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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126907, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418835

RESUMO

Morphological evolution of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with preferential crystal facets has appealed gigantic attention of research community. Herein, we prepare hierarchical hybrid material by structurally integrating fusiform-like CuNiAl LDHs petals on conductive backbone of CF (CF@CuNiAl LDHs) and investigate electrocatalytic behavior in nitrate reduction over a potential window of -0.7 V to +0.7 V. The CF@CuNiAl LDHs electrode exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic aptitude in nitrate sensing including broad linear ranges of 5 nM to 40 µM and 75 µM to 2.4 mM with lowest detection limit of 0.02 nM (S/N = 3). The sensor shows sensitivity of 830.5 ±â€¯1.84 µA mM1- cm2- and response time within 3 s. Owing to synergistic collaboration of improved electron transfer kinetics, specific fusiform-like morphology, presence of more catalytically active {111} facets and superb catalytic activity of LDHs, CF@CuNiAl LDHs electrode has outperformed as electrochemical sensor. Encouraged from incredible performance, CF@CuNiAl LDHs flexible electrode has been applied in real-time in-vitro detection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) through the sensing of nitrate because NOB convert nitrite into nitrate by characteristic metabolic process to obtain their energy. Further, CF@CuNiAl LDHs based sensing podium has also been employed in in-vitro detection of nitrates from mineral water, tap water and Pepsi drink.

2.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259423, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748588

RESUMO

In this paper, the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern (DLS) and Duckworth-Lewis-McHale-Asif (DLMA) methods of revising targets for a team batting in second innings in an interrupted Limited Overs International Cricket (LOI), are examined for fairness. The work discusses four significant points: flexibility, intuition, simplicity, and goodness-of-fit of the two mentioned methods. The research findings have shown that the DLMA method is better in every aspect than the DLS method. Further, the data of 1764 ODI matches played during 2004-2021 to investigate the compatibility of the DLMA for high run-scoring One-Day International matches. The results show that DLMA is compatible to the situation of the well-above run-scoring situation.

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(11): 6488-6494, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764763

RESUMO

Anaplasma centrale (A. centrale) is an obligate red blood cell residing tick transmitted rickettsiae that has not been studied extensively for its prevalence in cattle along with its epidemiology. Aim of this investigation was to report the seasonal prevalence, phylogeny and epidemiological parameters associated with the prevalence of A. centrale in cattle breeds enrolled from District Layyah in Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 844 blood samples [Cross breed = 300, Holstein Friesian = 244, Sahiwal breed = 300)] were collected from apparently healthy cattle along with epidemiological data during 2017-18. PCR amplified 426 base pair fragment from 16S rRNA gene of A. centrale in 14.4% (122/844) of cattle. Amplified 16S rRNA partial gene sequence of A. centrale were confirmed by DNA sequencing and deposited to GenBank. Highest A. centrale prevalence was observed in spring (24%) followed by autumn (12.4%) summer (10%) and winter (7.1%) seasons. Sahiwal breed (18.3%) was most susceptible to A. centrale infection followed by cross (12.3%) and Holstein Friesian breed (12.3%). 69/844 (8.2%) of Giemsa stained cattle blood smears were also found positive for Anaplasma spp. Farms where animal use to drink pool water and farms where dogs and other dairy animals were living with cattle had higher A. centrale prevalence. Female cattle and dogs having tick burden were found associated with A. centrale infection. Hematological profile was severely disturbed in A. centrale positive cattle. It is recommended that A. centrale should be screened in cattle, in addition to A. marginale, for the effective control of tick born diseases in Pakistan.

4.
Med Leg J ; : 258172211052930, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758645

RESUMO

We investigated the development of third molars among Malaysians (including variations between jaws and genders) using Demirjian's method. Dental panoramic radiographs of 1224 subjects aged 8 to 24 years were examined, and the molars were assigned Demirjian et al.'s development grades (A-H). Results indicated that 18.8% had congenitally missing or extracted third molars. Development of molars begins earlier in females (also in the mandible), but by age 9, male children's molar development speeds up with more advanced grades in their middle teens than females. Grade C indicates the subject is a juvenile, while initiation of root development (Grade E), was observed from 13 years on. Grade H can occur in a child aged 18 years who technically is still a juvenile. We compared the development and growth patterns of the third molar from both the maxilla and the mandible.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797543

RESUMO

This study explores the impact of fiscal policy on environmental pollution, employing the vector autoregressive (VAR) model on annual data from 1976 to 2018 in Pakistan. We estimate the effect of total expenditure, total revenue, education expenditures, health expenditures, and other dynamic determinants such as gross domestic product (GDP), private investment, market rate, and crude oil price on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in particular. Further, this study creates impulse response functions to check the fiscal shocks, coordinating with five scenarios of public expenditures, segregated into government revenue, and education and health expenditures. The outcomes indicate that government spending in the public sectors (education and health) had a diminishing effect on CO2 emissions, whereas government revenue that was collected from taxes improved economic growth but at a cost of environmental pollution. In Pakistan, a fiscal policy scenario has been implemented that increases government expenditures to alleviate the effects of CO2 emissions. Therefore, policymakers should provide the right direction for the feasible distribution of resources in every public sector through a powerful structure, which will ultimately reduce the overall level of environmental deficit.

6.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827175

RESUMO

Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is initiated in bone marrow due to chromosomal translocation t(9;22) leading to fusion oncogene BCR-ABL. Targeting BCR-ABL by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has changed fatal CML into an almost curable disease. Despite that, TKIs lose their effectiveness due to disease progression. Unfortunately, the mechanism of CML progression is poorly understood and common biomarkers for CML progression are unavailable. This study was conducted to find novel biomarkers of CML progression by employing whole-exome sequencing (WES). Materials and Methods: WES of accelerated phase (AP) and blast crisis (BC) CML patients was carried out, with chronic-phase CML (CP-CML) patients as control. After DNA library preparation and exome enrichment, clustering and sequencing were carried out using Illumina platforms. Statistical analysis was carried out using SAS/STAT software version 9.4, and R package was employed to find mutations shared exclusively by all AP-/BC-CML patients. Confirmation of mutations was carried out using Sanger sequencing and protein structure modeling using I-TASSER followed by mutant generation and visualization using PyMOL. Results: Three novel genes (ANKRD36, ANKRD36B and PRSS3) were mutated exclusively in all AP-/BC-CML patients. Only ANKRD36 gene mutations (c.1183_1184 delGC and c.1187_1185 dupTT) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Protein modeling studies showed that mutations induce structural changes in ANKRD36 protein. Conclusions: Our studies show that ANKRD36 is a potential common biomarker and drug target of early CML progression. ANKRD36 is yet uncharacterized in humans. It has the highest expression in bone marrow, specifically myeloid cells. We recommend carrying out further studies to explore the role of ANKRD36 in the biology and progression of CML.

7.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 7: e754, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805507

RESUMO

With continuously rising trends in applications of information and communication technologies in diverse sectors of life, the networks are challenged to meet the stringent performance requirements. Increasing the bandwidth is one of the most common solutions to ensure that suitable resources are available to meet performance objectives such as sustained high data rates, minimal delays, and restricted delay variations. Guaranteed throughput, minimal latency, and the lowest probability of loss of the packets can ensure the quality of services over the networks. However, the traffic volumes that networks need to handle are not fixed and it changes with time, origin, and other factors. The traffic distributions generally follow some peak intervals and most of the time traffic remains on moderate levels. The network capacity determined by peak interval demands often requires higher capacities in comparison to the capacities required during the moderate intervals. Such an approach increases the cost of the network infrastructure and results in underutilized networks in moderate intervals. Suitable methods that can increase the network utilization in peak and moderate intervals can help the operators to contain the cost of network intrastate. This article proposes a novel technique to improve the network utilization and quality of services over networks by exploiting the packet scheduling-based erlang distribution of different serving areas. The experimental results show that significant improvement can be achieved in congested networks during the peak intervals with the proposed approach both in terms of utilization and quality of service in comparison to the traditional approaches of packet scheduling in the networks. Extensive experiments have been conducted to study the effects of the erlang-based packet scheduling in terms of packet-loss, end-to-end latency, delay variance and network utilization.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258920, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34739485

RESUMO

Weed infestation is a persistent problem for centuries and continues to be major yield reducing issue in modern agriculture. Chemical weed control through herbicides results in numerous ecological, environmental, and health-related issues. Moreover, numerous herbicides have evolved resistance against available herbicides. Plant extracts are regarded as an alternative to herbicides and a good weed management option. The use of plant extracts is environmentally safe and could solve the problem of herbicide resistance. Therefore, laboratory and wire house experiments were conducted to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of three Fabaceae species, i.e., Cassia occidentalis L. (Coffee senna), Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Common sesban) and Melilotus alba Medik. (White sweetclover) against seed germination and seedling growth of some broadleaved weed species. Firstly, N-hexane and aqueous extracts of these species were assessed for their phytotoxic effect against lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). The extracts found more potent were further tested against germination and seedling growth of four broadleaved weed species, i.e., Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Santa-Maria), Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Pigweed), Melilotus indica L (Indian sweetclover). and Rumex dentatus L. (Toothed dock) in Petri dish and pot experiments. Aqueous extracts of all species were more toxic than their N-hexane forms for seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce; therefore, aqueous extracts were assessed for their phytotoxic potential against four broadleaved weed species. Aqueous extracts of all species proved phytotoxic against T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus and retarder their germination by 57, 90, 100 and 58%, respectively. Nevertheless, foliar spray of C. occidentalis extract was the most effective against T. portulacastrum as it reduced its dry biomass by 72%, while M. alba was effective against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus and M. indica and reduced their dry biomass by 55, 68 and 81%, respectively. It is concluded that aqueous extracts of M. alba, S. sesban and C. occidentalis could be used to retard seed germination of T. portulacastrum, P. hysterophorus, M. indica and R. dentatus. Similarly, aqueous extracts of C. occidentalis can be used to suppress dry biomass of T. portulacastrum, and those of M. alba against P. hysterophorus, R. dentatus. However, use of these extracts needs their thorough testing under field conditions.

9.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 7: e675, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34712788

RESUMO

The presence of 3D sensors in hand-held or head-mounted smart devices has motivated many researchers around the globe to devise algorithms to manage 3D point cloud data efficiently and economically. This paper presents a novel lossy compression technique to compress and decompress 3D point cloud data that will save storage space on smart devices as well as minimize the use of bandwidth when transferred over the network. The idea presented in this research exploits geometric information of the scene by using quadric surface representation of the point cloud. A region of a point cloud can be represented by the coefficients of quadric surface when the boundary conditions are known. Thus, a set of quadric surface coefficients and their associated boundary conditions are stored as a compressed point cloud and used to decompress. An added advantage of proposed technique is its flexibility to decompress the cloud as a dense or a course cloud. We compared our technique with state-of-the-art 3D lossless and lossy compression techniques on a number of standard publicly available datasets with varying the structure complexities.

10.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1289-1301, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689597

RESUMO

COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Oceanos e Mares , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antivirais/química , Depsipeptídeos , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/química , Cloridrato de Fingolimode/farmacologia , Humanos , Lectinas , Biologia Marinha , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacologia , Ficocianina/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Alga Marinha , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638895

RESUMO

Beta-Caryophyllene (BCP), a naturally occurring sesquiterpene abundantly found in cloves, hops, and cannabis, is the active candidate of a relatively new group of vascular-inhibiting compounds that aim to block existing tumor blood vessels. Previously, we have reported the anti-cancer properties of BCP by utilizing a series of in-vitro anti-tumor-related assays using human colorectal carcinoma cells. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BCP on in-vitro, ex-vivo, and in-vivo models of anti-angiogenic assays and evaluate its anti-cancer activity in xenograft tumor (both ectopic and orthotopic) mice models of human colorectal cancer. Computational structural analysis and an apoptosis antibody array were also performed to understand the molecular players underlying this effect. BCP exhibited strong anti-angiogenic activity by blocking the migration of endothelial cells, tube-like network formation, suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and sprouting of rat aorta microvessels. BCP has a probable binding at Site#0 on the surface of VEGFR2. Moreover, BCP significantly deformed the vascularization architecture compared to the negative control in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. BCP showed a remarkable reduction in tumor size and fluorescence molecular tomography signal intensity in all the mice treated with BCP, in a dose-dependent relationship, in ectopic and orthotopic tumor xenograft models, respectively. The histological analysis of the tumor from BCP-treated mice revealed a clear reduction of the density of vascularization. In addition, BCP induced apoptosis through downregulation of HSP60, HTRA, survivin, and XIAP, along with the upregulation of p21 expressions. These results suggest that BCP acts at multiple stages of angiogenesis and could be used as a promising therapeutic candidate to halt the growth of colorectal tumor cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Neovascularização Patológica/prevenção & controle , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/irrigação sanguínea , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/irrigação sanguínea , Células HCT116 , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos Nus , Microvasos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 731828, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512357

RESUMO

To date, the current COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has infected 99.2 million while killed 2.2 million people throughout the world and is still spreading widely. The unavailability of potential therapeutics against this virus urges to search and develop new drugs. SARS-CoV-2 enters human cells by interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expressed on human cell surface through utilizing receptor-binding domain (RBD) of its spike glycoprotein. The RBD is highly conserved and is also a potential target for blocking its interaction with human cell surface receptor. We designed short peptides on the basis of our previously reported truncated ACE2 (tACE2) for increasing the binding affinity as well as the binding interaction network with RBD. These peptides can selectively bind to RBD with much higher affinities than the cell surface receptor. Thus, these can block all the binding residues required for binding to cell surface receptor. We used selected amino acid regions (21-40 and 65-75) of ACE2 as scaffold for the de novo peptide design. Our designed peptide Pep1 showed interactions with RBD covering almost all of its binding residues with significantly higher binding affinity (-13.2 kcal mol-1) than the cell surface receptor. The molecular dynamics (MD) simulation results showed that designed peptides form a stabilized complex with RBD. We suggest that blocking the RBD through de novo designed peptides can serve as a potential candidate for COVID-19 treatment after further clinical investigations.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Conyza bonariensis is known to have anti-cancer properties. OBJECTIVE: The study investigated the in vitro pro-apoptotic properties of Conyza bonariensis (C. bonariensis) towards human lymphoblastic leukemia Jurkat cells. METHODS: C. bonariensis are extracted with non-polar solvent by maceration. MTS cell viability assay was employed to determine the cytotoxic activity of the extract towards human leukemia Jurket cells and normal Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) cells. The phytochemical composition of the extract was chemically characterized using HPLC. Flow cytometric studies (FACS) were conducted to explore the pro-apoptotic potential of the extract. Western blot studies were employed to identify the molecular targets involved in the induction of apoptosis. RESULTS: The n-hexane extract showed selective cytotoxic activity towards Jurkat cells. FACS analysis indicated that the extract induced early and late apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Western blot studies revealed that the extract down-regulated the expression of DNMT1, SIRT1, and UHRF1 with a simultaneous up-regulation of the expression of p73 and caspases-3 proteins. HPLC characterization of the extract revealed the presence of phenolic compounds. CONCLUSION: Overall these findings demonstrate that the anticancer effects of a Conyza bonariensis extract towards human lymphoblastic leukemiais due to the modulation of the activity of multiple oncogenic and tumor suppressor proteins and that its phenolic content is involved are proposed to be responsible for these activities.

14.
Soc Sci Humanit Open ; 4(1): 100201, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490418

RESUMO

The current study aimed to explore the linguistic analysis of neologism related to Coronavirus (COVID-19). Recently, a new coronavirus disease COVID-19 has emerged as a respiratory infection with significant concern for global public health hazards. However, with each passing day, more and more confirmed cases are being reported worldwide which has alarmed the global authorities including the World Health Organization (WHO). In this study, the researcher uses the term neologism which means the coinage of new words. Neologism played a significant role throughout the history of epidemic and pandemic. The focus of this study is on the phenomenon of neologism to explore the creation of new words during the outbreak of COVID-19. The theoretical framework of this study is based on three components of neologism, i.e. word formation, borrowing, and lexical deviation. The researcher used the model of neologism as a research tool which is presented by Krishnamurthy in 2010. The study is also compared with the theory of onomasiology by Pavol Stekauer (1998). The secondary data have been used in this study. The data were collected from articles, books, Oxford Corpus, social media, and five different websites and retrieved from January 2020 to April 2020. The findings of this study revealed that with the outbreak of COVID-19, the majority of the people on social media and state briefings, the word-formation is utilized in the form of nouns, adjectives, and verbs. The abbreviations and acronyms are also used which are related to the current situation of COVID-19. No doubt, neologisms present colorful portrayals of various social and cultural practices of respective societies the rationale behind them all remains the same.

15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 1608760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568486

RESUMO

In the clinical settings, different anthropometric indicators like neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), midupper arm circumference (MUAC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and arm-to-height ratio (AHtR) have been suggested for evaluating overweight and obesity in children. The comparative ability of these indicators in Pakistan is yet unknown. This study is aimed at examining the validity of different anthropometric indicators of overweight and obesity simultaneously and at determining their superlative cut-off values that would correctly detect overweight and obesity in children. For this purpose, the dataset of anthropometric measurements height, weight, WC, MUAC, and NC of 5,964 Pakistani children, aged 5-12 years collected in a cross-sectional multiethnic anthropometric survey (MEAS), was used. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to assess the validity of different anthropometric indicators. The most sensitive and specific cut-off points, positive and negative predictive values of each indicator were also calculated. The results of the ROC curve indicated that all the studied indicators had a good performance but the indicators AHtR and WHtR had the highest value of the area under the curve (AUC) for the screening of children with overweight and obesity (AUC > 0.80). In the overall sample, AHtR, WHtR, MUAC, WC, and NC cut-off points indicative of overweight, in both boys and girls, were 0.14, 0.46, 18.41 cm, 62.86 cm, and 26.36 cm and 0.14, 0.47, 18.16 cm, 64.39 cm, and 26.54 cm, respectively; the corresponding values for obesity were 0.14, 0.47, 18.67 cm, 62.10 cm, and 26.36 cm and 0.14, 0.48, 20.19 cm, 64.39 cm, and 25.27 cm. We concluded that the sex-specific cut-off points for AHtR, WHtR, MUAC, WC, and NC can be used to diagnose overweight and obesity in Pakistani children.

16.
Cells ; 10(9)2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572054

RESUMO

Glimepiride (GMP), an oral hypoglycemic agent is extensively employed in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Transdermal delivery of GMP has been widely investigated as a promising alternative to an oral approach but the delivery of GMP is hindered owing to its low solubility and permeation. The present study was designed to formulate topical nanoemulgel GMP system and previously reported solubility enhanced glimepiride (GMP/ßCD/GEL-44/16) in combination with anti-diabetic oil to enhance the hypoglycemic effect. Nanoemulsions were developed using clove oil, Tween-80, and PEG-400 and were gelled using xanthan gum (3%, w/w) to achieve the final nanoemulgel formulations. All of the formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, zeta potential, pH, conductivity, viscosity, and in vitro skin permeation studies. In vivo hypoglycemic activity of the optimized nanoemulgel formulations was evaluated using a streptozocin-induced diabetes model. It was found that a synergistic combination of GMP with clove oil improved the overall drug permeation across the skin membrane and the hypoglycemic activity of GMP. The results showed that GMP/ßCD/GEL-44/16-loaded nanoemulgel enhanced the in vitro skin permeation and improved the hypoglycemic activity in comparison with pure and marketed GMP. It is suggested that topical nano emulsion-based GMP gel and GMP/ßCD/GEL-44/16 could be an effective alternative for oral therapy in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Emulsões , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacologia , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Nanopartículas/química , Permeabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Testes de Irritação da Pele , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
17.
Cureus ; 13(7): e16146, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354885

RESUMO

Introduction Intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) evaluation is the standard of care in patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The most common histological subtype of breast carcinoma is invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), followed by invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Alternatively, histological grades vary from grades G1 to G3. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of frozen section (FS) for detecting breast cancer metastasis to SLNs with respect to histological subtypes and grades. Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Histopathology at Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, Pakistan, from January 2013 till December 2020, over a duration of eight years. A total of 540 cases of primary breast cancer, undergoing upfront breast surgery were included in the study. Intraoperatively, SLNs were identified and sent for FS. After FS reporting, the remaining tissue was submitted for final (paraffin) section examination after formalin fixation, and results of FS and final (paraffin) sections were compared. Results The mean age of the patients included in the study was 52.05±12.42 years, and the median number of SLNs was three (ranging from one to 14). The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of intraoperative FS were 88.2%, 100%, 100%, 92.5%, and 95.2%, respectively. The sensitivity of FS for IDC was 88.3%, whereas it was 85.7% for ILC. Alternatively, the sensitivity of FS for grade G1, G2, and G3 tumors was 78.3%, 91.5%, and 90.2%, respectively. The false-negative rate for grade G1 tumors was 21.7%, which was higher than G2 and G3 tumors (8.5% and 9.8%, respectively). Similarly, the false-negative rate for cases where the number of SLNs was more than three was only 5.4%, which was lower than cases with a single and two to three SLNs sent on FS (23.1 and 14.7%, respectively). Conclusion The sensitivity of intraoperative FS for detecting ILC metastasis to axillary SLNs was not substantially different from IDC; however, histological grade affects the sensitivity of FS diagnosis, with lower-grade tumors having low sensitivity. Moreover, increasing the number of SLNs sent intraoperatively on FS improves the sensitivity of FS for detecting breast cancer metastasis to axillary SLNs.

18.
Front Psychol ; 12: 563070, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335346

RESUMO

The prime goal of this study is to analyze the impact of intrinsic rewards on the performance of an employee. It also focuses on the role of motivation of the employee as an intervening factor. To achieve this objective, data have been collected through the questionnaire method from small and medium enterprises of Pakistan. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed to the target population, and 300 were received. To test the hypotheses, the confirmatory factor analysis and the structural equation modeling have been used. The main results of the study have shown a positive and significant impact of intrinsic rewards on the performance of the employee. Specifically, the study reveals that the motivation of an employee significantly mediates the association between intrinsic rewards and the performance of the employee. In the light of the findings, implications are outlined.

19.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst) ; 2021: 4909012, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422550

RESUMO

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a disease of hematopoietic stem cells and is caused by the balanced translocations among the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22, which are called the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. In this study, 131 CML patients were enrolled. Complete blood cell count was performed at the time of diagnosis for all the patients. Cytogenetic (karyotyping) examination using bone marrow samples was conducted on 76 CML patients for the confirmation of Ph-positive (9;22)(q34;q11) standard translocation, complex variant translocation, and additional chromosome abnormalities. FISH was performed on 38 patients for diagnostic purposes and on 39 patients for monitoring purposes. Twenty-two samples of CML patients were evaluated by reverse transcriptase PCR and real-time PCR for the patients who failed to respond against imatinib mesylate. In this study, 72 (54.96%) were males and 59 (45.03%) were females with a median age of 38.5 years. CBC values in the diagnosis process showed that 75 patients had high values of WBC being >100 × 103/µl, while 71 (58.01) patients exhibited reduced values of hemoglobin, i.e., <10.00 mg/dl, and high values of PLTs > 100 were observed in 40 (30.53%) patients. Cytogenetic results show that standard translocation was developed in 63 (82.89%), development of complex variant translocations in 4 (5.32%), additional chromosomal abnormalities (ACAs) in 3 (3.94%), and ACAs together with complex variant translocations in 1 (1.31%) patient. At the time of diagnosis, 61 (92.95%) patients were in the chronic phase, 4 (5.63%) were in the accelerated phase, and only 1 (1.40%) was in the blast crisis. Out of twenty-two patients, only 6 CML patients who were shifted from imatinib mesylate to nilotinib showed BCR-ABL-positive amplification. However, only 7 out of twenty-one patients exhibit BCR-ABL gene values ≥ 1 after three months of follow-up when analyzed by the quantitative real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a novel five-way translocation 46XX,t(1;2;2;17;9;22)(p36.3,q21;q11.2,q21,q34,q11.2) and a novel four-way complex variant translocation 48XY,+8(8;17)(9;22),+der(22)(q11.2;q23)(q34;q11.2) in the accelerated phase.

20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 439, 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402970

RESUMO

Theileria ovis and Anaplasma marginale are intracellular pathogens affecting a wide range of animals, causing huge economic losses worldwide. The present study reports the molecular evidence of Theileria ovis and Anaplasma marginale in sheep blood samples (N = 218) collected from Layyah district in Punjab (Pakistan), where economy heavily relies on livestock. A 520 base pair fragment specific for 18S ribosomal RNA gene of Theileria ovis was PCR amplified in 23/218 (10.6%) sheep blood samples, while for Anaplasma marginale, a 265 base pair fragment specific for msp1b gene was generated in 15/218 (6.9%) sheep blood samples. Two blood samples were found co-infected (0.9%) with both parasites. Amplified PCR products of both parasites were confirmed by DNA sequencing and submitted to GenBank. Prevalence of both Theileria ovis (p = 0.3) and Anaplasma marginale (p = 0.4) varied non-significantly among the investigated sheep breeds. Tick burden on dogs present with sheep herds was found associated with Theileria ovis infection in sheep (p = 0.05). It was observed that lambs (p = 0.009), sheep in small herds (p = 0.04), and tick burden on dogs present with sheep herds (p = 0.01) were associated with Anaplasma marginale infection in sheep during the present study. In conclusion, we are reporting a higher prevalence of Theileria ovis than Anaplasma marginale in blood samples of sheep collected from Layyah district. Tick-infested dogs were found to be risk factors for the transmission of both pathogens in sheep, and tick control strategies should be extended to dogs associated with sheep herds in this area.


Assuntos
Anaplasma marginale , Anaplasmose , Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças do Cão , Theileria , Theileriose , Carrapatos , Anaplasma , Anaplasma marginale/genética , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Theileria/genética , Theileriose/epidemiologia
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