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1.
Circ Res ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981416

RESUMO

Rationale: Atherosclerotic lesions are known for their cellular heterogeneity, yet the molecular complexity within the cells of human plaques have not been fully assessed. Objective: Using single-cell transcriptomics and chromatin accessibility we gained a better understanding of the pathophysiology underlying human atherosclerosis. Methods and Results: We performed single-cell RNA and single-cell ATAC sequencing on human carotid atherosclerotic plaques to define the cells at play and determine their transcriptomic and epigenomic characteristics. We identified 14 distinct cell populations including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, mast cells, B cells, myeloid cells, and T cells and identified multiple cellular activation states and suggested cellular interconversions. Within the endothelial cell population we defined subsets with angiogenic capacity plus clear signs of endothelial to mesenchymal transition. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells showed activation-based subclasses, each with a gradual decline from a cytotoxic to a more quiescent phenotype. Myeloid cells included two populations of pro-inflammatory macrophages showing IL1B or TNF expression as well as a foam cell-like population expressing TREM2 and displaying a fibrosis-promoting phenotype. ATACseq data identified specific transcription factors associated with the myeloid subpopulation and T cell cytokine profiles underlying mutual activation between both cell types. Finally, cardiovascular disease susceptibility genes identified using public GWAS data were particularly enriched in lesional macrophages, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Conclusions: This study provides a transcriptome-based cellular landscape of human atherosclerotic plaques and highlights cellular plasticity and intercellular communication at the site of disease. This detailed definition of cell communities at play in atherosclerosis will facilitate cell-based mapping of novel interventional targets with direct functional relevance for the treatment of human disease.

3.
Lancet ; 396(10251): 623-634, 2020 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous trials suggest lower long-term risk of mortality after invasive rather than non-invasive management of patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), but the trials excluded very elderly patients. We aimed to estimate the effect of invasive versus non-invasive management within 3 days of peak troponin concentration on the survival of patients aged 80 years or older with NSTEMI. METHODS: Routine clinical data for this study were obtained from five collaborating hospitals hosting NIHR Biomedical Research Centres in the UK (all tertiary centres with emergency departments). Eligible patients were 80 years old or older when they underwent troponin measurements and were diagnosed with NSTEMI between 2010 (2008 for University College Hospital) and 2017. Propensity scores (patients' estimated probability of receiving invasive management) based on pretreatment variables were derived using logistic regression; patients with high probabilities of non-invasive or invasive management were excluded. Patients who died within 3 days of peak troponin concentration without receiving invasive management were assigned to the invasive or non-invasive management groups based on their propensity scores, to mitigate immortal time bias. We estimated mortality hazard ratios comparing invasive with non-invasive management, and compared the rate of hospital admissions for heart failure. FINDINGS: Of the 1976 patients with NSTEMI, 101 died within 3 days of their peak troponin concentration and 375 were excluded because of extreme propensity scores. The remaining 1500 patients had a median age of 86 (IQR 82-89) years of whom (845 [56%] received non-invasive management. During median follow-up of 3·0 (IQR 1·2-4·8) years, 613 (41%) patients died. The adjusted cumulative 5-year mortality was 36% in the invasive management group and 55% in the non-invasive management group (adjusted hazard ratio 0·68, 95% CI 0·55-0·84). Invasive management was associated with lower incidence of hospital admissions for heart failure (adjusted rate ratio compared with non-invasive management 0·67, 95% CI 0·48-0·93). INTERPRETATION: The survival advantage of invasive compared with non-invasive management appears to extend to patients with NSTEMI who are aged 80 years or older. FUNDING: NIHR Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, as part of the NIHR Health Informatics Collaborative.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Pontuação de Propensão , Taxa de Sobrevida , Troponina/sangue , Reino Unido
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822252

RESUMO

Background - The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic (ECG) measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD. Methods - Fifteen studies comprising 64,440 individuals (56,943 European, 5,681 African, 1,186 Hispanic, 630 Asian), and ~230,000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and SKAT tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF GWAS. Results - We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (TTN, CAND2, SCN10A, PITX2, CAV1, SYNPO2L, SOX5, TBX5, MYH6, RPL3L). The top variants at known sarcomere genes (TTN, MYH6) were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (e.g., PITX2 and SCN10A) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk. Conclusions - Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810544

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins are atherogenic. There is evidence that with low plasma low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels residual vascular risk might be caused by triglyceride rich lipoproteins such as very-low density lipoproteins (VLDL), chylomicrons and their remnants. We investigated the relationship between VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), major adverse limb events (MALE) and all-cause mortality in a cohort of patients with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in 8057 patients with cardiovascular disease from the UCC-SMART study. The relation between calculated VLDL-C levels and the occurrence of MACE, MALE and all-cause mortality was analyzed with Cox regression models. RESULTS: Patients mean age was 60 ± 10 years, 74% were male, 4894 (61%) had coronary artery disease, 2445 (30%) stroke, 1425 (18%) peripheral arterial disease and 684 (8%) patients had an abdominal aorta aneurysm at baseline. A total of 1535 MACE, 571 MALE and 1792 deaths were observed during a median follow up of 8.2 years (interquartile range 4.512.2). VLDL-C was not associated with risk of MACE or all-cause mortality. In the highest quartile of VLDL-C the risk was higher for major adverse limb events (MALE) (HR 1.49; 95%CI 1.16-1.93) compared to the lowest quartile, after adjustment for confounders including LDL-C and lipid lowering medication. CONCLUSION: In patients with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease plasma VLDL-C confers an increased risk for MALE, but not for MACE and all-cause mortality, independent of established risk factors including LDL-C and lipid-lowering medication.

6.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717063

RESUMO

AIMS: Pathological cardiac remodeling is characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibroblast activation, which can ultimately lead to maladaptive hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Genome-wide expression analysis on heart tissue has been instrumental for the identification of molecular mechanisms at play. However, these data were based on signals derived from all cardiac cell types. Here we aimed for a more detailed view on molecular changes driving maladaptive cardiomyocyte hypertrophy to aid in the development of therapies to reverse pathological remodeling. METHODS AND RESULTS: Utilizing cardiomyocyte-specific reporter mice exposed to pressure overload by transverse aortic banding and cardiomyocyte isolation by flow cytometry, we obtained gene expression profiles of hypertrophic cardiomyocytes in the more immediate phase after stress, and cardiomyocytes showing pathological hypertrophy. We identified subsets of genes differentially regulated and specific for either stage. Among the genes specifically upregulated in the cardiomyocytes during the maladaptive phase we found known stress markers, such as Nppb and Myh7, but additionally identified a set of genes with unknown roles in pathological hypertrophy, including the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase (PFKP). Norepinephrine-angiotensin II treatment of cultured human cardiomyocytes induced secretion of NT pro-BNP and recapitulated the upregulation of these genes, indicating conservation of the upregulation in failing cardiomyocytes. Moreover, several genes induced during pathological hypertrophy were also found to be increased in human heart failure, with their expression positively correlating to the known stress markers NPPB and MYH7. Mechanistically, suppression of Pfkp in primary cardiomyocytes attenuated stress-induced gene expression and hypertrophy, indicating that Pfkp is an important novel player in pathological remodeling of cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Using cardiomyocyte-specific transcriptomic analysis we identified novel genes induced during pathological hypertrophy that are relevant for human HF, and we show that PFKP is a conserved failure-induced gene that can modulate the cardiomyocyte stress response. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Maladaptive cardiac remodeling is a consequence of pathological hypertrophy which includes cardiomyocytes changes and a decline in contractility. Our cardiomyocyte-specific gene expression studies revealed a gene program specific for pathological hypertrophy that is conserved in diseased mouse and human cardiomyocytes. We identified PFKP as a novel gene actively involved in cardiomyocyte remodeling, indicating PFKP as a potential therapeutic target to block the progression of heart failure.

7.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2618-2628, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702746

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore whether variability in dietary cholesterol and phytosterol absorption impacts the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using as instruments sequence variants in the ABCG5/8 genes, key regulators of intestinal absorption of dietary sterols. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of ABCG5/8 variants on non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (N up to 610 532) and phytosterol levels (N = 3039) and the risk of CAD in Iceland, Denmark, and the UK Biobank (105 490 cases and 844 025 controls). We used genetic scores for non-HDL cholesterol to determine whether ABCG5/8 variants confer greater risk of CAD than predicted by their effect on non-HDL cholesterol. We identified nine rare ABCG5/8 coding variants with substantial impact on non-HDL cholesterol. Carriers have elevated phytosterol levels and are at increased risk of CAD. Consistent with impact on ABCG5/8 transporter function in hepatocytes, eight rare ABCG5/8 variants associate with gallstones. A genetic score of ABCG5/8 variants predicting 1 mmol/L increase in non-HDL cholesterol associates with two-fold increase in CAD risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-2.31, P = 9.8 × 10-23] compared with a 54% increase in CAD risk (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.49-1.59, P = 1.1 × 10-154) associated with a score of other non-HDL cholesterol variants predicting the same increase in non-HDL cholesterol (P for difference in effects = 2.4 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in cholesterol absorption affects levels of circulating non-HDL cholesterol and risk of CAD. Our results indicate that both dietary cholesterol and phytosterols contribute directly to atherogenesis.

8.
Clin Epigenetics ; 12(1): 106, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: H3K27ac histone acetylome changes contribute to the phenotypic response in heart diseases, particularly in end-stage heart failure. However, such epigenetic alterations have not been systematically investigated in remodeled non-failing human hearts. Therefore, valuable insight into cardiac dysfunction in early remodeling is lacking. This study aimed to reveal the acetylation changes of chromatin regions in response to myocardial remodeling and their correlations to transcriptional changes of neighboring genes. RESULTS: We detected chromatin regions with differential acetylation activity (DARs; Padj. < 0.05) between remodeled non-failing patient hearts and healthy donor hearts. The acetylation level of the chromatin region correlated with its RNA polymerase II occupancy level and the mRNA expression level of its adjacent gene per sample. Annotated genes from DARs were enriched in disease-related pathways, including fibrosis and cell metabolism regulation. DARs that change in the same direction have a tendency to cluster together, suggesting the well-reorganized chromatin architecture that facilitates the interactions of regulatory domains in response to myocardial remodeling. We further show the differences between the acetylation level and the mRNA expression level of cell-type-specific markers for cardiomyocytes and 11 non-myocyte cell types. Notably, we identified transcriptome factor (TF) binding motifs that were enriched in DARs and defined TFs that were predicted to bind to these motifs. We further showed 64 genes coding for these TFs that were differentially expressed in remodeled myocardium when compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals extensive novel insight on myocardial remodeling at the DNA regulatory level. Differences between the acetylation level and the transcriptional level of cell-type-specific markers suggest additional mechanism(s) between acetylome and transcriptome. By integrating these two layers of epigenetic profiles, we further provide promising TF-encoding genes that could serve as master regulators of myocardial remodeling. Combined, our findings highlight the important role of chromatin regulatory signatures in understanding disease etiology.

9.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(2): 186-197, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PRKAG2 gene variants cause a syndrome characterized by cardiomyopathy, conduction disease, and ventricular pre-excitation. Only a small number of cases have been reported to date, and the natural history of the disease is poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe phenotype and natural history of PRKAG2 variants in a large multicenter European cohort. METHODS: Clinical, electrocardiographic, and echocardiographic data from 90 subjects with PRKAG2 variants (53% men; median age 33 years; interquartile range [IQR]: 15 to 50 years) recruited from 27 centers were retrospectively studied. RESULTS: At first evaluation, 93% of patients were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II. Maximum left ventricular wall thickness was 18 ± 8 mm, and left ventricular ejection fraction was 61 ± 12%. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was present in 60 subjects (67%) at baseline. Thirty patients (33%) had ventricular pre-excitation or had undergone accessory pathway ablation; 17 (19%) had pacemakers (median age at implantation 36 years; IQR: 27 to 46 years), and 16 (18%) had atrial fibrillation (median age 43 years; IQR: 31 to 54 years). After a median follow-up period of 6 years (IQR: 2.3 to 13.9 years), 71% of subjects had LVH, 29% had AF, 21% required de novo pacemakers (median age at implantation 37 years; IQR: 29 to 48 years), 14% required admission for heart failure, 8% experienced sudden cardiac death or equivalent, 4% required heart transplantation, and 13% died. CONCLUSIONS: PRKAG2 syndrome is a progressive cardiomyopathy characterized by high rates of atrial fibrillation, conduction disease, advanced heart failure, and life-threatening arrhythmias. Classical features of pre-excitation and severe LVH are not uniformly present, and diagnosis should be considered in patients with LVH who develop atrial fibrillation or require permanent pacemakers at a young age.

10.
Atherosclerosis ; 307: 121-129, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32624175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Family history (FHx) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a risk factor for CVD and a proxy for cardiovascular heritability. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) summarizing >1 million variants for coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with incident and recurrent CAD events. However, little is known about the influence of FHx or PRS on secondary cardiovascular events (sCVE) in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: We included 1788 CEA patients from the Athero-Express Biobank. A weighted PRS for CAD including 1.7 million variants was calculated (MetaGRS). The composite endpoint of sCVE during three years of follow-up included coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral events and cardiovascular death. We assessed the impact of FHx and MetaGRS on sCVE and carotid plaque composition. RESULTS: Positive FHx was associated with a higher 3-year risk of sCVE independent of cardiovascular risk factors and MetaGRS (adjusted HR 1.40, 95%CI 1.07-1.82, p = 0.013). Patients in the highest MetaGRS quintile had a higher 3-year risk of sCVE compared to the rest of the cohort independent of cardiovascular risk factors including FHx (adjusted HR 1.35, 95%CI 1.01-1.79, p = 0.043), and their atherosclerotic plaques contained more fat (adjusted OR 1.59, 95%CI, 1.11-2.29, p = 0.013) and more macrophages (OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.12-1.99, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: In CEA patients, both positive FHx and higher MetaGRS were independently associated with increased risk of sCVE. Moreover, higher MetaGRS was associated with vulnerable plaque characteristics. Future studies should unravel underlying mechanisms and focus on the added value of PRS and FHx in individual risk prediction for sCVE.

11.
BMJ Open ; 10(7): e034564, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. With advances in early diagnosis and treatment of CVD and increasing life expectancy, more people are surviving initial CVD events. However, models for stratifying disease severity risk in patients with established CVD for effective secondary prevention strategies are inadequate. Multivariable prognostic models to stratify CVD risk may allow personalised treatment interventions. This review aims to systematically review the existing multivariable prognostic models for the recurrence of CVD or major adverse cardiovascular events in adults with established CVD diagnosis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Bibliographic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science) will be searched, from database inception to April 2020, using terms relating to the clinical area and prognosis. A hand search of the reference lists of included studies will also be done to identify additional published studies. No restrictions on language of publications will be applied. Eligible studies present multivariable models (derived or validated) of adults (aged 16 years and over) with an established diagnosis of CVD, reporting at least one of the components of the primary outcome of major adverse cardiovascular events (defined as either coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease, heart failure or CVD-related mortality). Reviewing will be done by two reviewers independently using the pre-defined criteria. Data will be extracted for included full-text articles. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Prediction model study Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool (PROBAST). Prognostic models will be summarised narratively. If a model is tested in multiple validation studies, the predictive performance will be summarised using a random-effects meta-analysis model to account for any between-study heterogeneity. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required. The results of this study will be submitted to relevant conferences for presentation and a peer-reviewed journal for publication. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019149111.

12.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 268, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To mitigate the risk of stent thrombosis, patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are administered dual anti-platelet therapy comprising aspirin and a platelet P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. Clopidogrel is a prodrug requiring activation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2C19. In Saudi Arabia, it has been reported that approximately 26% of the population carries CYP2C19*2 and/or *3 loss-of-function polymorphisms in addition to a high prevalence of CVD. METHODS: This prospective (April 2013-December 2020) parallel assignment clinical trial focuses on ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) patient outcomes. The clinical trial includes 1500 STEMI patients from two hospitals in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Patients are assigned to one of two groups; the control arm receives conventional therapy with clopidogrel, while in the active arm the Spartan RX CYP2C19 assay is used to determine the *2 genotype. Carriers of a CYP2C19*2 loss-of-function allele receive prasugrel or ticagrelor, while non-carriers are treated with clopidogrel. Follow-up is one year after primary PCI. The primary end point is the number of patients who develop an adverse major cardiovascular event, including recurrent MI, non-fatal stroke, cardiovascular death, or major bleeding one year after PCI. DISCUSSION: The risk of stent thrombosis in PCI patients is usually reduced by dual anti-platelet therapy, comprising aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor, such as clopidogrel. However, clopidogrel requires activation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2C19. Approximately 20% of the population are unable to activate clopidogrel as they possess the CYP2C19*2 loss-of function (LoF) allele. The primary goal of this trial is to study the benefits of treating only those patients that cannot activate clopidogrel with an alternative that has shown to be a more effective platelet inhibitor and does not require bioactivation by the cytochrome P450 enzyme. We expect an improvement in net clinical benefit outcome in the active arm patients, thus supporting pharmacogenetic testing in PCI patients post STEMI. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration name is "Bedside Testing of CYP2C19 Gene for Treatment of Patients with PCI with Antiplatelet Therapy" (number NCT01823185) retrospectively registered with clinicaltrials.gov on April 4, 2013. This trial is currently at the patient recruitment stage.

13.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592227

RESUMO

AIMS: Heart failure (HF) leads to repeat hospitalisations and reduces the duration and quality of life. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP)-guided HF management using the CardioMEMS™ HF system was shown to be safe and reduce HF hospitalisation (HFH) rates in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III patients. However, these findings have not been replicated in health systems outside the United States. Therefore, the CardioMEMS European Monitoring Study for Heart Failure (MEMS-HF) evaluated the safety, feasibility, and performance of this device in Germany, The Netherlands, and Ireland. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 234 NYHA class III patients (68 ± 11 years, 22% female, ≥1 HFH in the preceding year) from 31 centres were implanted with a CardioMEMS sensor and underwent PAP-guided HF management. One-year rates of freedom from device- or system-related complications and from sensor failure (co-primary outcomes) were 98.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 95.8-100.0] and 99.6% (95% CI 97.6-100.0), respectively. Survival rate was 86.2%. For the 12 months post- vs. pre-implant, HFHs decreased by 62% (0.60 vs. 1.55 events/patient-year; hazard ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.31-0.48; P < 0.0001). After 12 months, mean PAP decreased by 5.1 ± 7.4 mmHg, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) overall/clinical summary scores increased from 47.0 ± 24.0/51.2 ± 24.8 to 60.5 ± 24.3/62.4 ± 24.1 (P < 0.0001), and the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire sum score improved from 8.7 ± 5.9 to 6.3 ± 5.1 (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Haemodynamic-guided HF management proved feasible and safe in the health systems of Germany, The Netherlands, and Ireland. Physician-directed treatment modifications based on remotely obtained PAP values were associated with fewer HFH, sustainable PAP decreases, marked KCCQ improvements, and remission of depressive symptoms.

14.
Circulation ; 142(7): 621-642, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To quantify the association between effects of interventions on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) progression and their effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: We systematically collated data from randomized, controlled trials. cIMT was assessed as the mean value at the common-carotid-artery; if unavailable, the maximum value at the common-carotid-artery or other cIMT measures were used. The primary outcome was a combined CVD end point defined as myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization procedures, or fatal CVD. We estimated intervention effects on cIMT progression and incident CVD for each trial, before relating the 2 using a Bayesian meta-regression approach. RESULTS: We analyzed data of 119 randomized, controlled trials involving 100 667 patients (mean age 62 years, 42% female). Over an average follow-up of 3.7 years, 12 038 patients developed the combined CVD end point. Across all interventions, each 10 µm/y reduction of cIMT progression resulted in a relative risk for CVD of 0.91 (95% Credible Interval, 0.87-0.94), with an additional relative risk for CVD of 0.92 (0.87-0.97) being achieved independent of cIMT progression. Taken together, we estimated that interventions reducing cIMT progression by 10, 20, 30, or 40 µm/y would yield relative risks of 0.84 (0.75-0.93), 0.76 (0.67-0.85), 0.69 (0.59-0.79), or 0.63 (0.52-0.74), respectively. Results were similar when grouping trials by type of intervention, time of conduct, time to ultrasound follow-up, availability of individual-participant data, primary versus secondary prevention trials, type of cIMT measurement, and proportion of female patients. CONCLUSIONS: The extent of intervention effects on cIMT progression predicted the degree of CVD risk reduction. This provides a missing link supporting the usefulness of cIMT progression as a surrogate marker for CVD risk in clinical trials.

15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3255, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591531

RESUMO

Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis is an important tool to elucidate the causal relevance of environmental and biological risk factors for disease. However, causal inference is undermined if genetic variants used to instrument a risk factor also influence alternative disease-pathways (horizontal pleiotropy). Here we report how the 'no horizontal pleiotropy assumption' is strengthened when proteins are the risk factors of interest. Proteins are typically the proximal effectors of biological processes encoded in the genome. Moreover, proteins are the targets of most medicines, so MR studies of drug targets are becoming a fundamental tool in drug development. To enable such studies, we introduce a mathematical framework that contrasts MR analysis of proteins with that of risk factors located more distally in the causal chain from gene to disease. We illustrate key model decisions and introduce an analytical framework for maximising power and evaluating the robustness of analyses.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Genes , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Lipídeos/química , Modelos Genéticos , Razão de Chances , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548911

RESUMO

AIMS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) is required to categorize heart failure (HF) [i.e. HF with preserved (HFpEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), and reduced (HFrEF) EF] but is often not captured in population-based cohorts or non-HF registries. The aim was to create an algorithm that identifies EF subphenotypes for research purposes. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 42 061 HF patients from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry. As primary analysis, we performed two logistic regression models including 22 variables to predict (i) EF≥ vs. <50% and (ii) EF≥ vs. <40%. In the secondary analysis, we performed a multivariable multinomial analysis with 22 variables to create a model for all three separate EF subphenotypes: HFrEF vs. HFmrEF vs. HFpEF. The models were validated in the database from the CHECK-HF study, a cross-sectional survey of 10 627 patients from the Netherlands. The C-statistic (discrimination) was 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77-0.78] for EF ≥50% and 0.76 (95% CI 0.75-0.76) for EF ≥40%. Similar results were achieved for HFrEF and HFpEF in the multinomial model, but the C-statistic for HFmrEF was lower: 0.63 (95% CI 0.63-0.64). The external validation showed similar discriminative ability to the development cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Routine clinical characteristics could potentially be used to identify different EF subphenotypes in databases where EF is not readily available. Accuracy was good for the prediction of HFpEF and HFrEF but lower for HFmrEF. The proposed algorithm enables more effective research on HF in the big data setting.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462176

RESUMO

AIMS: Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR) are advanced imaging techniques which are both used for quantification of global and regional myocardial strain. Direct comparisons of STE and FT-CMR regarding right ventricular (RV) strain analysis are limited. We aimed to study clinical performance, correlation and agreement of RV strain by these techniques, using arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) as a model for RV disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: We enrolled 110 subjects, including 34 patients with definite ARVC, 30 preclinical relatives of ARVC patients, and 46 healthy control subjects. Global and regional RV longitudinal peak strain (PS) were measured by STE and FT-CMR. Both modalities showed reduced strain values in ARVC patients compared to ARVC relatives (STE global PS: P < 0.001; FT-CMR global PS: P < 0.001) and reduced strain values in ARVC relatives compared to healthy control subjects (STE global PS: P = 0.042; FT-CMR global PS: P = 0.084). There was a moderate, albeit significant correlation between RV strain values obtained by STE and FT-CMR [global PS r = 0.578 (95% confidence interval 0.427-0.697), P < 0.001]. Agreement between the techniques was weak (limits of agreement for global PS: ±11.8%). Correlation and agreement both deteriorated when regional strain was studied. CONCLUSION: RV STE and FT-CMR show a similar trend within the spectrum of ARVC and have significant correlation, but inter-modality agreement is weak. STE and FT-CMR may therefore both individually have added value for assessment of RV function, but RV PS values obtained by these techniques currently cannot be used interchangeably in clinical practice.

18.
Int J Cardiol ; 313: 76-82, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comorbidities may differently affect treatment response and cause-specific outcomes in heart failure (HF) with preserved (HFpEF) vs. mid-range/mildly-reduced (HFmrEF) vs. reduced (HFrEF) ejection fraction (EF), complicating trial design. In patients with HF, we performed a comprehensive analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), atrial fibrillation (AF) chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cause-specific outcomes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 42,583 patients from the Swedish HF registry (23% HFpEF, 21% HFmrEF, 56% HFrEF), 24% had T2DM, 51% CKD, 56% AF, and 8% all three comorbidities. HFpEF had higher prevalence of CKD and AF, HFmrEF had intermediate prevalence of AF, and prevalence of T2DM was similar across the EF spectrum. Patients with T2DM, AF and/or CKD were more likely to have also other comorbidities and more severe HF. Risk of cardiovascular (CV) events was highest in HFrEF vs. HFpEF and HFmrEF; non-CV risk was highest in HFpEF vs. HFmrEF vs. HFrEF. T2DM increased CV and non-CV events similarly but less so in HFpEF. CKD increased CV events somewhat more than non-CV events and less so in HFpEF. AF increased CV events considerably more than non-CV events and more so in HFpEF and HFmrEF. CONCLUSION: HFpEF is distinguished from HFmrEF and HFrEF by more comorbidities, non-CV events, but lower effect of T2DM and CKD on events. CV events are most frequent in HFrEF. To enrich for CV vs. non-CV events, trialists should not exclude patients with lower EF, AF and/or CKD, who report higher CV risk.

19.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383686

RESUMO

Objectives Details of the biological variability of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and ST2 are currently lacking in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) but are crucial knowledge when aiming to use these biomarkers for personalized risk prediction. In the current study, we report post-ACS kinetics and the variability of the hs-CRP, NT-proBNP and ST2. Methods BIOMArCS is a prospective, observational study with high frequency blood sampling during 1 year post-ACS. Using 1507 blood samples from 191 patients that remained free from adverse cardiac events, we investigated post-ACS kinetics of hs-CRP, NT-proBNP and ST2. Biological variability was studied using the samples collected between 6 and 12 months after the index ACS, when patients were considered to have stable coronary artery disease. Results On average, hs-CRP rose peaked at day 2 and rose well above the reference value. ST2 peaked immediately after the ACS but never rose above the reference value. NT-proBNP level rose on average during the first 2 days post-ACS and slowly declined afterwards. The within-subject variation and relative change value (RCV) of ST2 were relatively small (13.8%, RCV 39.7%), while hs-CRP (41.9%, lognormal RCV 206.1/-67.3%) and NT-proBNP (39.0%, lognormal RCV 185.2/-64.9%) showed a considerable variation. Conclusions Variability of hs-CRP and NT-proBNP within asymptomatic and clinically stable post-ACS patients is considerable. In contrast, within-patient variability of ST2 is low. Given the low within-subject variation, ST2 might be the most useful biomarker for personalizing risk prediction in stable post-ACS patients.

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