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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125266

RESUMO

Background - Circulating biomarkers have been previously associated with atherosclerosis related risk factors, but the nature of these associations is incompletely understood. Methods - We performed multivariable-adjusted regressions and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to assess observational and causal associations of 27 circulating biomarkers with 7 cardiovascular traits in up to 451,933 participants of the UK Biobank. Results - After multiple-testing correction (alpha=1.3*10-4), we found a total of 15, 9, 21, 22, 26, 24 and 26 biomarkers strongly associated with coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemic stroke, atrial fibrillation, type 2 diabetes (T2D), systolic blood pressure (SBP), body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR); respectively. The MR analyses confirmed strong evidence of previously suggested causal associations for several glucose- and lipid-related biomarkers with T2D and CAD. Particularly interesting findings included a protective role of insulin-like growth factor 1 in SBP, and the strong causal association of lipoprotein(a) in CAD development (ß, -0.13; per SD change in exposure and outcome and OR, 1.28; P=2.6*10-4 and P=7.4*10-35, respectively). In addition, our results indicated a causal role of increased alanine aminotransferase in the development of T2D and hypertension (OR, 1.59 and ß,0.06, per SD change in exposure and outcome; P=4.8*10-11 and P=6.0*10-5). Our results suggest that it is unlikely that C-reactive protein and vitamin D play causal roles of any meaningful magnitude in development of cardiometabolic disease. Conclusions - We confirmed and extended known associations, and reported several novel causal associations providing important insights regarding the etiology of these diseases, which can help accelerate new prevention strategies.

2.
Science ; 369(6509)2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913073

RESUMO

Rare genetic variants are abundant across the human genome, and identifying their function and phenotypic impact is a major challenge. Measuring aberrant gene expression has aided in identifying functional, large-effect rare variants (RVs). Here, we expanded detection of genetically driven transcriptome abnormalities by analyzing gene expression, allele-specific expression, and alternative splicing from multitissue RNA-sequencing data, and demonstrate that each signal informs unique classes of RVs. We developed Watershed, a probabilistic model that integrates multiple genomic and transcriptomic signals to predict variant function, validated these predictions in additional cohorts and through experimental assays, and used them to assess RVs in the UK Biobank, the Million Veterans Program, and the Jackson Heart Study. Our results link thousands of RVs to diverse molecular effects and provide evidence to associate RVs affecting the transcriptome with human traits.

3.
Circulation ; 142(17): 1633-1646, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an important cause of cardiovascular mortality; however, its genetic determinants remain incompletely defined. In total, 10 previously identified risk loci explain a small fraction of AAA heritability. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program testing ≈18 million DNA sequence variants with AAA (7642 cases and 172 172 controls) in veterans of European ancestry with independent replication in up to 4972 cases and 99 858 controls. We then used mendelian randomization to examine the causal effects of blood pressure on AAA. We examined the association of AAA risk variants with aneurysms in the lower extremity, cerebral, and iliac arterial beds, and derived a genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) to identify a subset of the population at greater risk for disease. RESULTS: Through a genome-wide association study, we identified 14 novel loci, bringing the total number of known significant AAA loci to 24. In our mendelian randomization analysis, we demonstrate that a genetic increase of 10 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.24-1.66]; P=1.6×10-6), as opposed to systolic blood pressure (odds ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.97-1.15]; P=0.2), likely has a causal relationship with AAA development. We observed that 19 of 24 AAA risk variants associate with aneurysms in at least 1 other vascular territory. A 29-variant PRS was strongly associated with AAA (odds ratioPRS, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.18-1.36]; PPRS=2.7×10-11 per SD increase in PRS), independent of family history and smoking risk factors (odds ratioPRS+family history+smoking, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.14-1.35]; PPRS=1.27×10-6). Using this PRS, we identified a subset of the population with AAA prevalence greater than that observed in screening trials informing current guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: We identify novel AAA genetic associations with therapeutic implications and identify a subset of the population at significantly increased genetic risk of AAA independent of family history. Our data suggest that extending current screening guidelines to include testing to identify those with high polygenic AAA risk, once the cost of genotyping becomes comparable with that of screening ultrasound, would significantly increase the yield of current screening at reasonable cost.

4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4432, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887874

RESUMO

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic cause of myocardial infarction (MI), typically in young women. We undertook a genome-wide association study of SCAD (Ncases = 270/Ncontrols = 5,263) and identified and replicated an association of rs12740679 at chromosome 1q21.2 (Pdiscovery+replication = 2.19 × 10-12, OR = 1.8) influencing ADAMTSL4 expression. Meta-analysis of discovery and replication samples identified associations with P < 5 × 10-8 at chromosome 6p24.1 in PHACTR1, chromosome 12q13.3 in LRP1, and in females-only, at chromosome 21q22.11 near LINC00310. A polygenic risk score for SCAD was associated with (1) higher risk of SCAD in individuals with fibromuscular dysplasia (P = 0.021, OR = 1.82 [95% CI: 1.09-3.02]) and (2) lower risk of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and MI in the UK Biobank (P = 1.28 × 10-17, HR = 0.91 [95% CI :0.89-0.93], for MI) and Million Veteran Program (P = 9.33 × 10-36, OR = 0.95 [95% CI: 0.94-0.96], for CAD; P = 3.35 × 10-6, OR = 0.96 [95% CI: 0.95-0.98] for MI). Here we report that SCAD-related MI and atherosclerotic MI exist at opposite ends of a genetic risk spectrum, inciting MI with disparate underlying vascular biology.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/genética , Genes Neoplásicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Doenças Vasculares/congênito , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Feminino , Displasia Fibromuscular/complicações , Displasia Fibromuscular/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteína-1 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/genética , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Vasculares/genética
5.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003302, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of epidemiological and genetic studies have attempted to determine whether levels of circulating lipids are associated with risks of various cancers, including breast cancer (BC). However, it remains unclear whether a causal relationship exists between lipids and BC. If alteration of lipid levels also reduced risk of BC, this could present a target for disease prevention. This study aimed to assess a potential causal relationship between genetic variants associated with plasma lipid traits (high-density lipoprotein, HDL; low-density lipoprotein, LDL; triglycerides, TGs) with risk for BC using Mendelian randomization (MR). METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data from genome-wide association studies in up to 215,551 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) were used to construct genetic instruments for plasma lipid traits. The effect of these instruments on BC risk was evaluated using genetic data from the BCAC (Breast Cancer Association Consortium) based on 122,977 BC cases and 105,974 controls. Using MR, we observed that a 1-standard-deviation genetically determined increase in HDL levels is associated with an increased risk for all BCs (HDL: OR [odds ratio] = 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.13, P < 0.001). Multivariable MR analysis, which adjusted for the effects of LDL, TGs, body mass index (BMI), and age at menarche, corroborated this observation for HDL (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.10, P = 4.9 × 10-4) and also found a relationship between LDL and BC risk (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). We did not observe a difference in these relationships when stratified by breast tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. We repeated this analysis using genetic variants independent of the leading association at core HDL pathway genes and found that these variants were also associated with risk for BCs (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.06-1.16, P = 1.5 × 10-6), including locus-specific associations at ABCA1 (ATP Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 1), APOE-APOC1-APOC4-APOC2 (Apolipoproteins E, C1, C4, and C2), and CETP (Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein). In addition, we found evidence that genetic variation at the ABO locus is associated with both lipid levels and BC. Through multiple statistical approaches, we minimized and tested for the confounding effects of pleiotropy and population stratification on our analysis; however, the possible existence of residual pleiotropy and stratification remains a limitation of this study. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that genetically elevated plasma HDL and LDL levels appear to be associated with increased BC risk. Future studies are required to understand the mechanism underlying this putative causal relationship, with the goal of developing potential therapeutic strategies aimed at altering the cholesterol-mediated effect on BC risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; : ATVBAHA119313847, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.

7.
Hum Mol Genet ; 29(19): 3327-3337, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833022

RESUMO

Clinical observations have linked tobacco smoking with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Mendelian randomization analysis has recently suggested smoking may be a causal risk factor for type 2 diabetes. However, this association could be mediated by additional risk factors correlated with smoking behavior, which have not been investigated. We hypothesized that body mass index (BMI) could help to explain the association between smoking and diabetes risk. First, we confirmed that genetic determinants of smoking initiation increased risk for type 2 diabetes (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.27, P = 1 × 10-12) and coronary artery disease (CAD; OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.16-1.26, P = 2 × 10-20). Additionally, 2-fold increased smoking risk was positively associated with increased BMI (~0.8 kg/m2, 95% CI: 0.54-0.98 kg/m2, P = 1.8 × 10-11). Multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses showed that BMI accounted for nearly all the risk smoking exerted on type 2 diabetes (OR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11, P = 0.03). In contrast, the independent effect of smoking on increased CAD risk persisted (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08-1.17, P = 3 × 10-8). Causal mediation analyses agreed with these estimates. Furthermore, analysis using individual-level data from the Million Veteran Program independently replicated the association of smoking behavior with CAD (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37, P = 2 × 10-5), but not type 2 diabetes (OR 0.98, 95% CI: 0.89-1.08, P = 0.69), after controlling for BMI. Our findings support a model whereby genetic determinants of smoking increase type 2 diabetes risk indirectly through their relationship with obesity. Smokers should be advised to stop smoking to limit type 2 diabetes and CAD risk. Therapeutic efforts should consider pathophysiology relating smoking and obesity.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given ongoing challenges in non-invasive non-alcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) diagnosis, we sought to validate an ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using measures readily available in electronic health records (EHRs) and population-based studies by leveraging the clinical and genetic data in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), a multi-ethnic mega-biobank of US Veterans. METHODS: MVP participants with alanine aminotransferases (ALT) >40 units/L for men and >30 units/L for women without other causes of liver disease were compared to controls with normal ALT. Genetic variants spanning eight NAFLD risk or ALT-associated loci (LYPLAL1, GCKR, HSD17B13, TRIB1, PPP1R3B, ERLIN1, TM6SF2, PNPLA3) were tested for NAFLD associations with sensitivity analyses adjusting for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. A manual EHR review assessed performance characteristics of the NAFLD phenotype with imaging and biopsy data as gold standards. Genetic associations with advanced fibrosis were explored using FIB4, NAFLD Fibrosis Score and platelet counts. RESULTS: Among 322,259 MVP participants, 19% met non-invasive criteria for NAFLD. Trans-ethnic meta-analysis replicated associations with previously reported genetic variants in all but LYPLAL1 and GCKR loci (P<6x10-3), without attenuation when adjusted for metabolic risk factors and alcohol consumption. At the previously reported LYPLAL1 locus, the established genetic variant did not appear to be associated with NAFLD, however the regional association plot showed a significant association with NAFLD 279kb downstream. In the EHR validation, the ALT-based NAFLD phenotype yielded a positive predictive value 0.89 and 0.84 for liver biopsy and abdominal imaging, respectively (inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa = 0.98)). HSD17B13 and PNPLA3 loci were associated with advanced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: We validate a simple, non-invasive ALT-based NAFLD phenotype using EHR data by leveraging previously established NAFLD risk-associated genetic polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Lipase/genética , Fígado/patologia , Lisofosfolipase/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etnologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Veteranos
9.
Nat Genet ; 52(7): 680-691, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541925

RESUMO

We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility via multi-ancestry meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP), DIAMANTE, Biobank Japan and other studies. We report 568 associations, including 286 autosomal, 7 X-chromosomal and 25 identified in ancestry-specific analyses that were previously unreported. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D associations with genetically predicted gene expression in 687 novel genes; of these, 54 are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was strongly associated with increased risk of T2D-related retinopathy and modestly associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), peripheral artery disease (PAD) and neuropathy. We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including coronary heart disease (CHD), CKD, PAD and neuropathy. These findings may help to identify potential therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D to vascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Afro-Americanos , Cromossomos Humanos X , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/genética , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco
10.
Int J Epidemiol ; 49(3): 1022-1031, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly a fifth of the world's population suffer from migraine headache, yet risk factors for this disease are poorly characterized. METHODS: To further elucidate these factors, we conducted a genetic correlation analysis using cross-trait linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression between migraine headache and 47 traits from the UK Biobank. We then tested for possible causality between these phenotypes and migraine, using Mendelian randomization. In addition, we attempted replication of our findings in an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) when available. RESULTS: We report multiple phenotypes with genetic correlation (P < 1.06 × 10-3) with migraine, including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels, blood pressure, autoimmune and psychiatric phenotypes. In particular, we find evidence that blood pressure directly contributes to migraine and explains a previously suggested causal relationship between calcium and migraine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest genetic correlation analysis of migraine headache to date, both in terms of migraine GWAS sample size and the number of phenotypes tested. We find that migraine has a shared genetic basis with a large number of traits, indicating pervasive pleiotropy at migraine-associated loci.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(4): 535-548, 2020 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243820

RESUMO

The Million Veteran Program (MVP), initiated by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), aims to collect biosamples with consent from at least one million veterans. Presently, blood samples have been collected from over 800,000 enrolled participants. The size and diversity of the MVP cohort, as well as the availability of extensive VA electronic health records, make it a promising resource for precision medicine. MVP is conducting array-based genotyping to provide a genome-wide scan of the entire cohort, in parallel with whole-genome sequencing, methylation, and other 'omics assays. Here, we present the design and performance of the MVP 1.0 custom Axiom array, which was designed and developed as a single assay to be used across the multi-ethnic MVP cohort. A unified genetic quality-control analysis was developed and conducted on an initial tranche of 485,856 individuals, leading to a high-quality dataset of 459,777 unique individuals. 668,418 genetic markers passed quality control and showed high-quality genotypes not only on common variants but also on rare variants. We confirmed that, with non-European individuals making up nearly 30%, MVP's substantial ancestral diversity surpasses that of other large biobanks. We also demonstrated the quality of the MVP dataset by replicating established genetic associations with height in European Americans and African Americans ancestries. This current dataset has been made available to approved MVP researchers for genome-wide association studies and other downstream analyses. Further data releases will be available for analysis as recruitment at the VA continues and the cohort expands both in size and diversity.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Veteranos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008684, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226016

RESUMO

Lipid levels are important markers for the development of cardio-metabolic diseases. Although hundreds of associated loci have been identified through genetic association studies, the contribution of genetic factors to variation in lipids is not fully understood, particularly in U.S. minority groups. We performed genome-wide association analyses for four lipid traits in over 45,000 ancestrally diverse participants from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) Study, followed by a meta-analysis with several European ancestry studies. We identified nine novel lipid loci, five of which showed evidence of replication in independent studies. Furthermore, we discovered one novel gene in a PrediXcan analysis, minority-specific independent signals at eight previously reported loci, and potential functional variants at two known loci through fine-mapping. Systematic examination of known lipid loci revealed smaller effect estimates in African American and Hispanic ancestry populations than those in Europeans, and better performance of polygenic risk scores based on minority-specific effect estimates. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of lipid traits and highlight the importance of conducting genetic studies in diverse populations in the era of precision medicine.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/análise , Masculino , Metagenômica/métodos , Grupos Minoritários , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 714-722, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008434

RESUMO

Urinary biomarkers are associated with cardiovascular disease, but the nature of these associations is not well understood. We performed multivariable-adjusted regression models to assess associations of random spot measurements of the urine sodium-potassium ratio (UNa/UK) and urine albumin adjusted for creatinine with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in 478 311 participants of the UK Biobank. Further, we assessed the causal relationships of these kidney biomarkers, used as proxies for kidney function, with cardiovascular outcomes using the 2-sample Mendelian randomization approach. In observational analyses, UNa/UK showed significant inverse associations with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke, lipid-lowering medication, and T2D. In contrast, urine albumin adjusted for creatinine showed significant positive associations with atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, hemorrhagic stroke, lipid-lowering medication, and T2D. We found a positive association between UNa/UK and albumin with blood pressure (BP), as well as with adiposity-related measures. After correcting for potential horizontal pleiotropy, we found evidence of causal associations of UNa/UK and albumin with BP (ß systolic BP ≥2.63; ß diastolic BP ≥0.85 SD increase in BP per SD change in UNa/UK and urine albumin adjusted for creatinine; P≤0.04), and of albumin with T2D (odds ratio=1.33 per SD change in albumin, P=0.02). Our comprehensive study of urinary biomarkers performed using state-of-the-art analyses of causality mirror and extend findings from randomized interventional trials which have established UNa/UK as a risk factor for hypertension. In addition, we detect a causal feedback loop between albumin and hypertension, and our finding of a bidirectional causal association between albumin and T2D reflects the well-known nephropathy in T2D.

14.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(1): 17004, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposures may underlie PM-related increases in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, although evidence of PM-associated leukocytosis is inconsistent and largely based on small, cross-sectional, and/or unrepresentative study populations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate PM-leukocyte associations among U.S. women and men in the Women's Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n=165,675). METHODS: We based the PM-leukocyte estimations on up to four study visits per participant, at which peripheral blood leukocytes and geocoded address-specific concentrations of PM≤10, ≤2.5, and 2.5-10µm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM2.5-10, respectively) were available. We multiply imputed missing data using chained equations and estimated PM-leukocyte count associations over daily to yearly PM exposure averaging periods using center-specific, linear, mixed, longitudinal models weighted for attrition and adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and geographic covariates. In a subset of participants with available data (n=8,457), we also estimated PM-leukocyte proportion associations in compositional data analyses. RESULTS: We found a 12 cells/µL (95% confidence interval: -9, 33) higher leukocyte count, a 1.2% (0.6%, 1.8%) higher granulocyte proportion, and a -1.1% (-1.9%, -0.3%) lower CD8+ T-cell proportion per 10-µg/m3 increase in 1-month mean PM2.5. However, shorter-duration PM10 exposures were inversely and only modestly associated with leukocyte count. DISCUSSION: The PM2.5-leukocyte estimates, albeit imprecise, suggest that among racially, ethnically, and environmentally diverse U.S. populations, sustained, ambient exposure to fine PM may induce subclinical, but epidemiologically important, inflammatory effects. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5360.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Material Particulado , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Brief Bioinform ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802103

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide, causing over 17 million deaths per year, which outpaces global cancer mortality rates. Despite these sobering statistics, most bioinformatics and computational biology research and funding to date has been concentrated predominantly on cancer research, with a relatively modest footprint in CVD. In this paper, we review the existing literary landscape and critically assess the unmet need to further develop an emerging field at the multidisciplinary interface of bioinformatics and precision cardiovascular medicine, which we refer to as 'cardioinformatics'.

16.
Nat Genet ; 51(11): 1574-1579, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676865

RESUMO

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality1, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Doenças Vasculares/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Idoso , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Vasculares/patologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/patologia
17.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 763-772, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564439

RESUMO

Large-scale multi-ethnic cohorts offer unprecedented opportunities to elucidate the genetic factors influencing complex traits related to health and disease among minority populations. At the same time, the genetic diversity in these cohorts presents new challenges for analysis and interpretation. We consider the utility of race and/or ethnicity categories in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of multi-ethnic cohorts. We demonstrate that race/ethnicity information enhances the ability to understand population-specific genetic architecture. To address the practical issue that self-identified racial/ethnic information may be incomplete, we propose a machine learning algorithm that produces a surrogate variable, termed HARE. We use height as a model trait to demonstrate the utility of HARE and ethnicity-specific GWASs.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 5895-5923, 2019 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422385

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) is associated with several aging-related diseases. Here, we present a DNA methylation estimator of TL (DNAmTL) based on 140 CpGs. Leukocyte DNAmTL is applicable across the entire age spectrum and is more strongly associated with age than measured leukocyte TL (LTL) (r ~-0.75 for DNAmTL versus r ~ -0.35 for LTL). Leukocyte DNAmTL outperforms LTL in predicting: i) time-to-death (p=2.5E-20), ii) time-to-coronary heart disease (p=6.6E-5), iii) time-to-congestive heart failure (p=3.5E-6), and iv) association with smoking history (p=1.21E-17). These associations are further validated in large scale methylation data (n=10k samples) from the Framingham Heart Study, Women's Health Initiative, Jackson Heart Study, InChianti, Lothian Birth Cohorts, Twins UK, and Bogalusa Heart Study. Leukocyte DNAmTL is also associated with measures of physical fitness/functioning (p=0.029), age-at-menopause (p=0.039), dietary variables (omega 3, fish, vegetable intake), educational attainment (p=3.3E-8) and income (p=3.1E-5). Experiments in cultured somatic cells show that DNAmTL dynamics reflect in part cell replication rather than TL per se. DNAmTL is not only an epigenetic biomarker of replicative history of cells, but a useful marker of age-related pathologies that are associated with it.

19.
Circulation ; 140(12): 1031-1040, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of black individuals carry 2 copies of the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) risk alleles G1 or G2, which are associated with 1.5- to 2.5-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease. There have been conflicting reports as to whether an association exists between APOL1 risk alleles and cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is independent of the effects of APOL1 on kidney disease. We sought to test the association of APOL1 G1/G2 alleles with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke among black individuals in the Million Veteran Program. METHODS: We performed a time-to-event analysis of retrospective electronic health record data using Cox proportional hazard and competing-risks Fine and Gray subdistribution hazard models. The primary exposure was APOL1 risk allele status. The primary outcome was incident coronary artery disease among individuals without chronic kidney disease during the 12.5-year follow-up period. We separately analyzed the cross-sectional association of APOL1 risk allele status with lipid traits and 115 cardiovascular diseases using phenome-wide association. RESULTS: Among 30 903 black Million Veteran Program participants, 3941 (13%) carried the 2 APOL1 risk allele high-risk genotype. Individuals with normal kidney function at baseline with 2 risk alleles had slightly higher risk of developing coronary artery disease compared with those with no risk alleles (hazard ratio, 1.11 [95% CI, 1.01-1.21]; P=0.039). Similarly, modest associations were identified with incident stroke (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.05-1.36; P=0.007) and peripheral artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.01-1.29l; P=0.031). When both cardiovascular and renal outcomes were modeled, APOL1 was strongly associated with incident renal disease, whereas no significant association with the CVD end points could be detected. Cardiovascular phenome-wide association analyses did not identify additional significant associations with CVD subsets. CONCLUSIONS: APOL1 risk variants display a modest association with CVD, and this association is likely mediated by the known APOL1 association with chronic kidney disease.

20.
JAMA Surg ; 154(10): 907-914, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290953

RESUMO

Importance: Heart failure is an established risk factor for postoperative mortality, but how heart failure is associated with operative outcomes specifically in the ambulatory surgical setting is not well characterized. Objective: To assess the risk of postoperative mortality and complications in patients with vs without heart failure at various levels of echocardiographic (left ventricular systolic dysfunction) and clinical (symptoms) severity who were undergoing ambulatory surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this US multisite retrospective cohort study of all adult patients undergoing ambulatory, elective, noncardiac surgery in the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Project database during fiscal years 2009 to 2016, a total of 355 121 patient records were identified and analyzed with 1 year of follow-up after surgery (final date of follow-up September 1, 2017). Exposures: Heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction, and presence of signs or symptoms of heart failure within 30 days of surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were postoperative mortality at 90 days and any postoperative complication at 30 days. Results: Among 355 121 total patients, outcome data from 19 353 patients with heart failure (5.5%; mean [SD] age, 67.9 [10.1] years; 18 841 [96.9%] male) and 334 768 patients without heart failure (94.5%; mean [SD] age, 57.2 [14.0] years; 301 198 [90.0%] male) were analyzed. Compared with patients without heart failure, patients with heart failure had a higher risk of 90-day postoperative mortality (crude mortality risk, 2.00% vs 0.39%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.69-2.44), and risk of mortality progressively increased with decreasing systolic function. Compared with patients without heart failure, symptomatic patients with heart failure had a greater risk of mortality (crude mortality risk, 3.57%; aOR, 2.76; 95% CI, 2.07-3.70), as did asymptomatic patients with heart failure (crude mortality risk, 1.85%; aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.60-2.15). Patients with heart failure had a higher risk of experiencing a 30-day postoperative complication than did patients without heart failure (crude risk, 5.65% vs 2.65%; aOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, among patients undergoing elective, ambulatory surgery, heart failure with or without symptoms was significantly associated with 90-day mortality and 30-day postoperative complications. These data may be helpful in preoperative discussions with patients with heart failure undergoing ambulatory surgery.

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