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1.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591761

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased in the United States and worldwide. We hypothesized that trends in the annual incidence rates of childhood-onset type 1 diabetes in the state of Alabama would be different by race and sex. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational cohort study, analyzing children with type 1 diabetes (n = 3770) managed at the Children's Hospital of Alabama between 2000 and 2017. We compared crude incidence rates using negative binomial regression models and analyzed differences in annual trends of age-adjusted incidence by race and sex using joinpoint regression. RESULTS: The crude type 1 diabetes incidence rate was estimated at 16.7 per 100 000 children <19 years of age in Alabama. Between 2000 and 2007, there was an increase in age-adjusted incidence of type 1 diabetes with an annual percent change (APC) of 10% from 2000 to 2007 and a 1.7% APC decrease from 2007 to 2017. The age-adjusted incidence for Whites and Blacks increased with an average annual percentage change (AAPC) of 4.4% and 2.8%, respectively. A nearly 11% increasing trend in age-adjusted incidence was observed for both races, though the increase plateaued in 2006 for Whites and 2010 for Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: Following significantly increasing annual trends for both races, the age-adjusted rate remained statistically stable for Whites and decreased significantly for Blacks. Longer-sustained trend increases for Blacks resulted in type 1 diabetes incidence tripling compared to the doubling of the rate for Whites.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652233

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: DNA methylation may be one of the biological mechanisms underlying the health benefits of physical activity (PA). Our objective was to determine the association between PA and genome-wide DNA methylation at CpG level. METHODS: We designed a two-stage epigenome wide association study. In the discovery stage, we used 619 individuals from the REGICOR cohort. Next, we validated the CpGs suggestively associated with PA (p-value <10) in two independent populations (n=1,735 and 190, respectively). PA was assessed with validated questionnaires and classified as light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), moderate-vigorous (MVPA) and total PA (TPA). We examined linear and non-linear associations and meta-analyzed the results in the three populations. The linear associations were meta-analyzed with a fixed-effects model and the p-values of the non-linear associations with the Stouffer and Fisher methods. We established a p-value threshold that fulfilled Bonferroni criteria over the number of CpGs analyzed (0.05/421,940=1.185·10). RESULTS: In the meta-analyses, two CpG sites had a statistically significant non-linear association with MVPA. cg24155427 (p-value=1.19·10), located in an intergenic region in chromosome 1, has been previously associated with smoking, lupus and aging. cg09565397 (p-value=1.59·10), located within DGAT1 in chromosome 8, encodes an enzyme involved in triacylglycerol synthesis and has been associated with body mass index. CONCLUSION: This population-based study identified two new, differentially methylated CpG sites with a non-linear dose-response relationship to MVPA. These associations must be additionally validated and may be considered for further research on the biological mechanisms underlying health benefits of PA.

3.
Epigenomics ; 11(13): 1487-1500, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536415

RESUMO

Aim: Cigarette smoking influences DNA methylation genome wide, in newborns from pregnancy exposure and in adults from personal smoking. Whether a unique methylation signature exists for in utero exposure in newborns is unknown. Materials & methods: We separately meta-analyzed newborn blood DNA methylation (assessed using Illumina450k Beadchip), in relation to sustained maternal smoking during pregnancy (9 cohorts, 5648 newborns, 897 exposed) and adult blood methylation and personal smoking (16 cohorts, 15907 participants, 2433 current smokers). Results & conclusion: Comparing meta-analyses, we identified numerous signatures specific to newborns along with many shared between newborns and adults. Unique smoking-associated genes in newborns were enriched in xenobiotic metabolism pathways. Our findings may provide insights into specific health impacts of prenatal exposure on offspring.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(10): e00788, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy affects up to 43% of African Americans (AAs). Antihypertensive treatment reduces LV mass (LVM). However, interindividual variation in LV traits in response to antihypertensive treatments exists. We hypothesized that genetic variants may modify the association of antihypertensive treatment class with LV traits measured by echocardiography. METHODS: We evaluated the main effects of the three most common antihypertensive treatments for AAs as well as the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-by-drug interaction on LVM and relative wall thickness (RWT) in 2,068 participants across five community-based cohorts. Treatments included thiazide diuretics (TDs), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-Is), and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (dCCBs) and were compared in a pairwise manner. We performed fixed effects inverse variance weighted meta-analyses of main effects of drugs and 2.5 million SNP-by-drug interaction estimates. RESULTS: We observed that dCCBs versus TDs were associated with higher LVM after adjusting for covariates (p = 0.001). We report three SNPs at a single locus on chromosome 20 that modified the association between RWT and treatment when comparing dCCBs to ACE-Is with consistent effects across cohorts (smallest p = 4.7 × 10-8 , minor allele frequency range 0.09-0.12). This locus has been linked to LV hypertrophy in a previous study. A marginally significant locus in BICD1 (rs326641) was validated in an external population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified one locus having genome-wide significant SNP-by-drug interaction effect on RWT among dCCB users in comparison to ACE-I users. Upon additional validation in future studies, our findings can enhance the precision of medical approaches in hypertension treatment.

5.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219144, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in children has increased dramatically. However, limited published information is known about the glycemic control and lipid outcomes in pediatric T2DM outside of clinical trials. OBJECTIVES: To determine the glycemic control and lipid measure outcomes at one and three- year follow-up in children with T2DM. METHODS: A retrospective electronic medical record review of children with T2DM at the Children's Hospital of Alabama over a 12-year period. RESULTS: There were 301 patients with a diagnosis of T2DM who had a 1-year follow-up visit, of which 184 also had a 3-year follow-up. Most patients (78%) received either insulin with metformin or insulin alone at diagnosis. At one year, 37% of the cohort achieved 'optimal glycemic control' (HbA1C ≤6.5%) and 58% of patients achieved durable glycemic control (HbA1C ≤8%). Optimal glycemic control was seen in 48 patients at 3 years. The patients treated with insulin (alone or in combination with metformin) tended to have higher HbA1C at diagnosis, but had improved lipid and glycemic outcomes at follow-up. The group treated with insulin along with metformin had significant improvements in non-HDL, HDL and TC/HDL ratios. The effects of insulin treatment on glycemic control at 3 years were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: With the current modality of treatment, only a minority of patients achieve optimal glycemic control at 1 and 3 years of follow-up. Studies are warranted to further elucidate the optimal therapies in the management of pediatric T2DM.

6.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(2): 437-450, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and vitamin B-12 are essential micronutrients involved in the donation of methyl groups in cellular metabolism. However, associations between intake of these nutrients and genome-wide DNA methylation levels have not been studied comprehensively in humans. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether folate and/or vitamin B-12 intake are asssociated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in leukocytes. METHODS: A large-scale epigenome-wide association study of folate and vitamin B-12 intake was performed on DNA from 5841 participants from 10 cohorts using Illumina 450k arrays. Folate and vitamin B-12 intakes were calculated from food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs). Continuous and categorical (low compared with high intake) linear regression mixed models were applied per cohort, controlling for confounders. A meta-analysis was performed to identify significant differentially methylated positions (DMPs) and regions (DMRs), and a pathway analysis was performed on the DMR annotated genes. RESULTS: The categorical model resulted in 6 DMPs, which are all negatively associated with folate intake, annotated to FAM64A, WRAP73, FRMD8, CUX1, and LCN8 genes, which have a role in cellular processes including centrosome localization, cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Regional analysis showed 74 folate-associated DMRs, of which 73 were negatively associated with folate intake. The most significant folate-associated DMR was a 400-base pair (bp) spanning region annotated to the LGALS3BP gene. In the categorical model, vitamin B-12 intake was associated with 29 DMRs annotated to 48 genes, of which the most significant was a 1100-bp spanning region annotated to the calcium-binding tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated gene (CABYR). Vitamin B-12 intake was not associated with DMPs. CONCLUSIONS: We identified novel epigenetic loci that are associated with folate and vitamin B-12 intake. Interestingly, we found a negative association between folate and DNA methylation. Replication of these methylation loci is necessary in future studies.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127295

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure (BP), a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, is influenced by both genetic and lifestyle factors. Cigarette smoking is one such lifestyle factor. Across five ancestries, we performed a genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) in 129 913 individuals in stage 1 and follow-up analysis in 480 178 additional individuals in stage 2. We report here 136 loci significantly associated with MAP and/or PP. Of these, 61 were previously published through main-effect analysis of BP traits, 37 were recently reported by us for systolic BP and/or diastolic BP through gene-smoking interaction analysis and 38 were newly identified (P < 5 × 10-8, false discovery rate < 0.05). We also identified nine new signals near known loci. Of the 136 loci, 8 showed significant interaction with smoking status. They include CSMD1 previously reported for insulin resistance and BP in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. Many of the 38 new loci show biologic plausibility for a role in BP regulation. SLC26A7 encodes a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger expressed in the renal outer medullary collecting duct. AVPR1A is widely expressed, including in vascular smooth muscle cells, kidney, myocardium and brain. FHAD1 is a long non-coding RNA overexpressed in heart failure. TMEM51 was associated with contractile function in cardiomyocytes. CASP9 plays a central role in cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Identified only in African ancestry were 30 novel loci. Our findings highlight the value of multi-ancestry investigations, particularly in studies of interaction with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences may contribute to novel findings.

8.
Circulation ; 139(21): 2422-2436, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies. METHODS: We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available). RESULTS: In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15 198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68 659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships. CONCLUSIONS: In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

9.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 94, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, widely recognized as a serious health concern, is characterized by profoundly altered metabolism. However, the intermediate metabolites involved in this change remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We conducted targeted metabolomics profiling to identify moieties associated with adult obesity. METHODS: In this case-control study of Iranian adults, 200 obese patients were compared with 100 controls based on 104 metabolites profiled by a targeted metabolomic approach using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analysis comprised acylcarnitines, diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCaa), acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCae), sphingomyelins (SM), lyso-phospholipids (LPC) and amino acids. We performed multivariable linear regression to identify metabolites associated with obesity, adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, total physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. RESULTS: A pattern of 19 metabolites was significantly associated with obesity. Branched chain amino acids, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, tyrosine LPCa C16:1, PCaa C32:1, PCaa C32:2 and PCaa C38:3 were positively, while serine, asparagine, LPCa C18:1, LPCa C18:2, LPCe C18:0, PCae C34:3, PCae C38:4 and PCae C40:6 were negatively associated with obesity (all p < 0.00048). CONCLUSIONS: A metabolomic profile containing 9 amino acids and 10 polar lipids may serve as a potential biomarker of adult obesity. Further studies are warranted to replicate these findings as well as investigate potential changes in this profile after weight reduction.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/classificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Lineares , Lisofosfolipídeos/classificação , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/classificação , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Esfingomielinas/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 376, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670697

RESUMO

Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels.


Assuntos
Exercício , Loci Gênicos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Brasil , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/genética , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Humanos , Proteínas com Homeodomínio LIM/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 23, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275879

RESUMO

Background: DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism that has been proposed as a possible link between genetic and environmental determinants of disease. Prior studies reported robust associations between the methylation of specific cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and plasma lipids, namely triglycerides (TGs) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the causality of the observed association remains elusive, hampered by weak instrumental variables for methylation status. Aim: We present a novel application of the elastic net approach to implement a bidirectional Mendelian randomization approach to inferring causal relationships between candidate CpGs and plasma lipids in GAW20 data. Methods: We used DNA methylation, TGs, and HDL-C measured during the visit 2. Based on prior findings, we selected 5 methylation markers (cg00574958, cg07504977, cg06690548, cg19693031, and cg03717755) related to TGs, 2 markers (cg09572125 and cg02650017) related to HDL-C, and 2 markers (cg06500161 and cg11024682) related to both traits. We implemented an elastic net approach to improve the selection of the genetic instrument for the methylation markers, followed by bidirectional Mendelian randomization 2-stage least-squares regression. Results: We observed causal effects of blood fasting TGs on the methylation levels of cg00574958 (CPT1A) and cg06690548 (SLC7A11). For cg00574958, our findings were also consistent with the reverse direction of association, that is, from CPT1A methylation to TGs. Conclusions: Current evidence does not rule out either direction of association between the methylation of the cg00574958 CPT1A locus and plasma TGs, highlighting the complexity of lipid homeostasis. We also demonstrated a novel approach to improve instrument selection in DNA methylation studies.

12.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 35, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275886

RESUMO

GAW20 provided participants with an opportunity to comprehensively examine genetic and epigenetic variation among related individuals in the context of drug treatment response. GAW20 used data from 188 families (N = 1105) participating in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00083369), which included CD4+ T-cell DNA methylation at 463,995 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites measured before and after a 3-week treatment with fenofibrate, single-nucleotide variation at 906,600 loci, metabolic syndrome components ascertained before and after the drug intervention, and relevant covariates. All GOLDN participants were of European descent, with an average age of 48 years. In addition, approximately half were women and approximately 40% met the diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome. Unique advantages of the GAW20data set included longitudinal (3 weeks apart) measurements of DNA methylation, the opportunity to explore the contributions of both genotype and DNA methylation to the interindividual variability in drug treatment response, and the familial relationships between study participants. The principal disadvantage of GAW20/GOLDN data was the spurious correlation between batch effects and fenofibrate effects on methylation, which arose because the pre- and posttreatment methylation data were generated and normalized separately, and any attempts to remove time-dependent technical artifacts would also remove biologically meaningful changes brought on by fenofibrate. Despite this limitation, the GAW20 data set offered informative, multilayered omics data collected in a large population-based study of common disease traits, which resulted in creative approaches to integration and analysis of inherited human variation.

13.
BMC Proc ; 12(Suppl 9): 26, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30263042

RESUMO

GAW20 provided a platform for developing and evaluating statistical methods to analyze human lipid-related phenotypes, DNA methylation, and single-nucleotide markers in a study involving a pharmaceutical intervention. In this article, we present an overview of the data sets and the contributions analyzing these data. The data, donated by the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) investigators, included data from 188 families (N = 1105) which included genome-wide DNA methylation data before and after a 3-week treatment with fenofibrate, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, metabolic syndrome components before and after treatment, and a variety of covariates. The contributions from individual research groups were extensively discussed prior, during, and after the Workshop in groups based on discussion themes, before being submitted for publication.

14.
BMC Genet ; 19(Suppl 1): 74, 2018 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30255779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasingly available multilayered omics data on large populations has opened exciting analytic opportunities and posed unique challenges to robust estimation of causal effects in the setting of complex disease phenotypes. The GAW20 Causal Modeling Working Group has applied complementary approaches (eg, Mendelian randomization, structural equations modeling, Bayesian networks) to discover novel causal effects of genomic and epigenomic variation on lipid phenotypes, as well as to validate prior findings from observational studies. RESULTS: Two Mendelian randomization studies have applied novel approaches to instrumental variable selection in methylation data, identifying bidirectional causal effects of CPT1A and triglycerides, as well as of RNMT and C6orf42, on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol response to fenofibrate. The CPT1A finding also emerged in a Bayesian network study. The Mendelian randomization studies have implemented both existing and novel steps to account for pleiotropic effects, which were independently detected in the GAW20 data via a structural equation modeling approach. Two studies estimated indirect effects of genomic variation (via DNA methylation and/or correlated phenotypes) on lipid outcomes of interest. Finally, a novel weighted R2 measure was proposed to complement other causal inference efforts by controlling for the influence of outlying observations. CONCLUSIONS: The GAW20 contributions illustrate the diversity of possible approaches to causal inference in the multi-omic context, highlighting the promises and assumptions of each method and the benefits of integrating both across methods and across omics layers for the most robust and comprehensive insights into disease processes.

15.
Endocr Pract ; 24(9): 789-795, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30084679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Severe hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) (i.e., plasma triglycerides [TGs] >1,000 mg/dL) in children is a rare but pernicious and understudied condition. Our objective was to evaluate the etiology, characteristics, and sequelae of severe pediatric HTG. METHODS: This was a retrospective electronic medical record review of pediatric patients with severe HTG at a tertiary referral Children's hospital over a 17-year period. RESULTS: There were a total of 124 patients with severe HTG. The etiology varied: hemato-oncologic (n = 48), diabetes and insulin resistance-related (n = 46), total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-related (n = 6), renal (n = 12), and miscellaneous (n = 12). There was considerable variability in the number of days for the plasma TGs to decrease to <1,000 mg/dL (147.7 ± 567.3 days) and to further decrease to <500 mg/dL (136.84 ± 230.9 days). Patients with diabetes required the longest time to improve their plasma TGs (165.8 ± 305.7 days) compared to other groups. There were 11 cases of pancreatitis, comorbid with diabetes (n = 5), hemato-oncologic conditions (n = 3), and TPN (n = 3). Sixty-seven patients (54%) had persistent HTG. CONCLUSION: Severe HTG in pediatrics is commonly due to secondary causes. Patients with diabetes tend to have a longer course of dyslipidemia. A substantial number of patients had persistent dyslipidemia, indicating underlying genetic susceptibility to HTG that is phenotypically expressed consequent to a secondary metabolic insult. ABBREVIATIONS: DKA = diabetic ketoacidosis; EMR = electronic medical record; GSD = glycogen storage disorder; HbA1c = hemoglobin A1c; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; HTG = hypertriglyceridemia; ICD-9 = International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision; IV = intravenous; LCHAD = long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency; LPL = lipoprotein lipase; NPO = nothing by mouth; PCOS = polycystic ovary syndrome; T1DM = type 1 diabetes mellitus; T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus; TG = triglyceride; TPN = total parenteral nutrition; VLDL = very-low-density lipoprotein.

16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(1): 188-200, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901700

RESUMO

Background: The putative functional variant -265T>C (rs5082) within the APOA2 promoter has shown consistent interactions with saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake to influence the risk of obesity. Objective: The aim of this study was to implement an integrative approach to characterize the molecular basis of this interaction. Design: We conducted an epigenome-wide scan on 80 participants carrying either the rs5082 CC or TT genotypes and consuming either a low-SFA (<22 g/d) or high-SFA diet (≥22 g/d), matched for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes status in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS). We then validated the findings in selected participants in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) Study (n = 379) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (n = 243). Transcription and metabolomics analyses were conducted to determine the relation between epigenetic status, APOA2 mRNA expression, and blood metabolites. Results: In the BPRHS, we identified methylation site cg04436964 as exhibiting significant differences between CC and TT participants consuming a high-SFA diet, but not among those consuming low-SFA. Similar results were observed in the GOLDN Study and the FHS. Additionally, in the FHS, cg04436964 methylation was negatively correlated with APOA2 expression in the blood of participants consuming a high-SFA diet. Furthermore, when consuming a high-SFA diet, CC carriers had lower APOA2 expression than those with the TT genotype. Lastly, metabolomic analysis identified 4 pathways as overrepresented by metabolite differences between CC and TT genotypes with high-SFA intake, including tryptophan and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) pathways. Interestingly, these pathways were linked to rs5082-specific cg04436964 methylation differences in high-SFA consumers. Conclusions: The epigenetic status of the APOA2 regulatory region is associated with SFA intake and APOA2 -265T>C genotype, promoting an APOA2 expression difference between APOA2 genotypes on a high-SFA diet, and modulating BCAA and tryptophan metabolic pathways. These findings identify potential mechanisms by which this highly reproducible gene-diet interaction influences obesity risk, and contribute new insights to ongoing investigations of the relation between SFA and human health. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03452787.

18.
Clin Epigenetics ; 10: 56, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713391

RESUMO

Background: Recently, epigenetic age acceleration-or older epigenetic age in comparison to chronological age-has been robustly associated with mortality and various morbidities. However, accelerated epigenetic aging has not been widely investigated in relation to inflammatory or metabolic markers, including postprandial lipids. Methods: We estimated measures of epigenetic age acceleration in 830 Caucasian participants from the Genetics Of Lipid Lowering Drugs and diet Network (GOLDN) considering two epigenetic age calculations based on differing sets of 5'-Cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' genomic site, derived from the Horvath and Hannum DNA methylation age calculators, respectively. GOLDN participants underwent a standardized high-fat meal challenge after fasting for at least 8 h followed by timed blood draws, the last being 6 h postmeal. We used adjusted linear mixed models to examine the association of the epigenetic age acceleration estimate with fasting and postprandial (0- and 6-h time points) low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) levels as well as five fasting inflammatory markers plus adiponectin. Results: Both DNA methylation age estimates were highly correlated with chronological age (r > 0.90). We found that the Horvath and Hannum measures of epigenetic age acceleration were moderately correlated (r = 0.50). The regression models revealed that the Horvath age acceleration measure exhibited marginal associations with increased postprandial HDL (p = 0.05), increased postprandial total cholesterol (p = 0.06), and decreased soluble interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha (IL2sRα, p = 0.02). The Hannum measure of epigenetic age acceleration was inversely associated with fasting HDL (p = 0.02) and positively associated with postprandial TG (p = 0.02), interleukin-6 (IL6, p = 0.007), C-reactive protein (C-reactive protein, p = 0.0001), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, p = 0.0001). Overall, the observed effect sizes were small and the association of the Hannum residual with inflammatory markers was attenuated by adjustment for estimated T cell type percentages. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that epigenetic age acceleration in blood relates to inflammatory biomarkers and certain lipid classes in Caucasian individuals of the GOLDN study. Future studies should consider epigenetic age acceleration in other tissues and extend the analysis to other ethnic groups.

19.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 18(4): 528-538, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795407

RESUMO

Methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy is a common first treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but many patients do not respond adequately. In order to identify genetic predictors of response, we have combined data from two consortia to carry out a genome-wide study of response to MTX in 1424 early RA patients of European ancestry. Clinical endpoints were change from baseline to 6 months after starting treatment in swollen 28-joint count, tender 28-joint count, C-reactive protein and the overall 3-component disease activity score (DAS28). No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) reached genome-wide statistical significance for any outcome measure. The strongest evidence for association was with rs168201 in NRG3 (p = 10-7 for change in DAS28). Some support was also seen for association with ZMIZ1, previously highlighted in a study of response to MTX in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Follow-up in two smaller cohorts of 429 and 177 RA patients did not support these findings, although these cohorts were more heterogeneous.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196951, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29738550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Odd-numbered chain saturated fatty acids (OCSFA) have been associated with potential health benefits. Although some OCSFA (e.g., C15:0 and C17:0) are found in meats and dairy products, sources and metabolism of C19:0 and C23:0 are relatively unknown, and the influence of non-dietary determinants, including genetic factors, on circulating levels of OCSFA is not established. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biological processes that influence circulating levels of OCSFA by investigating associations between genetic variation and OCSFA. DESIGN: We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of C15:0, C17:0, C19:0, and C23:0 among 11,494 individuals of European descent. We also investigated relationships between specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the lactase (LCT) gene, associated with adult-onset lactase intolerance, with circulating levels of dairy-derived OCSFA, and evaluated associations of candidate sphingolipid genes with C23:0 levels. RESULTS: We found no genome-wide significant evidence that common genetic variation is associated with circulating levels of C15:0 or C23:0. In two cohorts with available data, we identified one intronic SNP (rs13361131) in myosin X gene (MYO10) associated with C17:0 level (P = 1.37×10-8), and two intronic SNP (rs12874278 and rs17363566) in deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 1 (DLEU1) region associated with C19:0 level (P = 7.07×10-9). In contrast, when using a candidate-gene approach, we found evidence that three SNPs in LCT (rs11884924, rs16832067, and rs3816088) are associated with circulating C17:0 level (adjusted P = 4×10-2). In addition, nine SNPs in the ceramide synthase 4 (CERS4) region were associated with circulating C23:0 levels (adjusted P<5×10-2). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that circulating levels of OCSFA may be predominantly influenced by non-genetic factors. SNPs associated with C17:0 level in the LCT gene may reflect genetic influence in dairy consumption or in metabolism of dairy foods. SNPs associated with C23:0 may reflect a role of genetic factors in the synthesis of sphingomyelin.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/genética , Miosinas/genética , Esfingosina N-Aciltransferase/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Lactase/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esfingomielinas/biossíntese , Esfingomielinas/genética
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