULTS: While upwards trends could be observed in the percentage of women delegates over the past 74 years, men remained over-represented in most WHA delegations. Over 1948-2021, 82.9% of delegations were composed of a majority of men, and no WHA had more than 30% of women Chief Delegates (ranging from 0% to 30%). Wide variation in trends over time could be observed across different geographical regions, income groups and countries. Some countries may take over 100 years to reach gender parity in their WHA delegations, if current estimated trends continue. CONCLUSION: Despite commitments to gender equality in leadership, women remain gravely under-represented in global health governance. An intersectional approach to representation in global health governance, which prioritises equity in participation beyond gender, can enable transformative policymaking that fosters transparent, accountable and just health systems.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Liderança , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Formulação de Políticas
3.
Global Health ; 18(1): 74, 2022 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35907893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan started after the US and international allies' withdrawal. This has put the country in a dire situation as the globalized infrastructure supporting Afghanistan came to halt. Moreover, 10 billion USD of Afghanistan's assets were frozen by the U.S and other international organizations after the Taliban takeover. This further exacerbated the humanitarian crisis and quickened the economic collapse in Afghanistan. These assets should be freed to support the people of Afghanistan. MAIN BODY: In order to address this situation, international oversight is needed to allow these funds to be returned and used by the Central Bank of Afghanistan without misappropriation by the Taliban. We suggest a number of short term interventions and long term considerations to improve the situation in Afghanistan with the $10 billion in frozen assets. In the short term, economic stability and the hunger crisis should be addressed by funding international organizations such as the World Food Program and national Afghani NGOs. In the long term funds should be used to build back the economy, build healthcare infrastructure, and support the development of women and children. CONCLUSION: At this juncture, the world and international organizations have a moral and ethical responsibility to ensure the 10 billion in funds go to the owners, the people of Afghanistan. With oversight and fund distribution to the right partners, progress can be made by providing support in security, healthcare, education and food resources. This calls for action to deliver $10 billion of assets to the Afghan people in a transparent manner, avoiding further tension and disasters in the country.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Organizações , Afeganistão , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 23(3): 334-344, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma exposure is a highly prevalent experience for patients and clinicians in emergency medicine (EM). Trauma-informed care (TIC) is an effective framework to mitigate the negative health impacts of trauma. This systematic review synthesizes the range of TIC interventions in EM, with a focus on patient and clinician outcomes, and identifies gaps in the current research on implementing TIC. METHODS: The study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020205182). We systematically searched peer-reviewed journals and abstracts in the PubMed, EMBASE (Elsevier), PsycINFO (EBSCO), Social Services Abstract (ProQuest), and CINAHL (EBSCO) databases from 1990 onward on August 12, 2020. We analyzed studies describing explicit TIC interventions in the ED setting using inductive qualitative content analysis to identify recurrent themes and identify unique trauma-informed interventions in each study. Studies not explicitly citing TIC were excluded. Studies were assessed for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa criteria and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) Checklist. RESULTS: We identified a total of 1,372 studies and abstracts, with 10 meeting inclusion criteria for final analysis. Themes within TIC interventions that emerged included educational interventions, collaborations with allied health professionals and community organizations, and patient and clinician safety interventions. Educational interventions included lectures, online modules, and standardized patient exercises. Collaborations with community organizations focused on addressing social determinants of health. All interventions suggested a positive impact from TIC on either clinicians or patients, but outcomes data remain limited. CONCLUSION: Trauma-informed care is a nascent field in EM with limited operationalization of TIC approaches. Future studies with patient and clinician outcomes analyzing universal TIC precautions and systems-level interventions are needed.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência , Humanos
5.
Med Oncol ; 39(5): 91, 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568790

RESUMO

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) grade IV glioma is the most frequent and deadly intracranial cancer. This tumor is determined by unrestrained progression, uncontroled angiogenesis, high infiltration and weak response to treatment, which is chiefly because of abnormal signaling pathways in the tumor. A member related to the Cap 'n' collar family of keypart-leucine zipper transcription agents-the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulates adaptive protection answers by organized upregulation of many genes that produce the cytoprotective factors. In reply to cellular pressures types such as stresses, Nrf2 escapes Kelch-like ECH-related protein 1 (Keap1)-facilitated suppression, moves from the cytoplasm towards the nucleus and performs upregulation of gene expression of antioxidant responsive element (ARE). Nrf2 function is related tocontrolling many types of diseases in the human specially GBM tumor.Thus, we will review the epigeneticalregulatory actions on the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway and potential therapeutic options in GBM by aiming the stimulation of Nrf2.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/genética , Humanos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Front Digit Health ; 4: 847002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360368

RESUMO

While electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to be effective in improving patient care in low-resource settings, there are still barriers to implementing them, including adaptability, usability, and sustainability. Taking a user-centered design process we developed the Hikma Health EHR for low resourced clinics caring for displaced populations. This EHR was built using React Native and Typescript that sync to a Python backend repository which is deployed on Google Cloud SQL. To date the Hikma Health EHR has been deployed for 26,000 patients. The positive impacts of the system reported by clinician users are 3-fold: (1) improved continuity of care; (2) improved visualization of clinical data; and (3) improved efficiency, resulting in a higher volume of patients being treated. While further development is needed, our open-source model will allow any organization to modify this system to meet their clinical and administrative needs.

7.
Global Health ; 18(1): 23, 2022 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With large swathes of the world's population-majority clustered in low- and middle-income countries-still yet to receive the minimum of two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine; The need to address the failures of international solidarity to equitably distribute COVID-19 vaccines is now more urgent than ever to help curb the pandemic and prevent future variants. However, many high-income countries have adopted a "me first" approach, proceeding to offer COVID-19 booster doses to their entire populations, including those at least risk of severe illness, whilst the rest of the world is left unvaccinated or partially vaccinated with one dose for even their most vulnerable communities. MAIN BODY: COVID-19 vaccine inequity places the health of the global population at risk and exacerbates socio-economic repercussions, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Initiatives launched to combat vaccine inequity such as the Fair Allocation Framework for the COVID-19 Vaccines (COVAX) have been unsuccessful as several governments, primarily from high-income countries, have scaled down their contributions to the initiative. Furthermore, COVAX has not seriously engaged with the Access to COVID-19 Tools (ACT) Health Systems Connector, as was originally intended, leading to crucial health systems components critical to vaccine delivery to be overlooked. Several strategies can be employed to help achieve the desired global immunization goals, such as Intellectual Property waivers, increased donations, and activation of new COVID-19 vaccine manufacturing hubs. In addition, continued advocacy for vaccine equity by all involved and affected stakeholders, as well as critical amendments to existing or upcoming legislation and funding mechanisms will help address the shortcomings of current inequitable vaccine distribution. CONCLUSIONS: Global solidarity and collective action through pandemic governance mechanisms are urgently needed to ensure vaccine equity. These interventions are vital to rapidly mitigate ongoing health and humanitarian crises and ultimately curb the pandemic, sooner rather than later.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Vacinas , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Saúde Global , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
8.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(2): e33848, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35147509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rise of conflict, extreme weather events, and pandemics have led to larger displaced populations worldwide. Displaced populations have unique acute and chronic health needs that must be met by low-resource health systems. Electronic health records (EHRs) have been shown to improve health outcomes in displaced populations, but need to be adapted to meet the constraints of these health systems. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this viewpoint is to describe the development and deployment of an EHR designed to care for displaced populations in low-resource settings. METHODS: Using a human-centered design approach, we conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with patients, health care providers, and administrators in Lebanon and Jordan to identify the essential EHR features. These features, including modular workflows, multilingual interfaces, and offline-first capabilities, led to the development of the Hikma Health EHR, which has been deployed in Lebanon and Nicaragua. RESULTS: We report the successes and challenges from 12 months of Hikma Health EHR deployment in a mobile clinic providing care to Syrian refugees in Bekaa Valley, Lebanon. Successes include the EHR's ability to (1) increase clinical efficacy by providing detailed patient records, (2) be adaptable to the threats of COVID-19, and (3) improve organizational planning. Lessons learned include technical fixes to methods of identifying patients through name or their medical record ID. CONCLUSIONS: As the number of displaced people continues to rise globally, it is imperative that solutions are created to help maximize the health care they receive. Free, open-sourced, and adaptable EHRs can enable organizations to better provide for displaced populations.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35078813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cash transfers, payments provided by formal or informal institutions to recipients, are increasingly used in emergencies. While increasing autonomy and being supportive of local economies, cash transfers are a cost-effective method in some settings to cover basic needs and extend benefits of limited humanitarian aid budgets. Yet, the extent to which cash transfers impact health in humanitarian settings remains largely unexplored. This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the effect of cash transfers on health outcomes and health service utilisation in humanitarian contexts. METHODS: Studies eligible for inclusion were peer reviewed (quantitative,qualitative and mixed-methods). Nine databases (PubMed, EMBAS, Medline, CINAHL, Global Health, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, SciELO and LiLACS) were searched without language and without a lower bound time restriction through 24 February 2021. The search was updated to include articles published through 8 December 2021. Data were extracted using a piloted extraction tool and quality was assessed using The Joanna Briggs Critical Appraisal Tool. Due to heterogeneity in study designs and outcomes, results were synthesised narratively and no meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: 30 673 records were identified. After removing duplicates, 17 715 were double screened by abstract and title, and 201 in full text. Twenty-three articles from 16 countries were included reporting on nutrition outcomes, psychosocial and mental health, general/subjective health and well-being, acute illness (eg, diarrhoea, respiratory infection), diabetes control (eg, blood glucose self-monitoring, haemoglobin A1C levels) and gender-based violence. Nineteen studies reported some positive impacts on various health outcomes and use of health services, 11 reported no statistically significant impact on outcomes assessed and 4 reported potential negative impacts on health outcomes. DISCUSSION: Although there is evidence to suggest a positive relationship between cash transfers and health outcomes in humanitarian settings, high-quality empirical evidence, that is methodologically robust, investigates a range of humanitarian settings and is conducted over longer time periods is needed. This should consider factors influencing programme implementation and the differential impact of cash transfers designed to improve health versus multipurpose cash transfers. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021237275.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(1): 333-340, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004102

RESUMO

Strengthening health systems and maintaining essential service delivery during health emergencies response is critical for early detection and diagnosis, prompt treatment, and effective control of pandemics, including the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Health information systems (HIS) developed during recent Ebola outbreaks in West Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) provided opportunities to collect, analyze, and distribute data to inform both day-to-day and long-term policy decisions on outbreak preparedness. As COVID-19 continues to sweep across the globe, HIS and related technological advancements remain vital for effective and sustained data sharing, contact tracing, mapping and monitoring, community risk sensitization and engagement, preventive education, and timely preparedness and response activities. In reviewing literature of how HIS could have further supported mitigation of these Ebola outbreaks and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, 3 key areas were identified: governance and coordination, health systems infrastructure and resources, and community engagement. In this concept study, we outline scalable HIS lessons from recent Ebola outbreaks and early COVID-19 responses along these 3 domains, synthesizing recommendations to offer clear, evidence-based approaches on how to leverage HIS to strengthen the current pandemic response and foster community health systems resilience moving forward.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
11.
Fam Med ; 53(9): 805-806, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624130
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252718, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115776

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard of care in providing non-invasive positive pressure support to neonates in respiratory distress in high-resource settings. While safety has been demonstrated in low-resource settings, there is a lack of knowledge on the barriers and facilitators to proper implementation. OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe the barriers, facilitators, and priorities for future implementation of CPAP for neonates and infants in low-resource settings. METHODS: A systematic search (database inception to March 6, 2020) was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, Global Health, and the WHO Global Index Medicus using PRISMA-ScR guidelines. Original research articles pertaining to implementation of CPAP devices in low-resource settings, provider or parent perspectives and experiences with CPAP, cost-benefit analyses, and cost-effectiveness studies were included. Inductive content analysis was conducted. FINDINGS: 1385 article were screened and 54 studies across 19 countries met inclusion criteria. Six major themes emerged: device attributes, patient experiences, parent experiences, provider experiences, barriers, and facilitators. Nasal trauma was the most commonly reported complication. Barriers included unreliable electricity and lack of bioengineering support. Facilitators included training, mentorship and empowerment of healthcare providers. Device design, supply chain infrastructure, and training models were imperative to the adoption and sustainability of CPAP. CONCLUSION: Sustainable implementation of CPAP in low resource settings requires easy-to-use devices, ready access to consumables, and holistic, user-driven training. Further research is necessary on standardizing metrics, interventions that support optimal provider performance, and conditions needed for successful long-term health system integration.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/efeitos adversos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/economia , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia
13.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 667404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34055699

RESUMO

Respiratory illnesses are a leading cause of death for children worldwide, with the majority of these cases occurring from preterm birth complications or acute respiratory infections. Appropriate respiratory intervention must be provided quickly to lower the chances of death or permanent harm. As a result, respiratory support given in prehospital and interfacility transport can substantially improve health outcomes for these patients, particularly in areas where transportation time to appropriate facilities is lengthy. Existing literature supports the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV), such as nasal or bilevel continuous positive airway pressure, as a safe form of respiratory support for children under 18 years old in certain transportation settings. This mini review summarizes the literature on pediatric NIV in transport and highlights significant gaps that future researchers should address. In particular, we identify the need to: solidify clinical guidelines for the selection of eligible pediatric patients for transport on NIV; explore the range of factors influencing successful NIV implementation during transportation; and apply appropriate best practices in low and middle income countries.

14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(1)2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has put a spotlight on political leadership around the world. Differences in how leaders address the pandemic through public messages have practical implications for building trust and an effective response within a country. METHODS: We analysed the speeches made by 20 heads of government around the world (Bangladesh, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Russia, South Africa, Scotland, Sint Maarten, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan) to highlight the differences between men and women leaders in discussing COVID-19. We used an inductive analytical approach, coding speeches for specific themes based on language and content. FINDINGS: Five primary themes emerged across a total of 122 speeches on COVID-19, made by heads of government: economics and financial relief, social welfare and vulnerable populations, nationalism, responsibility and paternalism, and emotional appeals. While all leaders described the economic impact of the pandemic, women spoke more frequently about the impact on the individual scale. Women leaders were also more often found describing a wider range of social welfare services, including: mental health, substance abuse and domestic violence. Both men and women from lower-resource settings described detailed financial relief and social welfare support that would impact the majority of their populations. While 17 of the 20 leaders used war metaphors to describe COVID-19 and the response, men largely used these with greater volume and frequency. CONCLUSION: While this analysis does not attempt to answer whether men or women are more effective leaders in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, it does provide insight into the rhetorical tools and types of language used by different leaders during a national and international crisis. This analysis provides additional evidence on the differences in political leaders' messages and priorities to inspire citizens' adhesion to the social contract in the adoption of response and recovery measures. However, it does not consider the influence of contexts, such as the public audience, on leaders' strategic communication approaches.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Governo , Comunicação em Saúde , Liderança , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 15(6): 685-690, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641188

RESUMO

Despite growing international attention, the anthropological and socio-behavioral elements of epidemics continue to be understudied and under resourced and lag behind the traditional outbreak response infrastructure. As seen in the current 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the importance of socio-behavioral elements in understanding transmission and facilitating control of many outbreak-prone pathogens, this is problematic. Beyond the recent strengthening of global outbreak response capacities and global health security measures, a greater focus on the socio-behavioral components of outbreak response is required. We add to the current discussion by briefly highlighting the importance of socio-behavior in the Ebola virus disease (EVD) response, and describe vital areas of future development, including methods for community engagement and validated frameworks for behavioral modeling and change in outbreak settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Ciências Sociais
16.
J Law Med Ethics ; 49(4): 611-621, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006052

RESUMO

In the face of limited resources during the COVID-19 pandemic response, public health experts and ethicists have sought to apply guiding principles in determining how those resources, including vaccines, should be allocated.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Eticistas , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Justiça Social
17.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(12): e24614, 2020 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, nonpharmacologic interventions (NPIs) have been the main tool used to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes social distancing measures (closing businesses, closing schools, and quarantining symptomatic persons) and contact tracing (tracking and following exposed individuals). While preliminary research across the globe has shown these policies to be effective, there is currently a lack of information on the effectiveness of NPIs in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to create a granular NPI data set at the county level and then analyze the relationship between NPI policies and changes in reported COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Using a standardized crowdsourcing methodology, we collected time-series data on 7 key NPIs for 1320 US counties. RESULTS: This open-source data set is the largest and most comprehensive collection of county NPI policy data and meets the need for higher-resolution COVID-19 policy data. Our analysis revealed a wide variation in county-level policies both within and among states (P<.001). We identified a correlation between workplace closures and lower growth rates of COVID-19 cases (P=.004). We found weak correlations between shelter-in-place enforcement and measures of Democratic local voter proportion (R=0.21) and elected leadership (R=0.22). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first large-scale NPI analysis at the county level demonstrating a correlation between NPIs and decreased rates of COVID-19. Future work using this data set will explore the relationship between county-level policies and COVID-19 transmission to optimize real-time policy formulation.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Busca de Comunicante , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Humanos , Incidência , Distanciamento Físico , Políticas , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estados Unidos
18.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(6): 152-161, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Social risks, or adverse social conditions associated with poor health, are prevalent in emergency department (ED) patients, but little is known about how the prevalence of social risk compares to a patient's reported social need, which incorporates patient preference for intervention. The goal of this study was to describe the relationship between social risk and social need, and identify factors associated with differential responses to social risk and social need questions. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 48 hours of time-shift sampling in a large urban ED. Consenting patients completed a demographic questionnaire and assessments of social risk and social need. We applied descriptive statistics to the prevalence of social risk and social need, and multivariable logistic regression to assess factors associated with social risk, social need, or both. RESULTS: Of the 269 participants, 100 (37%) reported social risk, 83 (31%) reported social need, and 169 (63%) reported neither social risk nor social need. Although social risk and social need were significantly associated (p < 0.01), they incompletely overlapped. Over 50% in each category screened positive in more than one domain (eg, housing instability, food insecurity). In multivariable models, those with higher education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.44 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.24-0.80]) and private insurance (aOR 0.50 [95% CI, 0.29-0.88]) were less likely to report social risk compared to those with lower education and state/public insurance, respectively. Spanish-speakers (aOR 4.07 [95% CI, 1.17-14.10]) and non-Hispanic Black patients (aOR 5.00 [95% CI, 1.91-13.12]) were more likely to report social need, while those with private insurance were less likely to report social need (private vs state/public: aOR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.07-0.26]). CONCLUSION: Approximately one-third of patients in a large, urban ED screened positive for at least one social risk or social need, with over half in each category reporting risk/need across multiple domains. Different demographic variables were associated with social risk vs social need, suggesting that individuals with social risks differ from those with social needs, and that screening programs should consider including both assessments.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Habitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Int Health ; 11(6): 528-535, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While access to healthcare has been a focus of international development, populations around the world continue to lack proper access to care. Identifying at-risk demographic groups can help advance efforts both regionally and internationally. There are only a small number of studies that previously have assessed physical barriers and attitudes in Nepal. METHODS: This study assessed the factors and attitudes associated with healthcare accessibility in a rural population outside of Lumbini, Nepal. This descriptive cross-sectional study used a volunteer-sampling approach to collect 585 questionnaire responses from the area formerly known as the Madhuwani Village Development Committee. RESULTS: The study found that the population was more likely to access private care than public, and reported longer times to access a hospital than the national average. Across almost all findings, those with lower than a secondary education had significantly larger barriers, lower satisfaction and higher reported difficulty in accessing healthcare. Females were shown to have significantly larger transportation barriers in accessing care and lower satisfaction compared with males. CONCLUSIONS: Results identify women and the less-educated as having larger barriers to accessing healthcare. Further research should focus on how inequities in access affect health outcomes among these identified vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal , Medição de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Meios de Transporte/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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