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1.
Ambio ; 49(1): 62-73, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879268

RESUMO

As evidence for the devastating impacts of air pollution on human health continues to increase, improving urban air quality has become one of the most pressing tasks facing policy makers world-wide. Increasingly, and very often on the basis of conflicting and/or weak evidence, the introduction of green infrastructure (GI) is seen as a win-win solution to urban air pollution, reducing ground-level concentrations without imposing restrictions on traffic and other polluting activities. The impact of GI on air quality is highly context dependent, with models suggesting that GI can improve urban air quality in some situations, but be ineffective or even detrimental in others. Here we set out a novel conceptual framework explaining how and where GI can improve air quality, and offer six specific policy interventions, underpinned by research, that will always allow GI to improve air quality. We call GI with unambiguous benefits for air quality GI4AQ. However, GI4AQ will always be a third-order option for mitigating air pollution, after reducing emissions and extending the distance between sources and receptors.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Humanos
2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31837069

RESUMO

Projected future climatic extremes such as heatwaves and droughts are expected to have major impacts on emissions and concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) with potential implications for air quality, climate and human health. While the effects of changing temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the synthesis and emission of isoprene, the most abundant of these bVOCs, are well known, the role of other environmental factors such as soil moisture stress are not fully understood and are therefore poorly represented in land surface models. As part of the Wytham Isoprene iDirac Oak Tree Measurements campaign, continuous measurements of isoprene mixing ratio were made throughout the summer of 2018 in Wytham Woods, a mixed deciduous woodland in southern England. During this time, the United Kingdom experienced a prolonged heatwave and drought, and isoprene mixing ratios were observed to increase by more than 400% at Wytham Woods under these conditions. We applied the state-of-the-art FORest Canopy-Atmosphere Transfer canopy exchange model to investigate the processes leading to these elevated concentrations. We found that although current isoprene emissions algorithms reproduced observed mixing ratios in the canopy before and after the heatwave, the model underestimated observations by ~40% during the heatwave-drought period implying that models may substantially underestimate the release of isoprene to the atmosphere in future cases of mild or moderate drought. Stress-induced emissions of isoprene based on leaf temperature and soil water content (SWC) were incorporated into current emissions algorithms leading to significant improvements in model output. A combination of SWC, leaf temperature and rewetting emission bursts provided the best model-measurement fit with a 50% improvement compared to the baseline model. Our results highlight the need for more long-term ecosystem-scale observations to enable improved model representation of atmosphere-biosphere interactions in a changing global climate.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 49(14): 8566-75, 2015 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26098452

RESUMO

Isoprene and other volatile organic compounds emitted from vegetation play a key role in governing the formation of ground-level ozone. Emission rates of such compounds depend critically on the plant species. The cultivation of biofuel feedstocks will contribute to future land use change, altering the distribution of plant species and hence the magnitude and distribution of emissions. Here we use relationships between biomass yield and isoprene emissions derived from experimental data for 29 commercially available poplar hybrids to assess the impact that the large-scale cultivation of poplar for use as a biofuel feedstock will have on air quality, specifically ground-level ozone concentrations, in Europe. We show that the increases in ground-level ozone across Europe will increase the number of premature deaths attributable to ozone pollution each year by up to 6%. Substantial crop losses (up to ∼9 Mt y(-1) of wheat and maize) are also projected. We further demonstrate that these impacts are strongly dependent on the location of the poplar plantations, due to the prevailing meteorology, the population density, and the dominant crop type of the region. Our findings indicate the need for a concerted and centralized decision-making process that considers all aspects of future land use change in Europe, and not just the effect on greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Mortalidade Prematura , Ozônio/análise , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição do Ar/análise , Biomassa , Butadienos/análise , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Hemiterpenos/análise , Humanos , Pentanos/análise , Populus/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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