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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(1): 80-94, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965740

RESUMO

The dynamics of the human brain span multiple spatial scales, from connectivity associated with a specific region/network to the global organization, each representing different brain mechanisms. Yet brain reconfigurations at different spatial scales are seldom explored and whether they are associated with the neural aspects of brain disorders is far from understood. In this study, we introduced a dynamic measure called step-wise functional network reconfiguration (sFNR) to characterize how brain configuration rewires at different spatial scales. We applied sFNR to two independent datasets, one includes 160 healthy controls (HCs) and 151 patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and the other one includes 314 HCs and 255 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We found that both SZ and ASD have increased whole-brain sFNR and sFNR between cerebellar and subcortical/sensorimotor domains. At the ICN level, the abnormalities in SZ are mainly located in ICNs within subcortical, sensory, and cerebellar domains, while the abnormalities in ASD are more widespread across domains. Interestingly, the overlap SZ-ASD abnormality in sFNR between cerebellar and sensorimotor domains was correlated with the reasoning-problem-solving performance in SZ (r = -.1652, p = .0058) as well as the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule in ASD (r = .1853, p = .0077). Our findings suggest that dynamic reconfiguration deficits may represent a key intersecting point for SZ and ASD. The investigation of brain dynamics at different spatial scales can provide comprehensive insights into the functional reconfiguration, which might advance our knowledge of cognitive decline and other pathophysiology in brain disorders.

2.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(11): 843-847, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910074

RESUMO

Individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) report poorer quality of life (QOL) than do nonanxious controls. Further, although positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) have been shown to predict QOL, no previous literature has tested this relationship in the context of individuals with GAD. In the present study, we evaluated the unique and interactive contributions of PA and NA on QOL within a sample of individuals diagnosed with GAD (N = 50). Specifically, a hierarchical regression was conducted to evaluate the unique contributions of PA, NA, and their interaction on QOL, over and above symptoms of depression. PA and depression symptoms were both significant predictors of QOL, whereas neither the main effect for NA nor the PA × NA interaction was statistically significant. Results suggest that, for those with GAD, PA uniquely contributes to QOL. Strategies to upregulate PA may be a useful treatment target for increasing QOL in individuals with GAD.

3.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102343, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711391

RESUMO

Schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are nosologically distinct neurodevelopmental disorders with similar deficits in social cognition, including the ability to form mental representations of others (i.e., mentalizing). However, the extent of patient deficit overlap in underlying neural mechanisms is unclear. Our goal was to examine deficits in mentalizing task-related (MTR) activity modulation in schizophrenia and ASD and the relationship of such deficits with social functioning and psychotic symptoms in patients. Adults, ages 18-34, diagnosed with either ASD or schizophrenia, and typically developed controls (n = 30/group), performed an interactive functional MRI Domino task. Using independent component analysis, we analyzed game intervals known to stimulate mentalizing in the default mode network (DMN), i.e., medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), precuneus, and temporoparietal junction (TPJ), for group differences in MTR activity and associations between MTR activity and social and psychosis measures. Compared to controls, both schizophrenia and ASD groups showed MTR activity deficits in PCC and TPJ. In TPJ and MPFC, MTR activity modulation was associated with social communication impairments only in ASD. In precuneus, MTR activity was associated with increased self-reported fantasizing only in schizophrenia. In schizophrenia, we found no indication of over-mentalizing activity or an association between MTR activity and psychotic symptoms. Results suggest shared neural deficits between ASD and schizophrenia in mentalizing-associated DMN regions; however, neural organization might correspond to different dimensional social deficits. Our results therefore indicate the importance of examining both categorical-clinical diagnosis and social functioning dimensional constructs when examining neural deficits in schizophrenia and ASD.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

5.
Schizophr Res Cogn ; 19: 100147, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828021

RESUMO

Emerging research highlights the potential cognitive benefits of physical exercise (PE) programs for schizophrenia (SCZ). The few recent efficacy studies that examined augmenting cognitive training (CT) with PE suggest superior effects of the combination. The next step is to consider strategies to enhance adherence in real-world settings if this type of combined treatment is going to be effective. We present the first community effectiveness data for PE and CT that included a motivationally-enhancing, self-determined approach to exercise, in lieu of participant payment. Eighty-five outpatients with schizophrenia attending an intensive outpatient program were randomized to 18 h of either (A) self-determined PE regimen with choice from a menu of different activities; (B) tablet-based neurofeedback CT focused on processing speed (PS) and working memory (WM), or (C) a time-matched combination of PE and CT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post, and follow-up (2 mo). All groups improved in WM from baseline to post, with greatest gains in the PE only group. At follow-up, cognitive gains originally observed in the PE-only group disappeared, while the PE + CT group evidenced improvements in WM and psychotic symptoms. Notably, attrition for PE was only 7%. Our data shows that combining PE and CT leads to lasting effects that are superior to those of either intervention alone. The low PE drop-out rate suggests a self-determined approach to the exercise regimen was tolerable, and may be an important component of future community implementation efforts.

7.
Neuroimage Clin ; 24: 101966, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the recent years there has been a growing debate regarding the extent and nature of the overlap in neuropathology between schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Dynamic functional network connectivity (dFNC) is a recent analysis method that explores temporal patterns of functional connectivity (FC). We compared resting-state dFNC in SZ, ASD and healthy controls (HC), characterized the associations between temporal patterns and symptoms, and performed a three-way classification analysis based on dFNC indices. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI was collected from 100 young adults: 33 SZ, 33 ASD, 34 HC. Independent component analysis (ICA) was performed, followed by dFNC analysis (window = 33 s, step = 1TR, k-means clustering). Temporal patterns were compared between groups, correlated with symptoms, and classified via cross-validated three-way discriminant analysis. RESULTS: Both clinical groups displayed an increased fraction of time (FT) spent in a state of weak, intra-network connectivity [p < .001] and decreased FT in a highly-connected state [p < .001]. SZ further showed decreased number of transitions between states [p < .001], decreased FT in a widely-connected state [p < .001], increased dwell time (DT) in the weakly-connected state [p < .001], and decreased DT in the highly-connected state [p = .001]. Social behavior scores correlated with DT in the widely-connected state in SZ [r = 0.416, p = .043], but not ASD. Classification correctly identified SZ at high rates (81.8%), while ASD and HC at lower rates. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate a severe and pervasive pattern of temporal aberrations in SZ (specifically, being "stuck" in a state of weak connectivity), that distinguishes SZ participants from both ASD and HC, and is associated with clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/classificação , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/classificação , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Schizophr Res ; 201: 187-195, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29958750

RESUMO

Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to understand mental states of others and it is crucial for building sensitivity to other persons or events. Measuring ToM is important for understanding and rehabilitating social cognitive impairments in persons with schizophrenia. The Social Attribution Task-Multiple Choice (SAT-MC) has been successfully employed to measure ToM between individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and healthy controls (HC) in North America. Given that the SAT-MC uses geometric shapes, is nonverbal and less culturally loaded than other social cognition measures, it may serve for measuring ToM in schizophrenia across cultures. A total of 120 participants (30 per group; Korean SZ; Korean HC; North American SZ; North American HC) were selected from existing databases to examine the reliability and validity of the SAT-MC. Internal consistency, factor structure, measurement invariance, discriminant validity, and convergent/divergent validity were examined. The SAT-MC had good internal consistency regardless of the clinical and cultural group as evidence by Cronbach's α ≥ 0.78 in all groups. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model with a good model fit (χ2 = 188.122, TLI = 0.958, CFI = 0.963, RMSEA = 0.045). The SAT-MC was sensitive to detect individual differences in ToM of SZ and HC, regardless of culture (p < 0.001), and significantly correlated with other social cognition tasks (Hinting and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test) among Korean and North American patients. The SAT-MC is a reliable measure for evaluating ToM in both Koreans and North Americans with or without schizophrenia, supporting its potential utility in diverse language and cultures for schizophrenia research.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Teoria da Mente , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , América do Norte , Psicometria , República da Coreia , Percepção Social
10.
Brain Behav ; 8(8): e01015, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29931835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters. The current report describes two interrelated studies designed to identify and verify a potential neural target for rTMS treatment of GAD. METHODS: Study I explored the integrity of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala neural networks, which underlie decision making under conditions of uncertainty, in GAD. Individuals diagnosed with GAD (n = 31) and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) gambling task that manipulated uncertainty using high versus low error rates. In a subsequent randomized-controlled trial (Study II), a subset of the GAD sample (n = 16) completed the fMRI gambling task again after 30 sessions of active versus sham rTMS (1 Hz, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) to investigate the modulation of functional networks and symptoms. RESULTS: In Study I, participants with GAD demonstrated impairments in PFC-PFC and PFC-amygdala functional connectivity (FC) mostly during the high uncertainty condition. In Study II, one region of interest pair, dorsal anterior cingulate (ACC) - subgenual ACC, showed "normalization" of FC following active, but not sham, rTMS, and neural changes were associated with improvement in worry symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: These results outline a possible treatment mechanism of rTMS in GAD, and pave the way for future studies of treatment optimization.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Incerteza , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 38(8): 3757-3770, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480992

RESUMO

Despite over 400 peer-reviewed structural MRI publications documenting neuroanatomic abnormalities in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, the confounding effects of head motion and the regional specificity of these defects are unclear. Using a large cohort of individuals scanned on the same research dedicated MRI with broadly similar protocols, we observe reduced cortical thickness indices in both illnesses, though less pronounced in bipolar disorder. While schizophrenia (n = 226) was associated with wide-spread surface area reductions, bipolar disorder (n = 227) and healthy comparison subjects (n = 370) did not differ. We replicate earlier reports that head motion (estimated from time-series data) influences surface area and cortical thickness measurements and demonstrate that motion influences a portion, but not all, of the observed between-group structural differences. Although the effect sizes for these differences were small to medium, when global indices were covaried during vertex-level analyses, between-group effects became nonsignificant. This analysis raises doubts about the regional specificity of structural brain changes, possible in contrast to functional changes, in affective and psychotic illnesses as measured with current imaging technology. Given that both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder showed cortical thickness reductions, but only schizophrenia showed surface area changes, and assuming these measures are influenced by at least partially unique sets of biological factors, then our results could indicate some degree of specificity between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3757-3770, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Movimento (Física) , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Cabeça , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Tamanho do Órgão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
Brain Connect ; 7(5): 289-298, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28478685

RESUMO

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) are currently considered distinct diagnostic categories. Accumulating data suggest the study of anxiety disorders may benefit from the use of dimensional conceptualizations. One such dimension of shared dysfunction is emotion regulation (ER). The current study evaluated dimensional (ER) and categorical (diagnosis) neurocorrelates of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in participants with GAD and SAD and healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) rsFC was estimated between all regions of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and bilateral amygdala (N = 37: HC-19; GAD-10; SAD-8). Thereafter, rsFC was predicted by both ER, (using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale [DERS]), and diagnosis (DSM-5) within a single unified analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). For the ER dimension, there was a significant association between impaired ER abilities and anticorrelated rsFC of amygdala and DMN (L.amygdala-ACC: p = 0.011, beta = -0.345), as well as amygdala and SN (L.amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex [PCC]: p = 0.032, beta = -0.409). Diagnostic status was significantly associated with rsFC differences between the SAD and HC groups, both within the DMN (PCC-MPFC: p = 0.009) and between the DMN and SN (R.LP-ACC: p = 0.010). Although preliminary, our results exemplify the potential contribution of the dimensional approach to the study of GAD and SAD and support a combined categorical and dimensional model of rsFC of anxiety disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Conectoma/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Descanso , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Data ; 4: 170010, 2017 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28291247

RESUMO

The second iteration of the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE II) aims to enhance the scope of brain connectomics research in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Consistent with the initial ABIDE effort (ABIDE I), that released 1112 datasets in 2012, this new multisite open-data resource is an aggregate of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and corresponding structural MRI and phenotypic datasets. ABIDE II includes datasets from an additional 487 individuals with ASD and 557 controls previously collected across 16 international institutions. The combination of ABIDE I and ABIDE II provides investigators with 2156 unique cross-sectional datasets allowing selection of samples for discovery and/or replication. This sample size can also facilitate the identification of neurobiological subgroups, as well as preliminary examinations of sex differences in ASD. Additionally, ABIDE II includes a range of psychiatric variables to inform our understanding of the neural correlates of co-occurring psychopathology; 284 diffusion imaging datasets are also included. It is anticipated that these enhancements will contribute to unraveling key sources of ASD heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Conectoma , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroimagem
14.
J Anxiety Disord ; 43: 1-7, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467027

RESUMO

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is characterized by emotion regulation difficulties, which are associated with abnormalities in neural circuits encompassing fronto-limbic regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The aim of this study was to determine whether DLPFC neuromodulation improves emotion regulation in patients with GAD. This is a secondary analysis from a randomized-controlled trial comparing 30 sessions of low-frequency right-sided active (n=13) versus sham (n=12, sham coil) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the right DLPFC in patients with GAD. Results indicated statistically significant improvements in self-reported emotion regulation difficulties at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up in the active group only. Improvements were found primarily in the domains of goal-directed behaviors and impulse control and were significantly associated with a global clinician rating of improvement. These preliminary results support rTMS as a treatment for GAD and suggest improved emotion regulation as a possible mechanism of change.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Emoções , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Br J Psychiatry ; 209(3): 222-8, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27198484

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise for treating generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) but has only been studied in uncontrolled research. AIMS: This is the first randomised controlled trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01659736) to investigate the efficacy and neural correlates of rTMS in GAD. METHOD: Twenty five participants (active n = 13; sham, n = 12) enrolled. rTMS was targeted at the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, 1 Hz, 90% resting motor threshold). RESULTS: Response and remission rates were higher in the active v. sham groups and there were significant group × time interactions for anxiety, worry and depressive symptoms, favouring active v. sham. In addition, right DLPFC activation during a decision-making gambling task increased at post-treatment for active rTMS only, and changes in neuroactivation correlated significantly with changes in worry symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence that rTMS may improve GAD symptoms in association with modifying neural activity in the stimulation site.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neuroimage ; 132: 247-260, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26908319

RESUMO

Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados , Adolescente , Adulto , Ondas Encefálicas , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuroimage ; 124(Pt B): 1089-1092, 2016 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888923

RESUMO

We describe the Neuroinformatics Database (NiDB), an open-source database platform for archiving, analysis, and sharing of neuroimaging data. Data from the multi-site projects Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE), Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes parts one and two (B-SNIP1, B-SNIP2), and Monetary Incentive Delay task (MID) are available for download from the public instance of NiDB, with more projects sharing data as it becomes available. As demonstrated by making several large datasets available, NiDB is an extensible platform appropriately suited to archive and distribute shared neuroimaging data.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Informática/métodos , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Neuroimagem , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Transtorno Autístico/patologia , Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Desvalorização pelo Atraso , Humanos , Internet , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Controle de Qualidade
19.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 36(8): 3047-63, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25950551

RESUMO

The ability to attribute mental states to others, or "mentalizing," is posited to involve specific subnetworks within the overall default mode network (DMN), but this question needs clarification. To determine which default mode (DM) subnetworks are engaged by mentalizing processes, we assessed task-related recruitment of DM subnetworks. Spatial independent component analysis (sICA) applied to fMRI data using relatively high-order model (75 components). Healthy participants (n = 53, ages 17-60) performed two fMRI tasks: an interactive game involving mentalizing (Domino), a semantic memory task (SORT), and a resting state fMRI scan. sICA of the two tasks split the DMN into 10 subnetworks located in three core regions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC; five subnetworks), posterior cingulate/precuneus (PCC/PrC; three subnetworks), and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ). Mentalizing events increased recruitment in five of 10 DM subnetworks, located in all three core DMN regions. In addition, three of these five DM subnetworks, one dmPFC subnetwork, one PCC/PrC subnetwork, and the right TPJ subnetwork, showed reduced recruitment by semantic memory task events. The opposing modulation by the two tasks suggests that these three DM subnetworks are specifically engaged in mentalizing. Our findings, therefore, suggest the unique involvement of mentalizing processes in only three of 10 DM subnetworks, and support the importance of the dmPFC, PCC/PrC, and right TPJ in mentalizing as described in prior studies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Semântica , Comportamento Social , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Descanso , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e88188, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24505424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with a positive family history for alcoholism (FHP) have shown differences from family-history-negative (FHN) individuals in the neural correlates of reward processing. FHP, compared to FHN individuals, demonstrate relatively diminished ventral striatal activation during anticipation of monetary rewards, and the degree of ventral striatal activation shows an inverse correlation with specific impulsivity measures in alcohol-dependent individuals. Rewards in socially interactive contexts relate importantly to addictive propensities, yet have not been examined with respect to how their neural underpinnings relate to impulsivity-related measures. Here we describe impulsivity measures in FHN and FHP individuals as they relate to a socially interactive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task. METHODS: Forty FHP and 29 FHN subjects without histories of Axis-I disorders completed a socially interactive Domino task during functional magnetic resonance imaging and completed self-report and behavioral impulsivity-related assessments. RESULTS: FHP compared to FHN individuals showed higher scores (p = .004) on one impulsivity-related factor relating to both compulsivity (Padua Inventory) and reward/punishment sensitivity (Sensitivity to Punishment/Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire). Multiple regression analysis within a reward-related network revealed a correlation between risk-taking (involving another impulsivity-related factor, the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART)) and right ventral striatum activation under reward >punishment contrast (p<0.05 FWE corrected) in the social task. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral risk-taking scores may be more closely associated with neural correlates of reward responsiveness in socially interactive contexts than are FH status or impulsivity-related self-report measures. These findings suggest that risk-taking assessments be examined further in socially interactive settings relevant to addictive behaviors.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Gânglios da Base/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Recompensa , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Social
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