Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 14 de 14
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(1(Supplementary)): 241-244, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122854

RESUMO

Cerebrovascular diseases are known as serious public health problem worldwide, which can be addressed more precisely through molecular imaging of non-functional brain cells. CDP-choline is an active cerebrovascular chemotherapeutic agent that can be used for diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases post radiolabeling with γ-emitter radioisotopes. In this study we developed 99mTc labeled CDP-choline for imaging of cerebrovascular diseases particularly alzheimer, stroke, and parkinson's diseases. The radiosynthesis reaction resulted 97.47±2.34% radiochemical with promising stability, that is, >95% up to 6 h in blood serum. The biodistribution study in healthy mice revealed non-accumulated uptake of radiochemical in key body organs; in brain it was 8.59±1.11% ID/g at 1h post-injection which washed-out leaving behind 0.87±0.61% ID/g at 24 h post-injection. The over-all data revealed the 99mTc-CDP-choline could be a good candidate for further imaging investigations in diseased animal model.

2.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3 (Supplementary)): 1145-1154, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326872

RESUMO

Survivin (IAP proteins) is considered as a significant target for anticancer drug research owing to its upregulation in tumor cells to mediate resistance to apoptotic stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate phytochemicals as inhibitors of survivin with caspases to reactivate the functioning of caspases through molecular docking. The compounds namely 2(R), 4(R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine, 4-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[3,2-e]thiazine-6-sulfonamide, 2,3-Diketo-L-gulonic acid, (3-hydroxy-2-octadeca-9,12-dienoyloxypropyl) octadecanoate, 2-[[4-[[4-[(4-formamido-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl)amino]-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl]amino]-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl]amino]ethyl-dimethylazanium, Picolinic acid and (2-Hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) dihydrogen phosphate successfully bind inside the pocket of survivin. ADMETsar was used to evaluate the anticancer potential of selected compounds. These compounds can be proposed as effective inhibitors, disrupting the survivin-caspases interaction and reactivating the caspases function of apoptosis. The study might facilitate the development of cost-effective and natural drugs against cancer. However, further validation is essential for confirmation of its drug efficacy and bio-compatibility.

3.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3 (Supplementary)): 1145-1154, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303583

RESUMO

Survivin (IAP proteins) is considered as a significant target for anticancer drug research owing to its upregulation in tumor cells to mediate resistance to apoptotic stimulus. The current study aimed to investigate phytochemicals as inhibitors of survivin with caspases to reactivate the functioning of caspases through molecular docking. The compounds namely 2(R), 4(R)-dihydroxypyrrolidine, 4-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-dioxo-3,4-dihydrothieno[3,2-e]thiazine-6-sulfonamide, 2,3-Diketo-L-gulonic acid, (3-hydroxy-2-octadeca-9,12-dienoyloxypropyl) octadecanoate, 2-[[4-[[4-[(4-formamido-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl)amino]-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl]amino]-1-methylimidazole-2-carbonyl]amino]ethyl-dimethylazanium, Picolinic acid and (2-Hydroxy-5-nitrophenyl) dihydrogen phosphate successfully bind inside the pocket of survivin. ADMETsar was used to evaluate the anticancer potential of selected compounds. These compounds can be proposed as effective inhibitors, disrupting the survivin-caspases interaction and reactivating the caspases function of apoptosis. The study might facilitate the development of cost-effective and natural drugs against cancer. However, further validation is essential for confirmation of its drug efficacy and bio-compatibility.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Survivina/antagonistas & inibidores , Survivina/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Caspases/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Conformação Proteica , Survivina/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(3): 1138-1149, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947412

RESUMO

Heavy metals are released into the environment through both human and natural sources, may have a direct hepatic toxicity and are involved in chronic liver diseases. Modification in the regulation of heavy metals metabolism enhanced hepatitis c virus (HCV) replication which ultimately reduced outcomes of anti-viral therapy in chronic HCV patients. Chelation therapy with new drugs seems to eradicate HCV and may prevent liver complications. The present study was planned to explore the effects of MiADMSA (lipophilic chelating agent) for achieving maximum heavy metals elimination in hepatitis c virus patients with minimum side effects. For this purpose concentration of heavy metal was determined in HCV patients and established correlation of heavy metals between healthy persons and HCV patients. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to explore them. Concentrations of heavy metal in different samples (blood serum, nails and hair) of patients and healthy individuals. Result revealed that heavy metals (Lead, Cobalt, Cadmium, Manganese, Iron and Cooper) concentration were significantly higher in blood of HCV patients as compared to normal persons, but some metals like Ni and Zn were present in normal concentration and in low concentration respectively. After chelation with monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) a significant amount of heavy metals was excreted in the urine in a dose dependent manner. It was generally observed from the results that TDS is a better treatment option than BD for chelation of heavy metals in hepatitis c virus patients. This chelation therapy will be helpful to reverse the HCV related health problems.


Assuntos
Quelantes/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Metais Pesados/química , Adulto , Idoso , Fígado Gorduroso , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Humanos , Inflamação , Sobrecarga de Ferro/complicações , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Masculino , Metais Pesados/urina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Adulto Jovem
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(6 (Supplementary): 2709-2714, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587483

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immune receptors that mediate the inflammatory response during HCV infections. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of TLR9 gene polymorphism (rs5743836) in Pakistani patients infected with genotype 3a of HCV. Total 500 subjects were recruited, 400 HCV patients and 100 healthy individuals. Genotyping of TLR9 (-1237T/C, rs5743836) was carried out in 400 HCV patients (323 interferon responders and 77 interferon non responder) and control group by applying High resolution melting (HRM) curve assay. No remarkable differences in distribution of genotype between HCV (p<0.0001; OR= 3.21, 95% CI= (2.514.12) and control groups (p<0.0001; OR=0.092, 95%CI= (0.0580.14) were observed. In conclusion TLR9-1237T/C gene polymorphism may not be considered as a molecular risk for patients with HCV in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia
6.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(6 (Supplementary): 2719-2723, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587485

RESUMO

The potent phytotherapeutic modalities against the hepatotoxicity have motivated us to explore numerous plants and polyherbal preparations because conventional drug discovery is more expensive and tedious. So, this study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of a polyherbal formulation (PHF), comprising of Solanum nigrum, Silybum marianum, Atrmesia absinthium, Achillea millifolium and Cichorium intybus against carbon tetrachloride(CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in experimental rats. CCl4intoxicationinduced vacuole formation and fastdegeneration so selective liver enzymes including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkalinephosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin in rat's plasma,as well as liver histological architecture, were used to evaluate the effect of herbal treatments with different doses (ranging 100-500 mg/kg) for two weeks. Statistical analysis showed that PHF significantly (P<.05) improved the level of liver enzymes as well as improve the liver architecture comparative to control groups. It could be concluded from current findings that PHF prepared from Solanum nigrum, Silybum marianum, Atrmesia absinthium, Achillea millifiloium and Cichorium intybus have some hepatoprotective activities.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Composição de Medicamentos , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/isolamento & purificação
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 31(2(Suppl.)): 611-616, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625932

RESUMO

Drug-drug interactions are most commonly occurring phenomenon in clinical practice. Many physicians are afraid of being involved in an allegation of malpractices due to the occurrence of any severe interaction. These interactions not only occur between drugs but also between any kind of food, tobacco smoke, caffeine and alcohol etc. Therefore, the present study was directed to inspect the effect of caffeine on the anticoagulation activity of warfarin in healthy adult male albino rabbits. Blank blood samples were collected from each rabbit. Rabbits were given warfarin (0.5mg kg-1) orally via stomach tube and blood samples were collected in PT/INR vials at various intervals. After a washout period of 14 days, warfarin was orally administrated at same dose rate along with caffeine (5 mg kg-1 every twelve hours for three days) and same sampling schedule was repeated. Prothrombin time (PT) and the international normalized ratio (INR) of blood samples were determined to estimate changes in the anticoagulation activity of warfarin after its concurrent administration with caffeine. The PT data revealed that Rmax and AUC increased significantly (P<0.05) from 1991.6 and 60.5 to 2124.8 and 67.5, respectively, before and after co-administration. Similarly, a significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in Rmax and AUC of INR from 6.42 and 153.7 to 7.4 and 167.5, respectively, alone and along with caffeine. However, no change was observed in Tmax associated with PT and INR either the drug was administered alone or in combination with caffeine. It was concluded that caffeine has the capacity to inhibit the metabolism of warfarin and enhance its plasma concentration and hence anticoagulant effects. Thus, patients should be advised to limit the frequent use of caffeine-rich products i.e. tea and coffee during warfarin therapy.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Varfarina/farmacologia , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Masculino , Tempo de Protrombina , Coelhos
8.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(6): 2253-2257, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29175797

RESUMO

Hepatitis is the most common liver diseases in the Pakistan caused by blood-borne infection of HCV. Viral transmission is frequent through blood contact. Vertical transmission is transfer of disease from mother to infant. The women who are infected with hepatitis C virus RNA are at high risk of infecting their babies. Actual transmission occurs during labor and at time of delivery when blood of both mother and neonate is in contact with each other. Vertical transmission rate is lowered when mother is HCV RN A negative. The project was designed to determine the percentage of transmission and prevalence of Hepatitis C virus from mother to neonates. Assessment of the quantitative analysis of RNA levels in mother blood and viraemic status from the early postpartum period onwards of children born to HCV infected mothers. For the diagnosis of hepatitis C in mothers, blood samples of fifty HCV pregnant women between 23-41 years old were taken. The blood samples were centrifuged at 8,000 rpm and serum was separated and stored at 40C. The values of the Alanine Aminotransferase was determined at 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. After extraction HCVRN Awere transcribed and amplified by PCR. The samples were further authenticated through the Agarose Gel Electrophoresis system and bands were obtained. Nested reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted for the quantitative analysis of HCV-RNA. The results showed that in 66% cases, the mothers had high level of ALT at 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Their ALT level was decreased in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. PCR results showed that 40% pregnant women had quantity of HCV-RNA in the range of 1000-10,000 IU/mL and in 18% women were above 100000 The results of spectrophotometer showed that 80% infants had the antibodies against HCV-RNA while only 20% of the neonates did not have antibody right after birth. The 29% babies got HCV-RNA in their serum and became positive for HCV-RNA.


Assuntos
Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/virologia , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite C/sangue , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/genética , Fatores de Risco , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
9.
Chem Cent J ; 11(1): 97, 2017 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29086883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The plant biomass and agro-industrial wastes show great potential for their use as attractive low cost substrates in biotechnological processes. Wheat straw and corn cob as hemicellulosic substrates were acid hydrolyzed and enzymatically saccharified for high xylose production. The hydrolysate was concentrated and fermented by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces for production of xylitol. RESULTS: Acid hydrolysis of wheat straw and corn cob in combination with enzymatic hydrolysis showed great potential for production of free sugars from these substrates. Kluyveromyces produced maximum xylitol from acid treated wheat straw residues with enzymatic saccharification. The percentage xylitol yield was 89.807 g/L and volumetric productivity of 0.019 g/L/h. Kluyveromyces also produced maximum xylitol from corn cob acid hydrolyzed liquor with xylitol yield 87.716 g/L and volumetric productivity 0.018 g/L/h. CONCLUSION: Plant and agro-industrial biomass can be used as a carbohydrate source for the production of xylitol and ethanol after microbial fermentation. This study revealed that wheat straw acid and enzyme hydrolyzed residue proved to be best raw material for production of xylitol with S. cerevisiae. The xylitol produced can be utilized in pharmaceuticals after purification on industrial scale as pharmaceutical purposes.

10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 119: 50-58, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843888

RESUMO

The germination, seedling vigor, crop establishment and yield of agronomically important crops is negatively affected by soil salinity. The current study aimed to investigate the ability of exogenous fertigation by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to induce salt tolerance in four high yielding wheat cultivars (Sahar-06, Punjab-11, Millat-11 and Galaxy-13) that differ in their response to salt stress in terms of biomass production, oxidative defense mechanisms and grain yield. Three levels of SNP (0, 0.1 and 0.2 mM) were used for seed soaking. During soaking the seeds were kept in the dark. After soaking for 12 h the seeds were air-dried for 5 h before sowing. Salinity caused a significant reduction in biomass and grain yield, while it increased proline (Pro), ascorbic acid (AsA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Cultivar Sahar-06 and Galaxy-13 were found more tolerant to salinity based on shoot length root fresh and dry wights, 100 grain weight, decreased MDA and H2O2 accumulation, phenolic and ascorbic acid (AsA) contents, accumulation of proline, activities of SOD, POD and CAT as compared to the other cultivars. Seed priming with SNP was effective in reducing the adverse effects of salt stress induced oxidative stress on plant biomass and grain yield in all the studied wheat cultivars, but maximum amelioration of salt stress tolerance by SNP treatment was found in cv. Sahar-06. The increased salt tolerance in wheat plants by SNP seed priming might be due to the role of NO in improving seed vigor and germination and early establishment of seedlings with better growth. 0.1 mM SNP was found the most effective in improving salt tolerance, as compared to other SNP concentations. Exogenous SNP fertigation increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) and the contents of AsA, Pro and total phenolics content (TPC) in the salt stressed wheat plants. Our data indicate that SNP-priming induced salt tolerance by up-regulating the antioxidative defense mechanisms resulting in better biomass production and grain yield.


Assuntos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitroprussiato/farmacologia , Pressão Osmótica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 30(2(Suppl.)): 663-665, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650337

RESUMO

The objective of study was to find out major correlates of neonatal mortality. The main focus was in determining the impact of different demographic and health related characteristics of neonates and their mothers. A planned questionnaire was prepared in order to collect the information from mothers of newborns. The data were collected from different public and private hospitals of Faisalabad district. Discharge condition of neonate (dead or alive) was taken as response. Binary logistic regression was applied in order to unveil the impact of different contributory factors on the chances of neonatal mortality. Marriage age of mother, age of mother at baby birth, number of pregnancies, time since last birth, antenatal care, delivery mode, gender of baby, baby weight, baby disease and its nature, domestic violence, baby nutrition and residence were found to be significant factors affecting neonatal mortality. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association. From the results, it can be summed up that marriages at optimal ages, lesser frequency of pregnancies, early initiation of mother feeding, increased care during pregnancy to avoid low birth weight and birth time diseases, and increased facilities of antenatal care in rural areas can effectively reduce the neonatal mortality rates.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Perinatal , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 96: 282-301, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27914965

RESUMO

Carrageenan is a natural polysaccharide extracted from edible red seaweeds of Rhodophycea class. It has been used as a viscosity increasing or gelling agent for prolonged and controlled drug release, food, pharmaceuticals and other industries. However, in spite of wide range of applications, carrageenan has some drawbacks and adverse effects on the biological systems, so its modifications with natural and synthetic polymers are carried out. This review article presents different sources and properties of carrageenans with special emphasis on natural polymer based carrageenan blends and composites and their applications in controlled drug delivery system, wound dressing and tissue engineering because of their biodegradability and biocompatibility, food industry as thickening/gelling materials, cosmeceuticals and making polyelectrolyte complexes.


Assuntos
Biopolímeros/química , Carragenina/química , Carragenina/síntese química , Técnicas de Química Sintética/métodos , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Humanos
13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 29(6 Suppl): 2321-2326, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28167473

RESUMO

Glimepiride and atorvastatin in combination are commonly employed for treating the hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, respectively, in patients of type 2 diabetes. The present study was designed to find out the influence of atorvastatin on urinary excretion and renal clearance of Glimepiride in healthy adult male volunteers. In each experimental subject, Glimepiride 2mg was given orally after an overnight fasting. Samples of blood and urine were taken at different specific time intervals. After a washout period of ten days, Glimepiride 2mg was co-administered with atorvastatin 20mg orally. Post-medication, blood and urine samples were collected following the same sampling schedule as for Glimepiride alone. The samples were analyzed for Glimepiride and creatinine concentration by HPLC-UV and Spectrophotometer, respectively. Mean (±SE) values for blood pH 7.445±0.05 and 7.382±0.05, urine pH 4.972±0.08 and 5.08±0.10, diuresis 0.0207±0.00 and 0.0237±0.00ml/min/kg, endogenous creatinine in plasma 9.048±0.33 and 8.613±0.024µg/ml, endogenous creatinine in urine 512.34±18.20 and 556.72±4.60µg/ml, Glimepiride plasma concentration 0.16069±0.00 and 0.3227±0.01µg/ml, Glimepiride urine concentration 1.5994±0.03 and 0.8665±0.04µg/ml, renal clearance of creatinine 1.224±0.09 and 1.550±0.09ml/min/kg, renal clearance of Glimepiride 0.2064±0.01 and 0.0641±0.00ml/min/kg and clearance ratio 0.1791±0.01 and 0.0414±0.00 were observed for Glimepiride alone and its concurrent administration with atorvastatin, respectively. Atorvastatin decreased the urinary excretion and renal clearance of Glimepiride due to which chances of hypoglycemia provokes and renal handling of Glimepiride involves back diffusion besides glomerular filtration and no influence of atorvastatin was seen on these mechanisms.


Assuntos
Atorvastatina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/urina , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/urina , Adulto , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/metabolismo , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9/efeitos adversos , Interações de Medicamentos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacocinética , Rim/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Sulfonilureia/farmacocinética
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 134: 784-98, 2015 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26428186

RESUMO

Recent advancements in material science and technology made it obvious that use of renewable feed stock is the need of hour. Polymer industry steadily moved to get rid of its dependence on non-renewable resources. Starch, the second largest occurring biomass (renewable) on this planet provides a cheap and eco-friendly way to form huge variety of materials on blending with other biodegradable polymers. Specific structural versatility design for individual application and tailor-made properties have established the polyurethane (PU) as an important and popular class of synthetic biodegradable polymers. Blending of starch with polyurethane is relatively a developing area in PU chemistry but with lot of attraction for researchers. Herein, various starch based polyurethane materials including blends, grafts, copolymers, composites and nano-composites, as well as the prospects and latest developments are discussed. Additionally, an overview of starch based polymeric materials, including their potential applications are presented.


Assuntos
Poliuretanos/química , Amido/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Ciclodextrinas/química , Humanos , Água/química
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA