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1.
Stroke ; : STROKEAHA120031792, 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Previous genome-wide association studies identified 51 loci associated with stroke (mostly ischemic) and its subtypes among predominantly European populations. Using whole-genome sequencing in ancestrally diverse populations from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program, we aimed to identify novel variants, especially low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, associated with all stroke, ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, and small vessel), and hemorrhagic stroke and its subtypes (intracerebral and subarachnoid). METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing data were available for 6833 stroke cases and 27 116 controls, including 22 315 European, 7877 Black, 2616 Hispanic/Latino, 850 Asian, 54 Native American, and 237 other ancestry participants. In TOPMed, we performed single variant association analysis examining 40 million common variants and aggregated association analysis focusing on rare variants. We also combined TOPMed European populations with over 28 000 additional European participants from the UK BioBank genome-wide array data through meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the single variant association analysis in TOPMed, we identified one novel locus 13q33 for large artery at whole-genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-9) and 4 novel loci at genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-8), all of which need confirmation in independent studies. Lead variants in all 5 loci are low-frequency but are more common in non-European populations. An aggregation of synonymous rare variants within the gene C6orf26 demonstrated suggestive evidence of association for hemorrhagic stroke (P<3.11×10-6). By meta-analyzing European ancestry samples in TOPMed and UK BioBank, we replicated several previously reported stroke loci including PITX2, HDAC9, ZFHX3, and LRCH1. CONCLUSIONS: We represent the first association analysis for stroke and its subtypes using whole-genome sequencing data from ancestrally diverse populations. While our findings suggest the potential benefits of combining whole-genome sequencing data with populations of diverse genetic backgrounds to identify possible low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, they also highlight the need to increase genome coverage and sample sizes.

2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e023330, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845919

RESUMO

Background We recently reported a link between plasma levels of 2 of 84 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related proteins and the 3 major CVDs, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and heart failure. The present study investigated whether measurement of almost 10 times the number of proteins could lead to discovery of additional risk markers for CVD. Methods and Results We measured 742 proteins using the proximity extension assay in 826 male participants of ULSAM (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men) who were free from CVD at the age of 70 years. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age only, as well as all traditional risk factors. During a 12.5-year median follow-up (maximal, 22.0 years), 283 incident CVDs occurred. Forty-one proteins were significantly (false discovery rate <0.05) related to the combined end point of incident CVD, with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide as the top finding, while 53 proteins were related to incident myocardial infarction. A total of 13 and 16 proteins were significantly related to incident ischemic stroke and heart failure, respectively. Growth differentiation factor 15, 4-disulfide core domain protein 2, and kidney injury molecule were related to all of the 3 major CVD outcomes. A lasso selection of 11 proteins improved discrimination of incident CVD by 5.0% (P=0.0038). Conclusions Large-scale proteomics seem useful for the discovery of new risk markers for CVD and to improve risk prediction in an elderly population of men. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings in independent samples of both men and women of different ages.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(11): 2831-2842, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479738

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of adiposity improve risk prediction for cardiometabolic diseases over traditional surrogates, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in older women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed up to 9744 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years participating in the Women's Health Initiative who underwent a DXA scan and were free of cardiovascular disease and diabetes at baseline (October 1993 to December 1998) and followed through September 2015. Baseline BMI, WC, WHR, and DXA-derived percent total-body and trunk fat (%TrF) were incorporated into multivariable Cox proportional hazards models to estimate the risk of incident diabetes, atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases (ASCVDs), heart failure, and death. Concordance probability estimates assessed the relative discriminatory value between pairs of adiposity measures. RESULTS: A total of 1327 diabetes cases, 1266 atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) cases, 292 heart failure cases, and 1811 deaths from any cause accrued during a median follow-up of up to 17.2 years. The largest hazard ratio observed per 1 standard deviation increase of an adiposity measure was for %TrF and diabetes (1.77; 95% CI, 1.66-1.88) followed by %TrF and broadly defined ASCVD (1.22; 95% CI, 1.15-1.30). These hazard ratios remained significant for both diabetes (1.47; 95% CI, 1.37-1.57) and ASCVD (1.22; 95% CI, 1.14-1.31) even after adjusting for the best traditional surrogate measure of adiposity, WC. Percentage of trunk fat was also the only adiposity measure to demonstrate statistically significant improved concordance probability estimates over BMI, WC, and WHR for diabetes and ASCVD (all P<0.05). CONCLUSION: DXA-derived estimates of abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal women may allow for substantially improved risk prediction of diabetes over standard clinical risk models. Larger DXA studies with complete lipid biomarker profiles and clinical trials are needed before firm conclusions can be made.

6.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(5): e003178, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461749

RESUMO

Genomics research has improved our understanding of the genetic basis for human traits and diseases. This progress is now being translated into clinical care as we move toward a future of precision medicine. Many hope that expanded use of genomic testing will improve disease screening, diagnosis, risk stratification, and treatment. In many respects, cardiovascular medicine is leading this charge. However, most cardiovascular genomics research has been conducted in populations of primarily European ancestry. This bias has critical downstream effects. Here, we review the current disparities in cardiovascular genomics research, and we outline how these disparities propagate forward through all phases of the translational pipeline. If not adequately addressed, biases in genomics research will further compound the existing health disparities that face underrepresented and marginalized populations.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255801, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379647

RESUMO

Observational studies suggest alcohol use promotes the development of some adverse cardiometabolic traits but protects against others including outcomes related to coronary artery disease. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to explore causal relationships between the degree of alcohol consumption and several cardiometabolic traits in the UK Biobank. Using the well-established ADH1B Arg47His variant (rs1229984) and up to 24 additional SNPs recently found to be associated with alcohol consumption in an independent dataset as instruments, we conducted two-stage least squares and inverse weighted variance MR analyses, both as one-sample analyses in the UK Biobank and as two-sample analyses in external consortia. In the UK Biobank inverse variance weighted analyses, we found that one additional drink of alcohol per day was positively associated with systolic blood pressure (beta = 2.65 mmHg [1.40, 3.89]), hemorrhagic stroke (OR = 2.25 [1.41, 3.60]), and atrial fibrillation (OR = 1.26 [1.07, 1.48]), which were replicated in multivariable analyses. Alcohol was also associated with all cardiovascular disease and all-cause death. A positive association with myocardial infarction did not replicate in multivariable analysis, with suggestive mediation through blood pressure; similarly, a positive association between alcohol use with type 2 diabetes was mitigated by BMI in multivariable analysis. Findings were generally null in replication with two-sample analyses. Alcohol was not protective for any disease outcome with any analysis method, dataset, or strata. Stratifications by sex and smoking in the UK Biobank revealed higher point estimates of risk for several outcomes for men and mixed results for smoking strata, but no statistically significant heterogeneity. Our results are consistent with an overall harmful and/or null effect of alcohol on cardiometabolic health at all levels of use and suggest that even moderate alcohol use should not be promoted as a part of a healthy diet and lifestyle.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(4): e003354, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lp(a) (lipoprotein [a]) levels are higher in individuals of African ancestry (AA) than in individuals of European ancestry (EA). We examined associations of genetically predicted Lp(a) levels with (1) atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease subtypes: coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm and (2) nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular disease phenotypes, stratified by ancestry. METHODS: We performed (1) Mendelian randomization analyses for previously reported cardiovascular associations and (2) Mendelian randomization-phenome-wide association analyses for novel associations. Analyses were stratified by ancestry in electronic Medical Records and Genomics, United Kingdom Biobank, and Million Veteran Program cohorts separately and in a combined cohort of 804 507 EA and 103 580 AA participants. RESULTS: In Mendelian randomization analyses using the combined cohort, a 1-SD genetic increase in Lp(a) level was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease subtypes in EA-odds ratio and 95% CI for coronary heart disease 1.28 (1.16-1.41); cerebrovascular disease 1.14 (1.07-1.21); peripheral artery disease 1.22 (1.11-1.34); abdominal aortic aneurysm 1.28 (1.17-1.40); in AA, the effect estimate was lower than in EA and nonsignificant for coronary heart disease 1.11 (0.99-1.24) and cerebrovascular disease 1.06 (0.99-1.14) but similar for peripheral artery disease 1.16 (1.01-1.33) and abdominal aortic aneurysm 1.34 (1.11-1.62). In EA, a 1-SD genetic increase in Lp(a) level was associated with aortic valve disorders 1.34 (1.10-1.62), mitral valve disorders 1.18 (1.09-1.27), congestive heart failure 1.12 (1.05-1.19), and chronic kidney disease 1.07 (1.01-1.14). In AA, no significant associations were noted for aortic valve disorders 1.08 (0.94-1.25), mitral valve disorders 1.02 (0.89-1.16), congestive heart failure 1.02 (0.95-1.10), or chronic kidney disease 1.05 (0.99-1.12). Mendelian randomization-phenome-wide association analyses identified novel associations in EA with arterial thromboembolic disease, nonaortic aneurysmal disease, atrial fibrillation, cardiac conduction disorders, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Many cardiovascular associations of genetically increased Lp(a) that were significant in EA were not significant in AA. Lp(a) was associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in four major arterial beds in EA but only with peripheral artery disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm in AA. Additionally, novel cardiovascular associations were detected in EA.

9.
medRxiv ; 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100031

RESUMO

Background: Recent efforts have identified genetic loci that are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection rates and disease outcome severity. Translating these genetic findings into druggable genes and readily available compounds that reduce COVID-19 host susceptibility is a critical next step. Methods: We integrate COVID-19 genetic susceptibility variants, multi-tissue genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) and perturbargen signatures to identify candidate genes and compounds that reverse the predicted gene expression dysregulation associated with COVID-19 susceptibility. The top candidate gene is validated by testing both its GReX and observed blood transcriptome association with COVID-19 severity, as well as by in vitro perturbation to quantify effects on viral load and molecular pathway dysregulation. We validate the in silico drug repositioning analysis by examining whether the top candidate compounds decrease COVID-19 incidence based on epidemiological evidence. Results: We identify IL10RB as the top key regulator of COVID-19 host susceptibility. Predicted GReX up-regulation of IL10RB and higher IL10RB expression in COVID-19 patient blood is associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes. In vitro IL10RB overexpression is associated with increased viral load and activation of immune-related molecular pathways. Azathioprine and retinol are prioritized as candidate compounds to reduce the likelihood of testing positive for COVID-19. Conclusions: We establish an integrative data-driven approach for gene target prioritization. We identify and validate IL10RB as a suitable molecular target for modulation of COVID-19 host susceptibility. Finally, we provide evidence for a few readily available medications that would warrant further investigation as drug repositioning candidates.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11645, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34079032

RESUMO

Hereditary transthyretin-mediated (hATTR) amyloidosis is an underdiagnosed, progressively debilitating disease caused by mutations in the transthyretin (TTR) gene. V122I, a common pathogenic TTR mutation, is found in 3-4% of individuals of African ancestry in the United States and has been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. To better understand the phenotypic consequences of carrying V122I, we conducted a phenome-wide association study scanning 427 ICD diagnosis codes in UK Biobank participants of African ancestry (n = 6062). Significant associations were tested for replication in the Penn Medicine Biobank (n = 5737) and the Million Veteran Program (n = 82,382). V122I was significantly associated with polyneuropathy in the UK Biobank (odds ratio [OR] = 6.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.6-15.6, p = 4.2 × 10-5), which was replicated in the Penn Medicine Biobank (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, p = 6.0 × 10-3) and Million Veteran Program (OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.8, p = 1.8 × 10-4). Polyneuropathy prevalence among V122I carriers was 2.1%, 9.0%, and 4.8% in the UK Biobank, Penn Medicine Biobank, and Million Veteran Program, respectively. The cumulative incidence of common hATTR amyloidosis manifestations (carpal tunnel syndrome, polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy, heart failure) was significantly enriched in V122I carriers compared with non-carriers (HR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.7-4.5, p = 2.6 × 10-5) in the UK Biobank, with 37.4% of V122I carriers having at least one of these manifestations by age 75. Our findings show that V122I carriers are at increased risk of polyneuropathy. These results also emphasize the underdiagnosis of disease in V122I carriers with a significant proportion of subjects showing phenotypic changes consistent with hATTR amyloidosis. Greater understanding of the manifestations associated with V122I is critical for earlier diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Polineuropatias/diagnóstico , Pré-Albumina/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/etnologia , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Cardiomiopatias/complicações , Cardiomiopatias/etnologia , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etnologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fenótipo , Polineuropatias/complicações , Polineuropatias/etnologia , Polineuropatias/genética , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Aging Cell ; 20(6): e13366, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050697

RESUMO

Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common precursor state for blood cancers that most frequently occurs due to mutations in the DNA-methylation modifying enzymes DNMT3A or TET2. We used DNA-methylation array and whole-genome sequencing data from four cohorts together comprising 5522 persons to study the association between CHIP, epigenetic clocks, and health outcomes. CHIP was strongly associated with epigenetic age acceleration, defined as the residual after regressing epigenetic clock age on chronological age, in several clocks, ranging from 1.31 years (GrimAge, p < 8.6 × 10-7 ) to 3.08 years (EEAA, p < 3.7 × 10-18 ). Mutations in most CHIP genes except DNA-damage response genes were associated with increases in several measures of age acceleration. CHIP carriers with mutations in multiple genes had the largest increases in age acceleration and decrease in estimated telomere length. Finally, we found that ~40% of CHIP carriers had acceleration >0 in both Hannum and GrimAge (referred to as AgeAccelHG+). This group was at high risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.90, p < 4.1 × 10-8 ) and coronary heart disease (CHD) (hazard ratio 3.24, p < 9.3 × 10-6 ) compared to those who were CHIP-/AgeAccelHG-. In contrast, the other ~60% of CHIP carriers who were AgeAccelHG- were not at increased risk of these outcomes. In summary, CHIP is strongly linked to age acceleration in multiple clocks, and the combination of CHIP and epigenetic aging may be used to identify a population at high risk for adverse outcomes and who may be a target for clinical interventions.

13.
Environ Res ; 198: 111211, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Short-duration exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with cardiac autonomic dysfunction and prolonged ventricular repolarization. However, associations with sub-chronic exposures to coarser particulates are relatively poorly characterized as are molecular mechanisms underlying their potential relationships with cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between monthly mean concentrations of PM < 10 µm and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM10; PM2.5-10) with time-domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and QT interval duration (QT) among U.S. women and men in the Women's Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (nHRV = 82,107; nQT = 76,711). Then we examined mediation of the PM-HRV and PM-QT associations by DNA methylation (DNAm) at three Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites (cg19004594, cg24102420, cg12124767) with known sensitivity to monthly mean PM concentrations in a subset of the participants (nHRV = 7,169; nQT = 6,895). After multiply imputing missing PM, electrocardiographic and covariable data, we estimated associations using attrition-weighted, linear, mixed, longitudinal models adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and clinical characteristics. We assessed mediation by estimating the proportions of PM-HRV and PM-QT associations mediated by DNAm. RESULTS: We found little evidence of PM-HRV association, PM-QT association, or mediation by DNAm. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that among racially/ethnically and environmentally diverse U.S. populations, sub-chronic exposures to coarser particulates may not exert appreciable, epigenetically mediated effects on cardiac autonomic function or ventricular repolarization. Further investigation in better-powered studies is warranted, with additional focus on shorter duration exposures to finer particulates and non-electrocardiographic outcomes among relatively susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Aterosclerose , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2182, 2021 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846329

RESUMO

Autosomal genetic analyses of blood lipids have yielded key insights for coronary heart disease (CHD). However, X chromosome genetic variation is understudied for blood lipids in large sample sizes. We now analyze genetic and blood lipid data in a high-coverage whole X chromosome sequencing study of 65,322 multi-ancestry participants and perform replication among 456,893 European participants. Common alleles on chromosome Xq23 are strongly associated with reduced total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (min P = 8.5 × 10-72), with similar effects for males and females. Chromosome Xq23 lipid-lowering alleles are associated with reduced odds for CHD among 42,545 cases and 591,247 controls (P = 1.7 × 10-4), and reduced odds for diabetes mellitus type 2 among 54,095 cases and 573,885 controls (P = 1.4 × 10-5). Although we observe an association with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI is reduced, bioimpedance analyses indicate increased gluteofemoral fat, and abdominal MRI analyses indicate reduced visceral adiposity. Co-localization analyses strongly correlate increased CHRDL1 gene expression, particularly in adipose tissue, with reduced concentrations of blood lipids.


Assuntos
Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Proteínas do Olho/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Fenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Tela Subcutânea/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 34, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of genetic risk factors that are shared between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other traits, i.e., pleiotropy, can help improve our understanding of the etiology of AD and potentially detect new therapeutic targets. Previous epidemiological correlations observed between cardiometabolic traits and AD led us to assess the pleiotropy between these traits. METHODS: We performed a set of bivariate genome-wide association studies coupled with colocalization analysis to identify loci that are shared between AD and eleven cardiometabolic traits. For each of these loci, we performed colocalization with Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) to identify candidate causal genes. RESULTS: We identified three previously unreported pleiotropic trait associations at known AD loci as well as four novel pleiotropic loci. One associated locus was tagged by a low-frequency coding variant in the gene DOCK4 and is potentially implicated in its alternative splicing. Colocalization with GTEx eQTL data identified additional candidate genes for the loci we detected, including ACE, the target of the hypertensive drug class of ACE inhibitors. We found that the allele associated with decreased ACE expression in brain tissue was also associated with increased risk of AD, providing human genetic evidence of a potential increase in AD risk from use of an established anti-hypertensive therapeutic. CONCLUSION: Our results support a complex genetic relationship between AD and these cardiometabolic traits, and the candidate causal genes identified suggest that blood pressure and immune response play a role in the pleiotropy between these traits.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
16.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 185-194, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462484

RESUMO

Clinical laboratory tests are a critical component of the continuum of care. We evaluate the genetic basis of 35 blood and urine laboratory measurements in the UK Biobank (n = 363,228 individuals). We identify 1,857 loci associated with at least one trait, containing 3,374 fine-mapped associations and additional sets of large-effect (>0.1 s.d.) protein-altering, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and copy number variant (CNV) associations. Through Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis, we discover 51 causal relationships, including previously known agonistic effects of urate on gout and cystatin C on stroke. Finally, we develop polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for each biomarker and build 'multi-PRS' models for diseases using 35 PRSs simultaneously, which improved chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, gout and alcoholic cirrhosis genetic risk stratification in an independent dataset (FinnGen; n = 135,500) relative to single-disease PRSs. Together, our results delineate the genetic basis of biomarkers and their causal influences on diseases and improve genetic risk stratification for common diseases.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Antígenos HLA/genética , Proteínas/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Pleiotropia Genética , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Transportador 1 de Ânion Orgânico Específico do Fígado/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Reino Unido
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2034461, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464320

RESUMO

Importance: Smoking is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, but the relative contribution to each subtype (coronary artery disease [CAD], peripheral artery disease [PAD], and large-artery stroke) remains less well understood. Objective: To determine the association between genetic liability to smoking and risk of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: Mendelian randomization study using summary statistics from genome-wide associations of smoking (UK Biobank; up to 462 690 individuals), CAD (Coronary Artery Disease Genome Wide Replication and Meta-analysis plus the Coronary Artery Disease Genetics Consortium; up to 60 801 cases, 123 504 controls), PAD (VA Million Veteran Program; up to 24 009 cases, 150 983 controls), and large-artery stroke (MEGASTROKE; up to 4373 cases, 406 111 controls). This study was conducted using summary statistic data from large, previously described cohorts. Review of those publications does not reveal the total recruitment dates for those cohorts. Data analyses were conducted from August 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Genetic liability to smoking (as proxied by genetic variants associated with lifetime smoking index). Main Outcomes and Measures: Risk (odds ratios [ORs]) of CAD, PAD, and large-artery stroke. Results: Genetic liability to smoking was associated with increased risk of PAD (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.78-2.56; P = 3.6 × 10-16), CAD (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.25-1.75; P = 4.4 × 10-6), and stroke (OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.02-1.92; P = .04). Genetic liability to smoking was associated with greater risk of PAD than risk of large-artery stroke (ratio of ORs, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.05-2.19; P = .02) or CAD (ratio of ORs, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.12-1.84; P = .004). The association between genetic liability to smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases remained independent from the effects of smoking on traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this mendelian randomization analysis of data from large studies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases, genetic liability to smoking was a strong risk factor for CAD, PAD, and stroke, although the estimated association was strongest between smoking and PAD. The association between smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Vasculares Periféricas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(1): 380-386, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is the third most common form of atherosclerotic vascular disease and is characterized by significant functional disability and increased cardiovascular mortality. Recent genetic data support a role for a procoagulation protein variant, the factor V Leiden mutation, in PAD. The role of other hemostatic factors in PAD remains unknown. We evaluated the role of hemostatic factors in PAD using Mendelian randomization. Approach and Results: Two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the roles of FVII (factor VII), FVIII (factor VIII), FXI (factor XI), VWF (von Willebrand factor), and fibrinogen in PAD was performed using summary statistics from GWAS for hemostatic factors performed within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in the Genome Epidemiology Consortium and from GWAS performed for PAD within the Million Veteran Program. Genetically determined FVIII and VWF, but not FVII, FXI, or fibrinogen, were associated with PAD in Mendelian randomization experiments (FVIII: odds ratio, 1.41 [95% CI, 1.23-1.62], P=6.0×10-7, VWF: odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.07-1.52], P=0.0073). In single variant sensitivity analysis, the ABO locus was the strongest genetic instrument for both FVIII and VWF. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a role for hemostasis, and by extension, thrombosis in PAD. Further study is warranted to determine whether VWF and FVIII independently affect the biology of PAD.


Assuntos
Fator VIII/genética , Hemostasia/genética , Doença Arterial Periférica/genética , Fator de von Willebrand/genética , Sistema ABO de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 50(2): 675-684, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354722

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diet quality is a risk factor for chronic disease and mortality. Differential DNA methylation across the epigenome has been associated with chronic disease risk. Whether diet quality is associated with differential methylation is unknown. This study assessed whether diet quality was associated with differential DNA methylation measured across 445 548 loci in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and the TwinsUK cohort. DESIGN: The discovery cohort consisted of 4355 women from the WHI. The replication cohort consisted of 571 mono- and dizygotic twins from the TwinsUK cohort. DNA methylation was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip. Diet quality was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010). A meta-analysis, stratified by study cohort, was performed using generalized linear models that regressed methylation on AHEI-2010, adjusting for cell composition, chip number and location, study characteristics, principal components of genetic relatedness, age, smoking status, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI). Statistical significance was defined as a false discovery rate < 0.05. Significant sites were tested for replication in the TwinsUK cohort, with significant replication defined by P < 0.05 and a consistent direction. RESULTS: Diet quality was significantly associated with differential DNA methylation at 428 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites in the discovery cohort. A total of 24 CpG sites were consistent with replication in the TwinsUK cohort, more than would be expected by chance (P = 2.7x10-4), with one site replicated in both the blood and adipose tissue (cg16379999 located in the body of SEL1L). CONCLUSIONS: Diet quality was associated with methylation at 24 CpG sites, several of which have been associated with adiposity, inflammation and dysglycaemia. These findings may provide insight into pathways through which diet influences chronic disease.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Metilação de DNA , Dieta , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteínas , Saúde da Mulher
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