Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 55
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 27(8): 1235-1241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411519

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of posterior 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (PST) injection in treating Irvine-Gass syndrome.Methods: The retrospective study included 21 patients (mean age: 76 ± 8.2) with a treatment-naïve eye subjected to topical anesthesia and injection of 40 mg/ml triamcinolone via a blunt tip SubTenon cannula through a single inferonasal peritomy. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA; logMAR), intraocular pressure (IOP), biomicroscopic and funduscopic findings, and optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were recorded.Results: Baseline central macular thickness decreased from 431 ± 136 µm to 300 ± 67 µm (1st month; p = .002), to 292 ± 56 µm (3rd month; p = .002), and to 299 ± 66 µm (6th month; p = .005). Mean BCVA increased from 0.71 ± 0.23 to 0.27 ± 0.11, 0.19 ± 0.06, and 0.24 ± 0.17, respectively (all visits; p < 0.001). Mean IOP values did not change significantly (p = .12).Conclusion: PST injection is an effective and safe treatment for Irvine-Gass syndrome.


Assuntos
Macula Lutea/patologia , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Triancinolona Acetonida/administração & dosagem , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Injeções Intraoculares , Edema Macular/diagnóstico , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cápsula de Tenon , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5510-5517, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND There is no study in the literature investigating the expression levels of WT1, p53, and IGF-1 in colon polyp subtypes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression levels of IGF-1, p53, and WT1 in colon polyp subtypes and to determine whether expression levels are correlated with each other. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tissue specimens were obtained from 105 patients (80 men, 25 women; age range, 30-91 years) who underwent surgical resection for colorectal cancer (CRC) at Ordu University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology between January 2015 and 2017. Parameters such as age, sex, region of origin, and pathological diagnosis type were determined. The preparations were immunohistochemically stained with corresponding markers. RESULTS The results of the study showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between WT1 expression (negative - positive) in polyps and the place where the sample was taken (P=0.011). There is a positive relationship between P53 staining score (0-3) and positive frequency of IGF-1 (60.9-85.7%). There was a statistically significant change in P53 scores and location (P=0.006, p=0.015, respectively). As the P53 score of the polyps increased (0 to 3), the rate of adenomatous (34.8-78.4%) increased, so a positive relationship was found. WT1 and IGF-1 gene expression was associated with tumor location, p53 staining score, and sex. CONCLUSIONS WT1 and IGF-1 are appropriate markers for CRC, and WT1 expression in CRC primary tumors especially could be a novel independent marker for prognosis and tumor progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Pólipos do Colo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/biossíntese , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Proteínas WT1/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/genética , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteínas WT1/genética
3.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 100: 101652, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most commonly used insecticides and pesticides worldwide are organophosphate compounds, chemicals that irreversibly inhibit the cholinesterase enzyme. Acute intoxication with cholinesterase inhibitors is known to cause permanent effects on both the human and rat brains. AIM: To investigate the effect of acute organophosphate intoxication on hippocampus morphology, biochemistry, and pyramidal neuron numbers in female rats. METHODS: Twenty-one rats were randomly divided into three groups. The control group received normal nutrition and underwent no procedures. The sham group received intraperitoneal physiological serum, while the experimental group received intraperitoneal 0.8 g/kg fenthion. Rats were sacrificed 24 h after these procedures. The brains were removed and divided in two halves medially, with one side being kept in 10% neutral formalin. After fixation procedures, tissues were embedded in blocks, sliced, and stained. A neuron count was then performed for the hippocampus. The other hippocampus was homogenized and used for biochemical procedures. RESULTS: Hippocampus sections from rats in the experimental group exhibited swelling and loss of shape in pyramidal cells, while no changes were observed in the control or sham groups. The number of neurons in the experimental group was lower than in the control and sham groups. Biochemical analysis revealed higher MDA and GSH values in the experimental group compared to the control and sham groups. CONCLUSION: Our results show increased apoptotic neurodegeneration of cells in the cornu ammonis region of the hippocampus and changes in biochemical values in rats with acute organophosphate exposure.

4.
Urol J ; 16(2): 216-220, 2019 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066024

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The literature reveals lots of information about the relationship between inflammatory markers and many diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between erectile dysfunction and the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), which is a simple and nonspecific inflammatory marker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and ninety-four healthy subjects were included in this study from our internal medicine and urology clinics. As diagnosis criteria, we used the first 5 questions of International Index for Erectile Function. The duration of erectile dysfunction was asked and recorded. Height, weight and waist circumference of patients were measured. We performed total blood count, sedimentation, C-reactive protein, and blood chemistry. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the control [1,038 (0,507-1,92)] and ED [59,5 (52,0-68,0)] groups in terms of NLR (P < .001). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, Duration of ED (Cut off: 7,5 month) predicted ED with 78,8% sensitivity and 63,1% specificity (AUC: < ,001, 95% CI 1,030 (1,010-1,050), P = .003). Moreover, NLR (Cut off: 1,574) predicted ED with 81,8% sensitivity and 67,0% specificity (AUC: < 0,001, 95% CI 1,994 (1,139-3,490), P = .016) according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: It was found that the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was higher in patient group than the control group. Also, the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicted ED and it might be helpful in diagnosing erectile dysfunction.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil/sangue , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Idoso , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 14(5): 941-951, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30197329

RESUMO

Aims: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) shows the most aggressive invasion among primary brain tumors. In spite of the standard therapy methods such as surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, the mortalities are high in GBM patients owing to side effects. Some lichen secondary metabolites that have many bioactive functions exhibited anti-cancer efficacy toward many cancer types. The present study was undertaken to investigate proliferation change, oxidative status and DNA damage potentials of human U87MG-GBM, and primary rat cerebral cortex (PRCC) cells exposed to three lichen secondary metabolites. Materials and Methods: Different concentrations of lichen secondary metabolites including diffractaic acid (DA), lobaric acid (LA), and (+)-usnic acid (UA) were used for the treatments. PRCC cells were obtained from Sprague Dawley® rats. U87MG cell line was preferred as GBM cells. Results: The results showed that lactate dehydrogenase and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels increased in PRCC and U87MG cells in a clear dose-dependent manner. Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) values of LA, DA, and UA were calculated as 9.08, 122.26, 132.69 mg/L for PRCC cells and 5.77, 35.67, 41.55 mg/L for U87MG cells, respectively. Concentration of 10 mg/L of DA and UA demonstrated high anti-oxidant capacity on healthy PRCC cells. Conclusions: Overall, obtained data indicated that LA was highly toxic on GBM and PRCC cells. However, DA and then UA had high anti-oxidant capacity on PRCC cells. These results suggest that further studies that will be held on LA may play a critical role in GBM treatment.


Assuntos
Anisóis/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Glioma/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Lactonas/farmacologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/genética , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Glioma/genética , Glioma/patologia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
6.
Ren Fail ; 40(1): 410-415, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Today, the long-term effects of partial exposure of cholinesterase on the kidney continue to be a research topic. In this study, we aimed to histopathologically investigate the possible effect of acute toxicity due to fenthion, an organophosphate (OP) compound, on the kidneys. METHODS: In all, 21 rats were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental group was each administered intraperitoneal 0.8 g/kg fenthion within physiologic serum. Sham group was only administered intraperitoneal physiologic serum. The control group continued normal nutrition with no procedure performed. After 24 h, all rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Half of the recipient kidney tissues were examined histopathologically and the other half biochemically. RESULTS: No histopathological findings were found in the control group. Rats in the experimental group were observed to have epithelial cell disorganization in tubules, moderate epithelial cell loss, and degeneration. Again, expansion of tubules, vacuolization of tubular epithelial cells, and tubular structure approaching atrophy were observed, with cells approaching apoptosis and common hemorrhage noted although rats in the sham group were observed to have mild tubular degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: It should not be forgotten that one of the causes of systemic complaints linked to acute toxicity exposed to the OP compound of fenthion may be cellular injury to glomerular and tubular structures in the kidneys.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Fention/toxicidade , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Organofosfatos/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
7.
Iran J Pharm Res ; 17(1): 326-335, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755563

RESUMO

In this study, the mutagenic and anti-mutagenic effects of methanol extract of three lichen species (Cetraria aculeata, Cladonia chlorophaea and Cetrelia olivetorum) were investigated by using E. coli-WP2, Ames-Salmonella (TA1535 and TA1537) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems. The results obtained from bacterial test systems demonstrated that methanol extracts of three lichen species have strong anti-mutagenic potencies on TA1535, TA1537 strains and to a lesser extent on E. coli-WP2 strain. The anti-oxidant level of human lymphocytes cells was determined in order to clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-mutagenic effects of these lichen species. Co-treatments of 5, 10 and 20 µg/mL concentrations of these three lichen species with AFB decreased the frequencies of SCE and the level of MDA and increased the amount of SOD, GSH and GPx which decreased by aflatoxin. The findings of this work have clearly demonstrated that Cetraria aculeata, Cladonia chlorophaea and Cetrelia olivetorum have significant anti-mutagenic effects which are thought to be partly due to the anti-oxidant activities and the interaction capability of lichen extracts with mutagen agents (Sodium azide, acridin, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and aflatoxin B1).

8.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 73(7-8): 303-312, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573381

RESUMO

The present study aims at assessing the efficacies of olivetoric acid (OA) and physodic acid (PA) isolated from Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) in human lymphocytes (HLs) in vitro. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and lactate dehydrogenase assays were performed to establish cytotoxicity in HLs. Besides, oxidative stress and genotoxicity were monitored by estimating the changes of total oxidative stress (TOS) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels, respectively, in HLs. At the same time, OA- and PA-induced total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in HLs were determined. Although especially low concentrations of OA (IC50=109.94 mg/L) and PA (IC50=665.49 mg/L) did not show cytotoxic effect at high levels in HLs, it was revealed that cytotoxicity was significantly (p<0.05) associated with oxidative stress and genotoxicity via correlation analysis. While TOS level in HLs did not statistically (p>0.05) increase in the presence of all treatments (0.5-100 mg/L) of PA, TAC level was increased by PA applications in certain concentrations (0.5-10 mg/L). Overall, the obtained data indicate that OA and especially PA as lichen compounds that do not cause oxidative stress can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in the present study with their high antioxidant features.


Assuntos
Dibenzoxepinas/farmacologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Parmeliaceae/química , Salicilatos/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/análise , Dibenzoxepinas/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Salicilatos/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Adulto Jovem
9.
Sydowia ; 69: 229-264, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386695

RESUMO

The present study introduces seven new species, one new combination, one new variety and several interesting taxonomical notes and/or geographical records. Most of the new taxa are Ascomycetes, but the study also includes a new variety of a Basidiomycete. Novel species include Gyromitra khanspurensis (Discinaceae, Pezizales, Pezizomycetes) from Pakistan growing near Cedrus deoadara and Paramyrothecium guiyangense and Paramyrothecium verruridum (Stachybotriaceae, Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes) both isolated from soil in China. New species from South Africa are Sclerostagonospora elegiae on culm litter of Elegia equisetacea, Sclerostagonospora fusiformis on culm litter of Thamnochortus spicigerus, Sclerostagonospora pinguis on culm litter of Cannomois virgata and Sclerostagonospora sulcata on culm litter of Ischyrolepis subverticellata (Phaeosphaeriaceae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Hapalocystis berkeleyi var. kickxii with its basionym Hypoxylon kickxii is shown to be a taxon on species level and thus recombined as Hapalocystis kickxii (Sydowiellaceae, Diaporthales, Sordariomycetes), and it is lecto- and epitypified. The new variety Pluteus romellii var. luteoalbus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) growing on a mossy fallen stem of a deciduous tree is described from Czech Republic. Cortinarius scaurocaninus (Cortinariaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) is new for Austria, Humicola grisea (Chaetomiaceae, Sordariales, Sordariomycetes) is an interesting new record for Chile. Two taxa are reported as new for Turkey: the lichenicolous fungus Opegrapha parasitica (Opegraphaceae, Arthoniales, Arthoniomycetes) growing partly immersed in the thallus of Aspicilia and the lichen Rinodina zwackhiana (Physciaceae, Teloschistales, Lecanoromycetes) from calcareous rock. Finally, Xerula strigosa (Physalacriaceae, Agaricales, Agaricomycetes), described from China, is confirmed to be present also in Pakistan.

10.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 78: 125-130, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27650207

RESUMO

Cell phones, an indispensable element of daily life, are today used at almost addictive levels by adolescents. Adolescents are therefore becoming increasingly exposed to the effect of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by cell phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to a 900-MHz EMF throughout adolescence on the lumbar spinal cord using histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques. Twenty-four Sprague Dawley (28.3-43.9g) aged 21days were included in the study. These were divided equally into three groups - control (CG), sham (SG) and electromagnetic (ELMAG). No procedure was performed on the CG rats until the end of the study. SG and ELMAG rats were kept inside an EMF cage (EMFC) for 1h a day every day at the same time between postnatal days 22 and 60. During this time, ELMAG rats were exposed to the effect of a 900-MHz EMF, while the SG rats were kept in the EMFC without being exposed to EMF. At the end of the study, the lumbar regions of the spinal cords of all rats in all groups were extracted. Half of each extracted tissue was stored at -80°C for biochemical analysis, while the other half was used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses. In terms of histopathology, a lumbar spinal cord with normal morphology was observed in the other groups, while morphological irregularity in gray matter, increased vacuolization and infiltration of white matter into gray matter were pronounced in the ELMAG rats. The cytoplasm of some neurons in the gray matter was shrunken and stained dark, and vacuoles were observed in the cytoplasms. The apoptotic index of glia cells and neurons were significantly higher in ELMAG compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis revealed a significantly increased MDA value in ELMAG compared to CG, while SOD and GSH levels decreased significantly. In conclusion, our study results suggest that continuous exposure to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h a day through all stages of adolescence can result in impairments at both morphological and biochemical levels in the lumbar region spinal cords of Sprague Dawley rats.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos , Substância Cinzenta/efeitos da radiação , Neuroglia/efeitos da radiação , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos da radiação , Catalase/metabolismo , Forma Celular/efeitos da radiação , Glutationa/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/metabolismo , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neuroglia/patologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 77: 169-175, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27430379

RESUMO

The central nervous system (CNS) begins developing in the intrauterine period, a process that continues until adulthood. Contact with chemical substances, drugs or environmental agents such as electromagnetic field (EMF) during adolescence therefore has the potential to disturb the development of the morphological architecture of components of the CNS (such as the hippocampus). The hippocampus is essential to such diverse functions as memory acquisition and integration and spatial maneuvering. EMF can result in severe damage to both the morphology of the hippocampus and its principal functions during adolescence. Although children and adolescents undergo greater exposure to EMF than adults, the information currently available regarding the effects of exposure to EMF during this period is as yet insufficient. This study investigated the 60-day-old male rat hippocampus following exposure to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF throughout the adolescent period using stereological, histopathological and biochemical analysis techniques. Eighteen male Sprague Dawley rats aged 21days were assigned into control, sham and EMF groups on a random basis. No procedure was performed on the control group rats. The EMF group (EMFGr) was exposed to a 900-MHz EMF for 1h daily from beginning to end of adolescence. The sham group rats were held in the EMF cage but were not exposed to EMF. All rats were sacrificed at 60days of age. Their brains were extracted and halved. The left hemispheres were set aside for biochemical analyses and the right hemispheres were subjected to stereological and histopathological evaluation. Histopathological examination revealed increased numbers of pyknotic neurons with black or dark blue cytoplasm on EMFGr slides stained with cresyl violet. Stereological analyses revealed fewer pyramidal neurons in EMFGr than in the other two groups. Biochemical analyses showed an increase in malondialdehyde and glutathione levels, but a decrease in catalase levels in EMFGr. Our results indicate that oxidative stress-related morphological damage and pyramidal neuron loss may be observed in the rat hippocampus following exposure to 900-MHz EMF throughout the adolescent period.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/anatomia & histologia , Hipocampo/efeitos da radiação , Células Piramidais/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/efeitos da radiação , Catalase/metabolismo , Contagem de Células , Telefone Celular , Citoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Citoplasma/ultraestrutura , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/citologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(3): 468-75, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24193043

RESUMO

Lichens are symbiotic organisms composed of fungi and algae and are very common in Turkey. Lichen secondary metabolites are mainly phenolic compounds produced by fungal partner of lichen symbiosis. Usnic acid (UA) is one of the most common lichen metabolites, and it was reported that to be effective for a wide range of pharmacological purposes including antiviral, antitumor, and antiprotozoal. However, there are limited data on the genotoxic and antioxidant effects of UA in cultured human peripheral blood cells. Therefore, the aim of this thesis study was to investigate the genetic and oxidative effects of UA in cultured human blood cells (n = 5). The UA was added into culture tubes at various concentrations (0-200 µg/ml). Chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) tests were performed for genotoxic damage influences estimation. In addition, biochemical parameters (total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS)) were examined to determine oxidative effects. In our in vitro test systems, it was observed that UA had no mutagenic effects on human lymphocytes. Furthermore, our results indicated that low concentrations (1 and 5 µg/ml) of UA caused increases of TAC levels in cultured human blood cells. And, the TOS levels were not changed (p > 0.05) when all the concentrations (except for 200 µg/ml) of UA were applied. In conclusion, UA can be a new resource of therapeutics as recognized in this study with their nonmutagenic and antioxidant features.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/toxicidade , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Líquens , Testes para Micronúcleos , Turquia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(4): 721-9, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24193055

RESUMO

In this article, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extract of of Cladonia foliacea (Huds.) Willd. (CME) were studied using WP2, Ames (TA1535 and TA1537), and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) test systems. The results of our studies showed that 5 µM concentration of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) changed the frequencies of SCE and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. When 5 and 10 µg/mL concentrations of CME was added to AFB1, the frequencies of SCE and MDA level were decreased and SOD, GSH, and GPx levels were increased. The extract CME did not show any mutagenicity on Ames (Salmonella typhimurium TA1535, TA1537) and WP2 (Escherichia coli) test systems. On the other hand, CME has antimutagenicity on the mentioned test systems. The results of this experiment have clearly shown that CME has a significant antioxidative and antigenotoxic effect, which is thought to be due to the antigenotoxic activities of antioxidant enzymes.


Assuntos
Antimutagênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Líquens/química , Adulto , Produtos Biológicos/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Metanol , Oxirredutases , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Troca de Cromátide Irmã/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(4): 601-13, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24193057

RESUMO

Oxidative stress plays an important role in causing diabetes; however, no studies have thoroughly reported on the toxic and beneficial effects of lichen extracts in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study covers a previously unrecognized effect of two well-known lichen species Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracae in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In experimental design, control or diabetic rats were either untreated or treated with aqueous lichen extracts (250-500 mg/kg /day) for 2 weeks starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On day 14, animals were anaesthetized, and metabolic and biochemical parameters were appreciated between control and treatment groups. The histopathology of liver was examined using three different staining methods: hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), periodic acid Schiff (PAS), and reticulin and Sudan Black B. Our experimental data showed that increasing doses of C. islandica and P. furfuracae alone did not have any detrimental effects on studied parameters and the malondialdehyde level of liver.C. islandicaextract showed positive results for antioxidant capacity compared to doses of P. furfuracae extract. However, the protective effect of C. islandica extract on diabetes-induced disorders and hepatic damages is still unclear. Moreover, unfortunately, animals subjected to DM therapy did not benefit from the usage of increasing lichen doses due to their unchanged antioxidant activity in tissues. The results obtained in present study suggested that C. islandica and P. furfuracae is safe but the power of these is limited because of intensive oxidative stress in liver of type 1 diabetic rats. It is also implied that C. islandica extract is especially suitable for different administration routes in DM animals.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Parmeliaceae , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
15.
Toxicol Ind Health ; 32(8): 1495-1504, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25647809

RESUMO

Lichens can be used as a novel bioresource for natural antioxidants. However, there is need for further investigations to validate the lichens used in medicinal remedies. In this study, the effects of Cetraria islandica and Pseudevernia furfuracae lichen species in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were evaluated. Diabetic rats were treated with aqueous lichen extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks starting at 72 h after STZ injection. On the 14th day, animals were anesthetized, and then metabolic and biochemical parameters were evaluated between control and treatment groups. Pancreatic histology and ß-cell mass were examined by hematoxylin and eosin and insulin immunohistochemistry stainings. Our findings revealed that these lichen species could be used safely in this dose range. In addition, C. islandica extracts showed prominent results compared to the doses of P. furfuracae extract for antioxidant capacity. However, the protectivity of C. islandica extract was inadequate against diabetes-induced pancreatic damages via forming oxidative stress. In conclusion, the usage of C. islandica might serve for early intervening in the risk reduction of type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia , Parmeliaceae/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Glicemia/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Etnofarmacologia , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Insulina/sangue , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/imunologia , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Turquia
16.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 75(Pt B): 105-10, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26391347

RESUMO

Large numbers of people are unknowingly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from wireless devices. Evidence exists for altered cerebellar development in association with prenatal exposure to EMF. However, insufficient information is still available regarding the effects of exposure to 900 megahertz (MHz) EMF during the prenatal period on subsequent postnatal cerebellar development. This study was planned to investigate the 32-day-old female rat pup cerebellum following exposure to 900MHz EMF during the prenatal period using stereological and histopathological evaluation methods. Pregnant rats were divided into control, sham and EMF groups. Pregnant EMF group (PEMFG) rats were exposed to 900MHz EMF for 1h inside an EMF cage during days 13-21 of pregnancy. Pregnant sham group (PSG) rats were also placed inside the EMF cage during days 13-21 of pregnancy for 1h, but were not exposed to any EMF. No procedure was performed on the pregnant control group (PCG) rats. Newborn control group (CG) rats were obtained from the PCG mothers, newborn sham group (SG) rats from the PSG and newborn EMF group (EMFG) rats from the PEMFG rats. The cerebellums of the newborn female rats were extracted on postnatal day 32. The number of Purkinje cells was estimated stereologically, and histopathological evaluations were also performed on cerebellar sections. Total Purkinje cell numbers calculated using stereological analysis were significantly lower in EMFG compared to CG (p<0.05) and SG (p<0.05). Additionally, some pathological changes such as pyknotic neurons with dark cytoplasm were observed in EMFG sections under light microscopy. In conclusion, our study results show that prenatal exposure to EMF affects the development of Purkinje cells in the female rat cerebellum and that the consequences of this pathological effect persist after the postnatal period.


Assuntos
Cerebelo/patologia , Cerebelo/efeitos da radiação , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Neurônios/patologia , Neurônios/efeitos da radiação , Fatores Etários , Animais , Contagem de Células/métodos , Feminino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Células de Purkinje/patologia , Células de Purkinje/efeitos da radiação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Pharm Biol ; 54(9): 1748-62, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26704132

RESUMO

Context Since methods utilised in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are inadequate and have too many side effects, usage of herbal products in the treatment process comes into prominence. Lichens are symbiotic organisms used for medicinal purposes for many years. There are various anticancer treatments about components of two lichen species used in the present study. Objective Antitumor potential of three lichen secondary metabolites including olivetoric acid (OLA) and physodic acid (PHA) isolated from Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf (Parmeliaceae) and psoromic acid (PSA) isolated from Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (DC.) Leuckert (Lecanoraceae) were investigated on human U87MG-GBM cell lines and primary rat cerebral cortex (PRCC) cells for the first time. Materials and methods PRCC cells used as healthy brain cells were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats. The treatments were carried out on the cells cultured for 48 h. Cytotoxic effects of different concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/L) of metabolites on the cells were determined via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) analyses. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) parameters were used for assessing oxidative alterations. Oxidative DNA damage potentials of metabolites were investigated via evaluating 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) levels. Results Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of OLA, PHA and PSA were 125.71, 698.19 and 79.40 mg/L for PRCC cells and 17.55, 410.72 and 56.22 mg/L for U87MG cells, respectively. It was revealed that cytotoxic effects of these metabolites showed positive correlation with concentration, LDH activity and oxidative DNA damage. Discussion and conclusion The present findings obtained in this study revealed that primarily OLA and then PSA had high potential for use in the treatment of GBM.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Benzoxepinas/farmacologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Carboxílicos/farmacologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Dibenzoxepinas/farmacologia , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Líquens , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salicilatos/farmacologia , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Benzoxepinas/isolamento & purificação , Benzoxepinas/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Carboxílicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Dibenzoxepinas/isolamento & purificação , Dibenzoxepinas/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Líquens/química , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Salicilatos/isolamento & purificação , Salicilatos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Chem Neuroanat ; 75(Pt B): 99-104, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26708410

RESUMO

The effects of devices emitting electromagnetic field (EMF) on human health have become the subject of intense research among scientists due to the rapid increase in their use. Children and adolescents are particularly attracted to the use of devices emitting EMF, such as mobile phones. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate changes in the spinal cords of male rat pups exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF. The study began with 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 3 weeks. Three groups containing equal numbers of rats were established-control group (CG), sham group (SG) and EMF group (EMFG). EMFG rats were placed inside an EMF cage every day between postnatal days (PD) 21 and 46 and exposed to the effect of 900MHz EMF for 1h. SG rats were kept in the EMF cage for 1h without being exposed to the effect of EMF. At the end of the study, the spinal cords in the upper thoracic region of all rats were removed. Tissues were collected for biochemistry, light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) examination. Biochemistry results revealed significantly increased malondialdehyde and glutathione levels in EMFG compared to CG and SG, while SG and EMFG catalase and superoxide dismutase levels were significantly higher than those in CG. In EMFG, LM revealed atrophy in the spinal cord, vacuolization, myelin thickening and irregularities in the perikarya. TEM revealed marked loss of myelin sheath integrity and invagination into the axon and broad vacuoles in axoplasm. The study results show that biochemical alterations and pathological changes may occur in the spinal cords of male rats following exposure to 900MHz EMF for 1h a day on PD 21-46.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/efeitos da radiação , Fatores Etários , Animais , Glutationa/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Medula Espinal/patologia
19.
Chem Biodivers ; 12(11): 1756-67, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567953

RESUMO

Two lichen metabolites, rhizonaldehyde (1) and rhizonyl alcohol (2), were isolated from the acetone extract of Lobaria pulmonaria by chromatographic methods, and their chemical structures were determined by UV/VIS, IR, and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods. The gastroprotective and in vivo antioxidant activities of extracts of L. pulmonaria and its metabolites, 1 and 2, were investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer models in rats. The gastric lesions were significantly reduced by acetone, hexane, and CHCl3 extracts, with 75.3-41.5% inhibition. Rhizonyl alcohol (2) significantly reduced the gastric lesions with an inhibition rate of 84.6-42.8%, whereas rhizonaldehyde (1) significantly increased the gastric lesions. Antioxidant parameters and myeloperoxidase activities were also evaluated in the gastric tissues of the rats. Indomethacin caused oxidative stress, which resulted in lipid peroxidation in gastric tissues by decreasing the levels of the antioxidants as compared to healthy rat tissues. In contrast to indomethacin, all extracts and rhizonyl alcohol (2) caused a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels and an increase in antioxidant parameters, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione in gastric tissues. The administration of rhizonyl alcohol (2) also resulted in a decrease in gastric myeloperoxidase activity increased by indomethacin. The gastroprotective effect of rhizonyl alcohol (2) can be attributed to its antioxidant properties and its suppressing effect on neutrophil infiltration into gastric tissues.


Assuntos
Álcoois/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Indometacina/farmacologia , Líquens/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Álcoois/química , Álcoois/isolamento & purificação , Álcoois/metabolismo , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Líquens/química , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
20.
Brain Res ; 1624: 232-238, 2015 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26239913

RESUMO

Children are at potential risk due to their intense use of mobile phones. We examined 8-week-old rats because this age of the rats is comparable with the preadolescent period in humans. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the Sprague Dawley male rat (8-weeks old, weighing 180-250 g) hippocampus following exposure to a 900 MHz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) were examined. The study consisted of control (CN-G), sham exposed (SHM-EG) and EMF exposed (EMF-EG) groups with 6 rats in each. The EMF-EG rats were exposed to 900 MHz EMF (1h/day for 30 days) in an EMF jar. The SHM-EG rats were placed in the EMF jar but not exposed to the EMF (1h/day for 30 days). The CN-G rats were not placed into the exposure jar and were not exposed to the EMF during the study period. All animals were sacrificed at the end of the experiment, and their brains were removed for histopathological and stereological analysis. The number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the hippocampus was estimated on Cresyl violet stained sections of the brain using the optical dissector counting technique. Histopathological evaluations were also performed on these sections. Histopathological observation showed abundant cells with abnormal, black or dark blue cytoplasm and shrunken morphology among the normal pyramidal neurons. The largest lateral ventricles were observed in the EMF-EG sections compared to those from the other groups. Stereological analyses showed that the total number of pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis of the EMF-EG rats was significantly lower than those in the CN-G (p<0.05) and the SHM-EG (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that pyramidal neuron loss and histopathological changes in the cornu ammonis of 8-week-old male rats may be due to the 900-MHz EMF exposure.


Assuntos
Campos Eletromagnéticos/efeitos adversos , Hipocampo/citologia , Células Piramidais/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Contagem de Células , Morte Celular/efeitos da radiação , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA