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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4955, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672989

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease that shows one of the highest mortality rates among rheumatic diseases. We perform a large genome-wide association study (GWAS), and meta-analysis with previous GWASs, in 26,679 individuals and identify 27 independent genome-wide associated signals, including 13 new risk loci. The novel associations nearly double the number of genome-wide hits reported for SSc thus far. We define 95% credible sets of less than 5 likely causal variants in 12 loci. Additionally, we identify specific SSc subtype-associated signals. Functional analysis of high-priority variants shows the potential function of SSc signals, with the identification of 43 robust target genes through HiChIP. Our results point towards molecular pathways potentially involved in vasculopathy and fibrosis, two main hallmarks in SSc, and highlight the spectrum of critical cell types for the disease. This work supports a better understanding of the genetic basis of SSc and provides directions for future functional experiments.

2.
Clin Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667644

RESUMO

The Collaborative National Quality and Efficacy Registry (CONQUER) for Scleroderma is a multicenter US-based longitudinal study of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) within 5 years of first non-Raynaud's symptom. The data collection methodology incorporates successful models from other SSc registries. The cohort is designed to provide linked bio-specimen and clinical outcomes data on a longitudinal cohort of SSc patients for validation of hypothesis-driven research and to provide a platform for studying patient-reported outcomes in scleroderma. The CONQUER registry was developed using the guidelines of the International Society for Biological Repositories, and was an iterative process between physicians with an expertise in SSc, patient stakeholders, and information technology experts. Enrollment commenced in June 2018. During the first 6 months of the CONQUER Scleroderma study, 151 SSc patients with less than 5 years of disease duration (from first non-Raynaud's symptom) have been recruited. The mean age is 51 ± 14 years, 83% are female, and 60% of patients have diffuse disease. Survey completion rates are above 88% for all patient-reported outcome surveys. Bio-specimen collection rates are over 97%, and disease severity score completion rates are over 98%. Pulmonary function test data is available on 91% of patients, and echocardiography is available 80%. The CONQUER scleroderma study provides a unique and growing resource for studying scleroderma in a longitudinal, US-based population. KEY POINTS : • The Collaborative National Quality and Efficacy Registry (CONQUER) for Scleroderma is a multicenter US-based longitudinal study of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) within 5 years of first non-Raynaud's symptom. • The CONQUER scleroderma study provides a unique and growing resource for studying scleroderma in a longitudinal, US-based population. • CONQUER is innovative in its design in that it is focused on prospective collection of paired clinical and patient outcome data with bio-specimens.

3.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Determine global skin transcriptome patterns of early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) and how they differ from later disease. METHODS: Skin biopsy RNA from 48 patients in the Prospective Registry for Early Systemic Sclerosis (PRESS) cohort (mean disease duration 1.3 years) and 33 matched healthy controls was examined by next-generation RNA sequencing. Data were analysed for cell type-specific signatures and compared with similarly obtained data from 55 previously biopsied patients in Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcomes Study cohort with longer disease duration (mean 7.4 years) and their matched controls. Correlations with histological features and clinical course were also evaluated. RESULTS: SSc patients in PRESS had a high prevalence of M2 (96%) and M1 (94%) macrophage and CD8 T cell (65%), CD4 T cell (60%) and B cell (69%) signatures. Immunohistochemical staining of immune cell markers correlated with the gene expression-based immune cell signatures. The prevalence of immune cell signatures in early diffuse SSc patients was higher than in patients with longer disease duration. In the multivariable model, adaptive immune cell signatures were significantly associated with shorter disease duration, while fibroblast and macrophage cell type signatures were associated with higher modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS). Immune cell signatures also correlated with skin thickness progression rate prior to biopsy, but did not predict subsequent mRSS progression. CONCLUSIONS: Skin in early diffuse SSc has prominent innate and adaptive immune cell signatures. As a prominently affected end organ, these signatures reflect the preceding rate of disease progression. These findings could have implications in understanding SSc pathogenesis and clinical trial design.

4.
J Exp Med ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757866

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is a multisystem fibrotic disease. The mammalian cleavage factor I 25-kD subunit (CFIm25; encoded by NUDT21) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation, and its depletion causes predominantly 3'UTR shortening through loss of stimulation of distal polyadenylation sites. A shortened 3'UTR will often lack microRNA target sites, resulting in increased mRNA translation due to evasion of microRNA-mediated repression. Herein, we report that CFlm25 is downregulated in SSc skin, primary dermal fibroblasts, and two murine models of dermal fibrosis. Knockdown of CFIm25 in normal skin fibroblasts is sufficient to promote the 3'UTR shortening of key TGFß-regulated fibrotic genes and enhance their protein expression. Moreover, several of these fibrotic transcripts show 3'UTR shortening in SSc skin. Finally, mice with CFIm25 deletion in fibroblasts show exaggerated skin fibrosis upon bleomycin treatment, and CFIm25 restoration attenuates bleomycin-induced skin fibrosis. Overall, our data link this novel RNA-processing mechanism to dermal fibrosis and SSc pathogenesis.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(10): 1371-1378, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the randomised scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplantation (SCOT trial) (NCT00114530), myeloablation, followed by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), led to improved clinical outcomes compared with monthly cyclophosphamide (CYC) treatment in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Herein, the study aimed to determine global molecular changes at the whole blood transcript and serum protein levels ensuing from HSCT in comparison to intravenous monthly CYC in 62 participants enrolled in the SCOT study. METHODS: Global transcript studies were performed at pretreatment baseline, 8 months and 26 months postrandomisation using Illumina HT-12 arrays. Levels of 102 proteins were measured in the concomitantly collected serum samples. RESULTS: At the baseline visit, interferon (IFN) and neutrophil transcript modules were upregulated and the cytotoxic/NK module was downregulated in SSc compared with unaffected controls. A paired comparison of the 26 months to the baseline samples revealed a significant decrease of the IFN and neutrophil modules and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module in the HSCT arm while there was no significant change in the CYC control arm. Also, a composite score of correlating serum proteins with IFN and neutrophil transcript modules, as well as a multilevel analysis showed significant changes in SSc molecular signatures after HSCT while similar changes were not observed in the CYC arm. Lastly, a decline in the IFN and neutrophil modules was associated with an improvement in pulmonary forced vital capacity and an increase in the cytotoxic/NK module correlated with improvement in skin score. CONCLUSION: HSCT contrary to conventional treatment leads to a significant 'correction' in disease-related molecular signatures.

6.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(6): 595-602, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436584

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent advances in identification of biomarkers in systemic sclerosis for disease severity, prognosis, and treatment response. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports describe novel circulating markers of disease severity, autoantibody associations with specific manifestations including cancer, and skin gene expression-based predictors of modified Rodnan skin score progression and treatment response. Moreover, there is converging evidence that C-reactive protein and pneumoproteins such as Krebs von den Lungen-6 and chemokine ligand 18 could serve as prognostic biomarkers in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease. SUMMARY: Several novel biomarkers show promise in improving the assessment of systemic sclerosis (SSc) disease severity, prognosis, and treatment response. Their potential utility in prospective selection of patients for clinical trials and in individual patient management require additional research.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1583-1591, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is considerable evidence that implicates dysregulation of type I interferon signalling (or type I IFN signature) in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). Interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) has been recognised as a master regulator of type I IFN signalling. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of IRF7 in dermal fibrosis and SSc pathogenesis. METHODS: SSc and healthy control skin biopsies were investigated to determine IRF7 expression and activation. The role of IRF7 in fibrosis was investigated using IRF7 knockout (KO) mice in the bleomycin-induced and TSK/+mouse models. In vitro experiments with dermal fibroblasts from patients with SSc and healthy controls were performed. RESULTS: IRF7 expression was significantly upregulated and activated in SSc skin tissue and explanted SSc dermal fibroblasts compared with unaffected, matched controls. Moreover, IRF7 expression was stimulated by IFN-α in dermal fibroblasts. Importantly, IRF7 co-immunoprecipitated with Smad3, a key mediator of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß signalling, and IRF7 knockdown reduced profibrotic factors in SSc fibroblasts. IRF7 KO mice demonstrated attenuated dermal fibrosis and inflammation compared with wild-type mice in response to bleomycin. Specifically, hydroxyproline content, dermal thickness as well as Col1a2, ACTA2 and interleukin-6 mRNA levels were significantly attenuated in IRF7 KO mice skin tissue. Furthermore, IRF7 KO in TSK/+mice attenuated hydroxyproline content, subcutaneous hypodermal thickness, Col1a2 mRNA as well as α-smooth muscle actin and fibronectin expression. CONCLUSIONS: IRF7 is upregulated in SSc skin, interacts with Smad3 and potentiates TGF-ß-mediated fibrosis, and therefore may represent a promising therapeutic target in SSc.

8.
J Biophotonics ; : e201900236, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343837

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc-scleroderma) is an autoimmune disorder with high mortality rate that results in excessive accumulation of collagen in the skin and internal organs. Currently, the modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) is the gold standard for evaluating the dermal thickening due to SSc. However, mRSS has noticeable inter- and intra-observer variabilities as quantified by the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC: 0.6-0.75). In this work, optical coherence elastography (OCE) combined with structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) image analysis was used to assess skin thickness in 12 SSc patients and healthy volunteers. Inter- (ICC: 0.62-0.99) and intra-observer (ICC > 0.90) assessment of OCT/OCE showed excellent reliability. Clinical assessments, including histologically assessed dermal thickness (DT), mRSS, and site-specific mRSS (SMRSS) were also performed for further validation. The OCE and OCT results from the forearm demonstrated the highest correlation (OCE: 0.78, OCT: 0.65) with SMRSS. Importantly, OCE and OCT had stronger correlations with the histological DT (OCT: r = .78 and OCE: r = .74) than SMRSS (r = .57), indicating the OCT/OCE could outperform semi-quantitative clinical assessments such as SMRSS. Overall, these results demonstrate that OCT/OCE could be useful for rapid, noninvasive and objective assessments of SSc onset and monitoring skin disease progression and treatment response.

9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156645

RESUMO

Antisense long non-coding RNAs (AS lncRNAs) have increasingly been recognized as important regulators of gene expression and they have been found to play key roles in several diseases. However, very little is known about the role of AS lncRNAs in fibrotic diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our recent screening experiments by RNA sequencing showed that ovarian tumor domain containing 6B antisense RNA1 (OTUD6B-AS1) and its sense gene OTUD6B were significantly downregulated in SSc skin biopsies. Therefore, we aimed to identify key regulators of OTUD6B-AS1 and to analyze the functional relevance of OTUD6B-AS1 in SSc. OTUD6B-AS1 and OTUD6B expression in SSc and healthy control (HC) dermal fibroblasts (Fb) after stimulation with transforming growth factor-ß (TGFß), Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was analyzed by qPCR. To identify the functional role of OTUD6B-AS1, dermal Fb or human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMC) were transfected with a locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting OTUD6B-AS1. Proliferation was measured by BrdU and real-time proliferation assay. Apoptosis was measured by Caspase 3/7 assay and Western blot for cleaved caspase 3. While no difference was recorded at the basal level between HC and SSc dermal Fb, the expression of OTUD6B-AS1 and OTUD6B was significantly downregulated in both SSc and HC dermal Fb after PDGF stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Only mild and inconsistent effects were observed with TGFß, IL-4, and IL-13. OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown in Fb and HPASMC did not affect extracellular matrix or pro-fibrotic/proinflammatory cytokine production. However, OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown significantly increased Cyclin D1 expression at the mRNA and protein level. Moreover, silencing of OTUD6B-AS1 significantly reduced proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in both dermal Fb and HPASMC. OTUD6B-AS1 knockdown did not affect OTUD6B expression at the mRNA level and protein level. Our data suggest that OTUD6B-AS1 regulates proliferation and apoptosis via cyclin D1 expression in a sense gene independent manner. This is the first report investigating the function of OTUD6B-AS1. Our data shed light on a novel apoptosis resistance mechanism in Fb and vascular smooth muscle cells that might be relevant for pathogenesis of SSc.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(12): 2059-2067, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) and CCL18 levels and the severity and progression of systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). METHODS: Patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Lung Study II (cyclophosphamide [CYC] versus mycophenolate mofetil [MMF]) were included. Baseline and 12-month plasma samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to assess CCL18 and KL-6 levels. The forced vital capacity (FVC) and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were measured every 3 months. Joint models were created to investigate the relationship between baseline CCL18 and KL-6 levels and the course of the FVC and DLco over 1 year according to treatment arm. RESULTS: Baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels each correlated with the extent of radiographic fibrosis. Levels of both CCL18 and KL-6 declined significantly at 1 year. In both treatment arms (n = 71 for CYC, n = 62 for MMF), a higher baseline KL-6 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of FVC (P = 0.024 for CYC; P = 0.005 for MMF) and DLco (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.004 for MMF) over 1 year. A higher baseline CCL18 level predicted progression of ILD based on the course of the FVC (P < 0.001 for CYC; P = 0.007 for MMF) and DLco (P = 0.001 for CYC; P < 0.001 for MMF) over 1 year, as well as mortality (P = 0.0008 for CYC arm only). CONCLUSION: In a rigorously conducted clinical trial for SSc-related ILD, KL-6 and CCL18 levels correlated with ILD severity and declined with immunosuppression. Patients with higher baseline KL-6 and CCL18 levels were more likely to experience disease progression despite treatment. KL-6 and CCL18 levels could be used to identify patients with a progressive ILD phenotype who may benefit from a more aggressive initial treatment approach.

11.
J Clin Invest ; 129(5): 1984-1999, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830875

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic and deadly disease with a poor prognosis and few treatment options. Pathological remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) by myofibroblasts is a key factor that drives disease pathogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Alternative polyadenylation (APA) has recently been shown to play a major role in cellular responses to stress by driving the expression of fibrotic factors and ECMs through altering microRNA sensitivity, but a connection to IPF has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that CFIm25, a global regulator of APA, is down-regulated in the lungs of patients with IPF and mice with pulmonary fibrosis, with its expression selectively reduced in alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive fibroblasts. Following the knockdown of CFIm25 in normal human lung fibroblasts, we identified 808 genes with shortened 3'UTRs, including those involved in the transforming growth factor-ß signaling pathway, the Wnt signaling pathway, and cancer pathways. The expression of key pro-fibrotic factors can be suppressed by CFIm25 overexpression in IPF fibroblasts. Finally, we demonstrate that deletion of CFIm25 in fibroblasts or myofibroblast precursors using either the Col1a1 or the Foxd1 promoter enhances pulmonary fibrosis after bleomycin exposure in mice. Taken together, our results identified CFIm25 down-regulation as a novel mechanism to elevate pro-fibrotic gene expression in pulmonary fibrosis.

12.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709959

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify baseline features that predict progression of hand contractures and to assess the effect of contractures on functional status in the prospective GENISOS cohort. METHODS: Rate of decline in hand extension, as an indicator of hand contracture, was the primary outcome. We assessed longitudinal hand extension measurements, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) score, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical function score, and demographic, clinical, and serological variables. Subjects with ≥ 2 hand measurements at least 6 months apart were included. RESULTS: A total of 1087 hand measurements for 219 patients were available over an average of 8.1 ± 4.8 years. Hand extension decreased on average by 0.11 cm/year. Antitopoisomerase I antibody (ATA) positivity and higher modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) were predictive of faster decline in hand extension (p = 0.009 and p = 0.046, respectively). In a subgroup analysis of 62 patients with ≤ 2 years from SSc onset, ATA and diffuse disease type were associated with faster decline in hand extension; anticentromere positivity was associated with slower rate of decline. Although the rate of decline in patients with disease duration ≤ 2 years was numerically higher, the difference was not statistically significant. Hand extension continued to decline in a linear fashion over time and was inversely related to overall functional status. CONCLUSION: ATA was predictive of contracture development in both early disease (≤ 2 yrs) and in the overall cohort. Hand extension declined linearly over time and was inversely associated with MHAQ and SF-36 scores. ATA positivity and higher baseline mRSS were predictive of faster decline in hand extension.

13.
Cytokine ; : 154635, 2019 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685202

RESUMO

Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma, SSc) is a multifaceted disease characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis affecting the skin and internal organs. Despite advances in the understanding and treatment of SSc in recent years, SSc continues to cause reduced quality of life and premature mortality. Type I interferons (IFNs), a family of cytokines with essential roles in the immune response to microbial infection, play a pathogenic role in certain autoimmune diseases (reviewed elsewhere in this edition). Polymorphisms in interferon-regulatory factors confer an increased risk of SSc, and IFN excess is evident in the blood and skin of a large percentage of SSc patients. Here we describe the evidence of Type I IFN dysregulation in SSc, revealed predominately by genetics and gene expression profiling. We also discuss evidence regarding mechanisms by which Type I IFN might contribute to SSc pathogenesis, mechanisms driving excess Type I IFN production in SSc, and the potential roles of Type I IFNs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in SSc.

14.
J Rheumatol ; 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Findings from previous genome-wide association studies indicated an association of the NOTCH4 gene with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This is a followup study to fine-map exonic variants of NOTCH4 in SSc. METHODS: All exons of NOTCH4 were sequenced and analyzed in a total of 1006 patients with SSc and 1004 controls of US white ancestry with the Ion Torrent system. Identified SSc-associated variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing, and then examined in a Chinese Han cohort consisting of 576 patients with SSc and 574 controls. The NOTCH4 variants were analyzed for association with SSc as a whole and with SSc clinical and autoantibody subtypes with and without the influence of specific HLA-class II alleles that had been previously identified as major genetic factors in SSc. RESULTS: A total of 12 SSc-associated and SSc subtype-associated exonic variants of NOTCH4 were identified in the US cohort. Three of them are nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 1 is a CTG tandem repeat that encodes for a poly-leucine, all of which are located in the NOTCH4 extracellular domain (NECD). Conditional logistic regression analysis on SSc-associated HLA-class II alleles indicated an independent association of the NOTCH4 variants with SSc autoantibody subtypes. Analysis of the Chinese cohort supported a genetic contribution of NOTCH4 to SSc and its subtypes. CONCLUSION: Multiple NOTCH4 exonic variants were associated with SSc and/or SSc subtypes. Several of these variants encode nonsynonymous sequence changes occurring in the NECD, which implicates a potentially functional effect of NOTCH4.

15.
J Rheumatol ; 45(8): 1153-1158, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29961690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 2 pneumoproteins, KL-6 and CCL-18, are promising biomarkers in systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related interstitial lung disease (ILD). Our goal was to determine their predictive significance for forced vital capacity % (FVC%) decline within the first year of followup in patients with early SSc-ILD. METHODS: Early SSc patients with imaging-verified ILD enrolled in the Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcome Study (GENISOS) cohort were included. Annualized rate of change in FVC% based on the baseline and followup measurement within 12-18 months was used as the surrogate outcomes for ILD progression. RESULTS: Eighty-two early SSc-ILD patients with mean disease duration of 2.3 years were investigated. FVC% change ranged from -23% to 38%. Baseline KL-6 levels were higher in patients than healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Higher KL-6 levels were predictive of faster FVC% decline at the 1-year followup (r = -0.23, p = 0.037). Upon categorizing KL-6 using a previously published cutoff of 1273 U/ml, its predictive significance remained in the univariable model (b = -0.07, p = 0.01), indicating that patients with positive KL-6 had on average 7% more decline in annualized percent change of FVC%. Moreover, KL-6 remained an independent predictor after adjustment for sex, disease type, anti-Scl-70, and immunosuppressive treatment status in multivariable models. Although CCL-18 was higher in patients than controls (p < 0.001), its levels did not predict FVC decline rate (p = 0.458). CONCLUSION: KL-6 but not CCL-18 is predictive of early SSc-ILD progression. KL-6 is a promising pneumoprotein that can contribute to SSc-ILD clinical trial enrichment.

16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(9): 1623-1631, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868924

RESUMO

Objectives: The Scleroderma Patient-centered Intervention Network (SPIN) Cohort is a web-based cohort designed to collect patient-reported outcomes at regular intervals as a framework for conducting trials of psychosocial, educational, self-management and rehabilitation interventions for patients with SSc. The aim of this study was to present baseline demographic, medical and patient-reported outcome data of the SPIN Cohort and to compare it with other large SSc cohorts. Methods: Descriptive statistics were used to summarize SPIN Cohort characteristics; these were compared with published data of the European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) and Canadian Scleroderma Research Group (CSRG) cohorts. Results: Demographic, organ involvement and antibody profile data for SPIN (N = 1125) were generally comparable with that of the EUSTAR (N = 7319) and CSRG (N = 1390) cohorts. There was a high proportion of women and White patients in all cohorts, though relative proportions differed. Scl70 antibody frequency was highest in EUSTAR, somewhat lower in SPIN, and lowest in CSRG, consistent with the higher proportion of interstitial lung disease among dcSSc patients in SPIN compared with in CSRG (48.5 vs 40.3%). RNA polymerase III antibody frequency was highest in SPIN and remarkably lower in EUSTAR (21.1 vs 2.4%), in line with the higher prevalence of SSc renal crisis (4.5 vs 2.1%) in SPIN. Conclusion: Although there are some differences, the SPIN Cohort is broadly comparable with other large prevalent SSc cohorts, increasing confidence that insights gained from the SPIN Cohort should be generalizable, although it should be noted that all three cohorts include primarily White participants.


Assuntos
Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(10): 1673-1684, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29771006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is a chronic disease that affects the skin and various internal organs. Dermal fibrosis is a major component of this disease. The mechanisms that promote dermal fibrosis remain elusive. Elevations in tissue adenosine levels and the subsequent engagement of the profibrotic A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) have been shown to regulate fibrosis in multiple organs including the lung, kidney, and penis; however, the role of ADORA2B in dermal fibrosis has not been investigated. We undertook this study to test our hypothesis that elevated expression of ADORA2B in the skin drives the development of dermal fibrosis. METHODS: We assessed the involvement of ADORA2B in the regulation of dermal fibrosis using a well-established mouse model of dermal fibrosis. Using an orally active ADORA2B antagonist, we demonstrated how inhibition of ADORA2B results in reduced dermal fibrosis in 2 distinct experimental models. Finally, using human dermal fibroblasts, we characterized the expression of adenosine receptors. RESULTS: We demonstrated that levels of ADORA2B were significantly elevated in dermal fibrosis and that the therapeutic blockade of this receptor in vivo using an ADORA2B antagonist could reduce the production of profibrotic mediators in the skin and attenuate dermal fibrosis. Antagonism of ADORA2B resulted in reduced numbers of arginase-expressing macrophages and myofibroblasts and in reduced levels of the extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagen, and hyaluronan. CONCLUSION: These findings identify ADORA2B as a potential profibrotic regulator in dermal fibrosis and suggest that ADORA2B antagonism may be a useful approach for the treatment of SSc.

18.
BMJ Open ; 8(3): e018641, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511009

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Valid measures of appearance concern are needed in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare, disfiguring autoimmune disease. The Derriford Appearance Scale-24 (DAS-24) assesses appearance-related distress related to visible differences. There is uncertainty regarding its factor structure, possibly due to its scoring method. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Participants with SSc were recruited from 27 centres in Canada, the USA and the UK. Participants who self-identified as having visible differences were recruited from community and clinical settings in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: Two samples were analysed (n=950 participants with SSc; n=1265 participants with visible differences). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The DAS-24 factor structure was evaluated using two scoring methods. Convergent validity was evaluated with measures of social interaction anxiety, depression, fear of negative evaluation, social discomfort and dissatisfaction with appearance. RESULTS: When items marked by respondents as 'not applicable' were scored as 0, per standard DAS-24 scoring, a one-factor model fit poorly; when treated as missing data, the one-factor model fit well. Convergent validity analyses revealed strong correlations that were similar across scoring methods. CONCLUSIONS: Treating 'not applicable' responses as missing improved the measurement model, but did not substantively influence practical inferences that can be drawn from DAS-24 scores. Indications of item redundancy and poorly performing items suggest that the DAS-24 could be improved and potentially shortened.


Assuntos
Imagem Corporal , Aparência Física , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Escleroderma Sistêmico/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 159(1): 185-193, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29584543

RESUMO

Objective Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is a clinical subtype of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), characterized by eosinophilic mucin, evidence of fungal elements within the mucin, fungal-specific type I hypersensitivity, and characteristic computed tomography findings. It remains controversial whether AFRS represents a disease with a unique pathophysiology from chronic rhinosinusitis or is merely a severe form of CRSwNP. The goal of this study was to identify molecular features unique to AFRS. Study Design Cross-sectional case-control. Setting Single academic tertiary referral institution. Subjects and Methods Subjects included 86 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery: CRSwNP (n = 34), AFRS (n = 37), and healthy controls (n = 15). Pathway and correlation analyses were performed with whole-genome microarray data for study patients undergoing surgery for recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis. Our findings were confirmed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical studies. Results AFRS was uniquely characterized by a pronounced association with adaptive T helper 2-associated immune gene expression. AFRS exhibited altered expression of proteins associated with secretory salivary peptides-namely, histatin, a peptide with known antifungal activity in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the expression of histatins correlated negatively with that of type 2 inflammatory mediators. We confirm the decreased expression of histatins in AFRS when compared with CRSwNP by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and localized its expression to a submucosal cell population. Conclusion There exist clear molecular profiles that distinguish AFRS from CRSwNP. This divergence translates into an altered ability to control fungal growth and may in part explain some of the phenotypical differences between CRSwNP and AFRS.

20.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 70(11): 1646-1652, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409146

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Fear of negative evaluation is a common concern among individuals with visible differences but has received limited attention in systemic sclerosis (SSc), which can involve substantial changes to appearance. The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE) was specifically designed to evaluate fear of negative evaluation. There are currently 3 versions of the BFNE with strong demonstrated measurement properties: two 8-item versions (BFNE-S, BFNE-8) and one 12-item version (BFNE-II). The present study evaluated these versions in SSc, and identified the most appropriate version for use among SSc patients. METHODS: Participants were 1,010 patients with SSc enrolled in the Scleroderma Patient-Centered Intervention Network cohort. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, and Pearson's product-moment correlations were used to evaluate structural validity, internal consistency reliability, and convergent and divergent validity, respectively. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that 1-factor models fit acceptably well for the 12-item BFNE-II, the 8-item BFNE-S, and the 8-item BFNE-8. Additionally, all Cronbach's alphas demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability (BFNE-II = 0.98, BFNE-S = 0.97, BFNE-8 = 0.96), and all versions had comparable associations with measures of social anxiety, body-related attitudes, depression, age, and education. CONCLUSION: Psychometric support was found for all 3 versions of the BFNE, although the longer 12-item BFNE-II did not improve measurement compared to the shorter 8-item versions (BFNE-S and BFNE-8). Of these 2, the BFNE-S has been more widely studied, with strong validity data in a greater number of populations. Therefore, the BFNE-S is recommended to assess fear of negative evaluation among patients with SSc.

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