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1.
Am J Ind Med ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between precarious working conditions and the health of bus drivers and conductors. METHODS: Data were gathered by means of a survey and interviews conducted in 2012 with 1607 employees of the public transport system of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Nine proxy variables were used to create a precariousness score, ranging from 0 to 9, on a comparative scale: score 0 "less precarious" and 9 "more precarious." Negative self-evaluations of health, medical diagnoses of depression and sleep disorders, common mental disorders, musculoskeletal pain and medical leave were assessed. Poisson regression was used to assess associations between precariousness and health adjusted for age, sex, education, vibration, and noise. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 853 drivers and 754 conductors. Most were men (87%), with age below 40 years (67.4%) and medium educational level (64.5%). The maximum precariousness score observed was 7. Most individuals were in the groups of scores 3 (26.7%) and 4 (26.1%). The prevalences of the health situations were: common mental disorders, 26.3%; medical diagnosis of depression, 9.7%; medical diagnosis of sleep disorder, 14.6%; musculoskeletal pain, 43.0%; medical leave (absenteeism), 34.8%; and negative self-evaluation of health, 20.2%. The prevalences of health conditions, with the exception of negative self-evaluations of health, were significantly higher among workers with higher levels of precarious working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Worse health, particularly common mental disorders, was associated with self-assessed work precariousness.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2923-2932, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011883

RESUMO

Resumo Inquéritos Ocupacionais são métodos de coleta de dados dos estudos transversais indispensáveis à elaboração de políticas públicas voltadas à saúde do trabalhador. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática sobre artigos que retratavam resultados de Inquéritos Ocupacionais conduzidos no Brasil, no período de 2005 a 2015. Baseada na recomendação Prisma, esta revisão selecionou artigos indexados em base de dados Medline, Lilacs e SciELO. A análise dos dados consistiu na descrição dos Inquéritos Ocupacionais de acordo com: grandes regiões nas quais as pesquisas foram realizadas, técnicas e instrumentos utilizados, temas abordados, setores da economia nos quais as relações saúde-trabalho foram investigadas e critérios metodológicos. Observou-se diferenças na distribuição dos Inquéritos Ocupacionais regional e setorialmente. A estrutura das investigações, em sua maioria, se interessava em identificar adoecimento em trabalhadores. Ausência de consenso no tocante aos métodos utilizados foi observada com prejuízos para a comparação de resultados e monitoramento da saúde e condições de trabalho. Esforços são necessários para a elaboração de consensos e fomento à pesquisa em setores e regiões ainda pouco exploradas.


Abstract Occupational Surveys are methods of collecting data from the cross-sectional studies, which are indispensable for the elaboration of public policies oriented to workers' health. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on articles that featured results of Occupational Surveys conducted in Brazil from 2005 to 2015. Based on the Prisma recommendation, this review selected articles indexed in Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases. Analysis of the data consisted of the description of the Occupational Surveys according to: large regions in which the research was carried out; techniques and instruments used; topics covered; sectors of the economy in which health-work relations were investigated; and methodological criteria. Differences in the distribution of Occupational Surveys were observed regionally and by sector. The structure of the investigations, for the most part, was concerned with identifying sickness in workers. A lack of consensus regarding the methods used was revealed, which consequently prejudiced the comparison of results and monitoring of health and working conditions. Efforts are needed to build consensus and foster research in sectors and regions that are as yet scantly explored.

3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(8): 2923-2932, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389539

RESUMO

Occupational Surveys are methods of collecting data from the cross-sectional studies, which are indispensable for the elaboration of public policies oriented to workers' health. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on articles that featured results of Occupational Surveys conducted in Brazil from 2005 to 2015. Based on the Prisma recommendation, this review selected articles indexed in Medline, Lilacs and Scielo databases. Analysis of the data consisted of the description of the Occupational Surveys according to: large regions in which the research was carried out; techniques and instruments used; topics covered; sectors of the economy in which health-work relations were investigated; and methodological criteria. Differences in the distribution of Occupational Surveys were observed regionally and by sector. The structure of the investigations, for the most part, was concerned with identifying sickness in workers. A lack of consensus regarding the methods used was revealed, which consequently prejudiced the comparison of results and monitoring of health and working conditions. Efforts are needed to build consensus and foster research in sectors and regions that are as yet scantly explored.

4.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(4): 1287-1298, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066832

RESUMO

The study analyzes factors associated with family aggression against adolescents. Data from the National School Health Survey for 2015 were analyzed, and the prevalence of physical aggression per family was calculated according to four blocks. The bivariate analysis was performed, calculating the unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) within each block and the multivariate regression. Familial aggression was reported by 14.5%. The variables associated with the model were: female, black, yellow, brown, mothers with no higher educational level, adolescent workers (OR 2.10 CI 95% 1.78-2.47). In the family context, they remained associated with aggression, lack of parents "understanding" (OR 1.71 CI95% 1.63 -1.80) and their intrusion into adolescent's privacy (OR 1.80 CI95% 1.70 -1, 91). Report of missing school (OR1.43 CI95% 1.36-1.50). Among the behaviors: smoking (OR 1.23 CI95% 1.12-1.34), alcohol (OR 1.49 CI95% 1.41-1.57), drug experience (OR 1.24 CI95% 1, 15-1,33), early sexual intercourse (OR 1.40 CI95% 1.33 -1.48), reports of loneliness, insomnia and bullying (ORa 2.14 CI95% 2.00-2.30). It is concluded by the association between violence and gender, greater victimization of girls, living in unfavorable social and family contexts.

5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35 Suppl 1: e00081118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141022

RESUMO

The objectives were to assess the joint effect of working hours paid per week and multiple job holding on sickness absence, by sex, among basic education teachers in Brazil. This study is based on a survey carried out over a representative sample of 5,116 active basic education teachers in Brazil between 2015 and 2016 (Educatel Study). We created a dummy variable to assess the joint effect of weekly paid working hours [standard (35-40 hours); part-time (< 35 hours); moderately long (41-50 hours); and very long (> 50 hours)] and multiple job holding (working in several schools - no/yes). Working 35-40 hours in one school was the reference category. We conducted Poisson regression models with robust variance to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of the association with self-certified sickness absence and medically certified sickness absence. Models were adjusted for age, type of contract and salary, and stratified by sex. Significant associations with sickness absence were only found among teachers working in more than one school. Associations with self-certified sickness absence were found among women with standard and men with moderately long working hours, and for both women and men working > 50 hours (PR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09-1.35; PR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.18-1.66; respectively). Associations with medically certified sickness absence were found among teachers working > 50 hours, among women (PR: 1.30, 95%CI: 1.03-1.63) and men (PR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.04-1.92). Teachers working longer hours in several schools could be suffering health problems, deriving in work absence.

6.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35 Suppl 1: e00169517, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141023

RESUMO

Diseases in general and work absenteeism due to illness are prevalent among schoolteachers in Basic Education, whose mission is essential for preparing future citizens. This study study aimed to produce information on demographics, characteristics of the schools and school systems, and health status of the group of teachers that felt pressured to work even when sick. The probabilistic sample was calculated by simple random selection in order to represent the total universe of 2,229,269 Brazilian schoolteachers working in Basic Education (preschool-12). Teachers answered a multi-thematic questionnaire by telephone. The question leading to the outcome variable, "Do you experience difficulty missing work even when you're feeling pain or have some other health problem?", was tested and validated. The answer allowed empirically operationalizing the concept of pressure to work when sick. The multivariate analysis used Pearson's chi-square test and the decision tree method. The final model's fit was assessed by estimating the risk of incorrect classification. The tree's subdivisions pointed to weak social support as the first determinant of pressure to work, 55% reported difficulty missing work when they were feeling pain or having some other health problem, and 70% of the group that rated their health as bad or very bad felt pressured to appear for work even when sick or in pain. The associated factors were: weak social support, an agitated workplace due to unruly students, and health problems that were considered work-related diseases. Given the goals of valuing schoolteachers in Basic Education, attention should be given to gender differences, management styles, and infrastructure in the schools.

7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190029, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the demographic, behavioral and occupational factors associated with obesity among urban collective transportation workers of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 1,448 drivers and collectors in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Anthropometric, demographic, behavioral data, as well as participants' link to the company and bus conditions were gathered in 2012 through a questionnaire applied by an interviewer. To calculate obesity, the body mass index cut off point was ≥ 30 kg/m2. Prevalence ratios (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were adjusted by Poisson's multivariate regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity among urban collective transportation workers was 16.1%. Female sex (PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.37 - 2.49), aging 30 to 39 years old (PR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.17 - 2.37) and 40 to 49 years old (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.04 - 2.42), being in the same job role from 5.01 to 10 years (PR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.04 - 2,42) and from 20.01 to 47 years (PR = 1.90; 95%CI 1.21 - 3.00), and physical inactivity (PR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.73) remained independently associated with obesity after multivariate adjustment data. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need to consider actions that encourage employees to participate in healthy activities when discussing health promotion for public transport workers, as well as actions to improve the organization and management of work, so it becomes a health and well-being feature for this population.


Assuntos
Obesidade/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Condução de Veículo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transportes , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
8.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e00002619, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994814
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e00108618, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994816

RESUMO

The Educatel Study 2015/2016 was designed to evaluate health and work conditions in a representative sample of the 2,220,000 schoolteachers working in Basic Education in Brazil. The article aimed to describe the telephone survey's basis and design, using a questionnaire consisting of 54 short, simple questions, most of which with multiple-choice answers (closed questions) addressing diseases, accidents, absenteeism, frequency of healthy behaviors, physical and psychosocial environment, and employment characteristics. In the pilot stage, the multi-theme questionnaire was assessed in order to verify the effects of the terminology, the format of the questions and the multiple-choice answers, the questionnaire's internal organization, production of the answers, and duration of the interview. The interviewers' training and follow-up and listening of the calls in real time aimed to identify communications problems. The teachers were interviewed at school after prior contact with the school assistant to set appointments. The advantages and risks of biases related to the telephone interview modality should be considered to interpret the results. The results on the teachers' profile, illnesses, and school environment will provide inputs for elaborating inter-sector measures to improve the target group's health, which is related to Brazil's school system indicators based on the concepts presented here.

10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e00166517, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994817

RESUMO

The study aimed to identify multiple exposures to the risk of work absenteeism among Brazilian schoolteachers, independently of the reasons reported by teachers (n = 6,510). The data came from a telephone survey on health, working conditions, and absenteeism among schoolteachers in Brazil (Educatel Study, 2015/2016). Exposures were identified and studied by principal components analysis and Poisson regression, with a focus on working conditions and quality of school administration. Three components of risk factors for work absenteeism were identified. Component 1 featured lack of opportunities for new learning experiences, insufficient time for performing tasks, constraints on teachers' autonomy, and little or no social support in the school environment; component 2 was characterized by the perception of heavy demand from tasks and an agitated classroom environment due to students' lack of discipline and intense noise; and component 3 by the experience of verbal or physical violence from students. All three components were specially associaed with stress-related work absenteeism in relation to reported stress at school (aPR = 3.87; 95%CI: 2.93-5.10; p < 0.05/aPR = 3.18; 95%CI: 2.47-4.09; p < 0.05/aPR = 3.31; 95%CI: 2.58-4.25; p < 0.05; respectively) and emotional problems (aPR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.93-2.70; p < 0.05/aPR = 2.43; 95%CI: 2.05-2.87; p < 0.05/aPR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.78-2.45; p < 0.05; respectively). The identification of these risk components highlighted the need for systemic changes in Brazilian Basic Education schools.

11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e00167217, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994818

RESUMO

Educatel Brazil 2015/2016 was a cross-sectional study conducted by telephone interview with the aim of producing information on health and absenteeism in Brazilian schoolteachers. The nationally representative sampling plan was based on the simple stratified sampling method, with stratification defined to meet the analytical domains established for the study (five major geographic regions, two census areas, four age brackets, sex, three types of school administration, five types of teacher employment, and six grade levels) and selection by simple random sampling of teachers in each stratum. Teacher selection was based on the 2014 School Census conducted by the Brazilian National Institute for Educational Studies and Research "Anísio Teixeira". Of the 2,229,269 teachers recorded in the Census, 13,243 were selected. A total of 119,378 telephone calls were made, identifying 7,642 eligible teachers (57.7% of the total initially sampled). A total of 6,510 interviews were finally completed, for a response rate of 85.2%. At the end of data collection, sample weights were assigned to each of the teachers interviewed. These weighting factors are connected not only to the Educatel sample design, but also to the adjustment terms for treatment of non-response during the data collection process.

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(4): 1287-1298, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001774

RESUMO

Resumo O estudo analisa fatores associados à agressão familiar contra adolescentes. Foram utilizados dados da Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde dos Escolares 2015 e calculada a prevalência de sofrer agressão física por familiar, segundo quatro blocos de investigação. Procedeu-se a análise bivariada, calculando-se os Odds Ratios (ORs) não ajustados e, por fim, foi realizada a regressão multivariada. A agressão familiar foi referida por 14,5%. Variáveis associadas no modelo mutivariado no bloco sociodemográfico foram: sexo feminino, raça cor preta, amarela, parda, mães sem nível superior de escolaridade, adolescente que trabalham (OR 2,10 IC95% 1,78-2,47). No contexto familiar: a falta de compreensão dos pais (OR 1,71 IC95% 1,63 -1,80) e a intromissão na privacidade dos adolescentes (OR 1,80 IC95% 1,70 -1,91). Relato de faltar às aulas (OR 1,43 IC95% 1,36-1,50). Dentre os comportamentos: tabagismo (OR 1,23 IC95% 1,12-1,34), álcool (OR 1,49 IC95% 1,41-1,57), experiência com drogas (OR 1,24 IC95% 1,15-1,33), relação sexual precoce (OR 1,40 IC95% 1,33 -1,48), relato de solidão, insônia e bullying (ORa 2,14 IC95% 2,00-2,30). Conclui-se pela associação entre violência e gênero, maior vitimização das meninas e adolescentes mais jovens, que vivem em contextos sociais e familiares desfavoráveis.


Abstract The study analyzes factors associated with family aggression against adolescents. Data from the National School Health Survey for 2015 were analyzed, and the prevalence of physical aggression per family was calculated according to four blocks. The bivariate analysis was performed, calculating the unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) within each block and the multivariate regression. Familial aggression was reported by 14.5%. The variables associated with the model were: female, black, yellow, brown, mothers with no higher educational level, adolescent workers (OR 2.10 CI 95% 1.78-2.47). In the family context, they remained associated with aggression, lack of parents "understanding" (OR 1.71 CI95% 1.63 -1.80) and their intrusion into adolescent's privacy (OR 1.80 CI95% 1.70 -1, 91). Report of missing school (OR1.43 CI95% 1.36-1.50). Among the behaviors: smoking (OR 1.23 CI95% 1.12-1.34), alcohol (OR 1.49 CI95% 1.41-1.57), drug experience (OR 1.24 CI95% 1, 15-1,33), early sexual intercourse (OR 1.40 CI95% 1.33 -1.48), reports of loneliness, insomnia and bullying (ORa 2.14 CI95% 2.00-2.30). It is concluded by the association between violence and gender, greater victimization of girls, living in unfavorable social and family contexts.

13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190021, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Use of anxiolytic drugs is an option for treating psychological symptoms. However, even if their use is controlled, there are risks of dependence, intoxication and cognitive alterations. Uncontrolled use among workers worsens these problems. OBJECTIVES: Identify the prevalence of anxiolytic use and to know the factors associated with consumption in military firefighters. METHOD: Cross-sectional survey of 711 firefighters from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was conducted through self-reporting. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations between sociodemographic characteristics, living, working and health conditions and anxiolytic consumption in a controlled or uncontrolled manner. RESULTS: Prevalence of anxiolytic use was 9.9%. For 7.5% of firefighters the consumption occurred without indication and/or specialized therapeutic control. Controlled use was only associated with symptoms compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 23.6; 95%CI 6.54 - 85.11). Uncontrolled use was associated with length of service (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.03 - 6.40), smoking (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.50 - 6.91) and symptomatology compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 4.02; 95%CI 2.17 - 7.45). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of consumption indicates alert to occupational health programs.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Bombeiros/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Militares/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/tratamento farmacológico , Brasil/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190029, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990730

RESUMO

RESUMO: Objetivo: Analisar os fatores demográficos, comportamentais e ocupacionais associados à obesidade em trabalhadores do transporte coletivo urbano de cidades da Região Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte (RMBH), Minas Gerais, Brasil. Método: Estudo transversal com 1.448 motoristas e cobradores da RMBH. Dados antropométricos, demográficos, comportamentais, de vínculo com a empresa e condições do ônibus foram coletados, em 2012, por meio de questionário aplicado face a face por entrevistador. Para o cálculo da obesidade, utilizou-se como ponto de corte o índice de massa corporal ≥ 30 kg/m2. Razões de prevalência (RP) e seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) foram ajustados pela técnica de regressão multivariada de Poisson. Resultados: A prevalência da obesidade entre os trabalhadores foi de 16,1%. O sexo feminino (RP = 1,84; IC95% 1,37 - 2,49), estar nas faixas etárias dos 30 aos 39 anos (RP = 1,66; IC95% 1,17 - 2,37) e dos 40 aos 49 anos (RP = 1,59; IC95% 1,04 - 2,42), tempo no cargo de 5,01 a 10 anos (RP = 1,52; IC95% 1,04 - 2,42) e 20,01 a 47 anos (RP = 1,90; IC95% 1,21 - 3,00) e inatividade física (RP 1,32; IC95% 1,01 - 1,73) permaneceram independentemente associados à obesidade após o ajuste multivariado dos dados. Conclusão: Tais achados evidenciam a necessidade de considerar, nas discussões sobre promoção da saúde dos rodoviários, ações que incentivem a participação dos trabalhadores em atividades saudáveis, assim como a melhoria da organização e gestão do trabalho, para que este seja um promotor de saúde e bem-estar nesta população.


ABSTRACT: Objective: To analyze the demographic, behavioral and occupational factors associated with obesity among urban collective transportation workers of the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Method: This is a cross-sectional study conducted with 1,448 drivers and collectors in the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte. Anthropometric, demographic, behavioral data, as well as participants' link to the company and bus conditions were gathered in 2012 through a questionnaire applied by an interviewer. To calculate obesity, the body mass index cut off point was ≥ 30 kg/m2. Prevalence ratios (PR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were adjusted by Poisson's multivariate regression. Results: The prevalence of obesity among urban collective transportation workers was 16.1%. Female sex (PR = 1.84; 95%CI 1.37 - 2.49), aging 30 to 39 years old (PR = 1.66; 95%CI 1.17 - 2.37) and 40 to 49 years old (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.04 - 2.42), being in the same job role from 5.01 to 10 years (PR = 1.52; 95%CI 1.04 - 2,42) and from 20.01 to 47 years (PR = 1.90; 95%CI 1.21 - 3.00), and physical inactivity (PR = 1.32; 95%CI 1.01 - 1.73) remained independently associated with obesity after multivariate adjustment data. Conclusion: These findings highlight the need to consider actions that encourage employees to participate in healthy activities when discussing health promotion for public transport workers, as well as actions to improve the organization and management of work, so it becomes a health and well-being feature for this population.

15.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 22: e190021, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-990733

RESUMO

RESUMO: Introdução: O uso de ansiolíticos é uma opção no tratamento de sintomas psíquicos. Contudo, ainda que o uso seja controlado há riscos de dependência, intoxicação e alterações cognitivas. O uso não controlado entre trabalhadores agrava tais problemas. Objetivos: Identificar a prevalência do uso de ansiolíticos e conhecer os fatores associados ao consumo em bombeiros militares. Método: Pesquisa transversal de base censitária investigou 711 bombeiros de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, por meio de autorrelato. Regressão logística multinomial foi utilizada para verificar associação entre características sociodemográficas, condições de vida, trabalho e saúde e consumo de ansiolíticos de modo controlado ou não. Resultados: A prevalência do uso de ansiolíticos foi 9,9%. Para 7,5% dos bombeiros o consumo ocorreu sem indicação e/ou controle terapêutico especializado. O uso controlado foi associado ao relato compatível com Transtorno Mental Comum (OR = 23,6; IC95% 6,54 - 85,11). O uso não controlado foi associado ao tempo de serviço (OR = 2,57; IC95% 1,03 - 6,40), ao tabagismo (OR = 3,22; IC95% 1,50 - 6,91) e ao Transtorno Mental Comum (OR = 4,02; IC95% 2,17 - 7,45). Conclusão: A alta prevalência de consumo indica alerta para as ações dos programas de saúde ocupacional.


ABSTRACT: Introduction: Use of anxiolytic drugs is an option for treating psychological symptoms. However, even if their use is controlled, there are risks of dependence, intoxication and cognitive alterations. Uncontrolled use among workers worsens these problems. Objectives: Identify the prevalence of anxiolytic use and to know the factors associated with consumption in military firefighters. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 711 firefighters from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, was conducted through self-reporting. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate associations between sociodemographic characteristics, living, working and health conditions and anxiolytic consumption in a controlled or uncontrolled manner. Results: Prevalence of anxiolytic use was 9.9%. For 7.5% of firefighters the consumption occurred without indication and/or specialized therapeutic control. Controlled use was only associated with symptoms compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 23.6; 95%CI 6.54 - 85.11). Uncontrolled use was associated with length of service (OR = 2.57; 95%CI 1.03 - 6.40), smoking (OR = 3.22; 95%CI 1.50 - 6.91) and symptomatology compatible with Common Mental Disorder (OR = 4.02; 95%CI 2.17 - 7.45). Conclusion: The high prevalence of consumption indicates alert to occupational health programs.

16.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e00081118, 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001685

RESUMO

Abstract: The objectives were to assess the joint effect of working hours paid per week and multiple job holding on sickness absence, by sex, among basic education teachers in Brazil. This study is based on a survey carried out over a representative sample of 5,116 active basic education teachers in Brazil between 2015 and 2016 (Educatel Study). We created a dummy variable to assess the joint effect of weekly paid working hours [standard (35-40 hours); part-time (< 35 hours); moderately long (41-50 hours); and very long (> 50 hours)] and multiple job holding (working in several schools - no/yes). Working 35-40 hours in one school was the reference category. We conducted Poisson regression models with robust variance to obtain prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) of the association with self-certified sickness absence and medically certified sickness absence. Models were adjusted for age, type of contract and salary, and stratified by sex. Significant associations with sickness absence were only found among teachers working in more than one school. Associations with self-certified sickness absence were found among women with standard and men with moderately long working hours, and for both women and men working > 50 hours (PR: 1.21, 95%CI: 1.09-1.35; PR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.18-1.66; respectively). Associations with medically certified sickness absence were found among teachers working > 50 hours, among women (PR: 1.30, 95%CI: 1.03-1.63) and men (PR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.04-1.92). Teachers working longer hours in several schools could be suffering health problems, deriving in work absence.


Resumen: El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto conjunto de las horas laborales pagadas semanalmente y pluriempleo, en relación con las ausencias por enfermedad, según el por sexo, entre profesores de educación básica en Brasil. Este estudio se llevó a acabo sobre una encuesta de una muestra representativa de 5.116 profesores activos de educación básica en Brasil, entre 2015 y 2016 (Estudio Educatel). Creamos una variable dummy para evaluar el efecto conjunto de las horas laborales pagadas semanalmente [estándar (35-40 horas); a tiempo parcial (< 35 horas); moderadamente largas (41-50 horas); y muy largas (> 50 horas)] y el pluriempleo (trabajando en varias escuelas no/sí). Estar trabajando 35-40h en una escuela fue la categoría de referencia. Se realizaron modelos de regresión de Poisson con varianza robusta para obtener la razón de prevalencia (RP) e intervalos de 95% de confianza (IC95%) de la asociación con las ausencias por enfermedad justificadas personalmente y las ausencias por enfermedad con certificado médico. Los modelos fueron ajustados por edad, tipo de contrato y salario, y estratificados por sexo. Las asociaciones significativas con ausencias por enfermedad se encontraron sólo entre profesores que trabajaban en más de una escuela. Las asociaciones con las ausencias por enfermedad justificadas personalmente se hallaron entre mujeres con horas de trabajo estándar y hombres con horas de trabajo moderadamente largas, y para ambos, mujeres y hombres trabajando > 50 horas (RP: 1,21, IC95%: 1,09-1,35; RP: 1,40, IC95%: 1,18-1,66; respectivamente). Las asociaciones con las ausencias por enfermedad con certificado médico se hallaron entre profesores trabajando > 50 horas, entre mujeres (RP: 1,30, IC95%: 1,03-1,63) y hombres (RP: 1,41, IC95%: 1,04-1,92). Los profesores que trabajan más horas en varias escuelas podrían estar sufriendo problemas de salud, ocasionando ausencias laborales.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivos avaliar o efeito conjunto das horas semanais de trabalho remunerado e do fato de ter vários empregos sobre o absenteísmo por motivo de doença entre professores de ensino básico, desagregado por sexo, no Brasil. Este estudo teve como base um inquérito realizado em uma amostra representativa de 5.116 professores de ensino básico em atividade no Brasil entre 2015 e 2016 (Estudo Educatel). Criamos uma variável dummy para avaliar o efeito conjunto das horas semanais de trabalho remunerado [padrão (35-40 horas); tempo parcial (< 35 horas); semana de trabalho moderadamente longa (41-50 horas) e muito longa (> 50 horas)] e múltiplos empregos (trabalho em mais de uma escola - não/sim). A categoria de referência foi o trabalho em uma única escola durante 35-40 horas semanais. Realizamos modelos de regressão de Poisson com variância robusta para obter razões de prevalência (RP) e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) para a associação com ausência no trabalho por motivo de saúde alegado pelo próprio indivíduo, e com atestado médico. Os modelos foram ajustados para idade, tipo de vínculo de trabalho e salário, e estratificados por sexo. Os resultados só mostraram associações significativas com absenteísmo por motivo de saúde em professores que trabalhavam em mais de uma escola. Foram observadas associações com ausência por motivo de saúde alegado pelo próprio indivíduo em mulheres com semana de trabalho padrão e em homens com semana moderadamente longa, e em mulheres e homens que trabalhavam mais de 50 horas por semana (RP: 1,21, IC95%: 1,09-1,35; RP: 1,40, IC95%: 1,18-1,66; respectivamente). Foram encontradas associações com ausência com atestado médico entre professores que trabalhavam mais de 50 horas por semana, em mulheres (RP: 1,30, IC95%: 1,03-1,63) e homens (RP: 1,41, IC95%: 1,04-1,92). Professores brasileiros que trabalham horas longas em várias escolas podem sofrer problemas de saúde, levando ao absenteísmo.

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Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e00166517, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001686

RESUMO

Resumo: O objetivo do estudo foi identificar as múltiplas exposições ao risco de faltar ao trabalho, independentemente do motivo relatado pelos professores (n = 6.510). Foram utilizados dados de um inquérito telefônico sobre a saúde, condições de trabalho e absenteísmo entre professores da Educação Básica no Brasil (Estudo Educatel, 2015/2016). As exposições foram identificadas e estudadas por meio da análise de componentes principais e regressão de Poisson, com foco nas condições de trabalho e na qualidade da gestão nas escolas. Três componentes de fatores de risco para faltar ao trabalho foram identificados. O componente 1 foi caracterizado pela falta de oportunidade para novos aprendizados, insuficiência de tempo para a realização das tarefas, percepção de cerceamento da autonomia e baixo ou nenhum apoio social no ambiente escolar; o componente 2 pela percepção de alta exigência das tarefas, ambiente agitado devido à indisciplina dos alunos e ruído intenso; e o componente 3 pela vivência de violência verbal ou física praticada pelos alunos. Os três componentes apresentaram maior magnitude de associação às faltas ao trabalho diante do relato de estresse na escola (RPa = 3,87; IC95%: 2,93-5,10; p < 0,05/RPa = 3,18; IC95%: 2,47-4,09; p < 0,05/RPa = 3,31; IC95%: 2,58-4,25; p < 0,05, respectivamente) e por problemas emocionais (RPa = 2,28; IC95%: 1,93-2,70; p < 0,05/RPa = 2,43; IC95%: 2,05-2,87; p < 0,05/RPa = 2,09; IC95%: 1,78-2,45; p < 0,05, respectivamente). A identificação desses componentes de risco evidenciou a necessidade de mudanças sistêmicas nas escolas da Educação Básica no país.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue identificar las múltiples exposiciones referentes al riesgo de faltar al trabajo, independientemente del motivo informado por los profesores (n = 6.510). Se utilizaron datos de una encuesta telefónica sobre salud, condiciones de trabajo y absentismo entre profesores de Educación Básica en Brasil (Estudio Educatel, 2015/2016). Las exposiciones se identificaron e estudiaron mediante un análisis de componentes principales y regresión de Poisson, centrándose en las condiciones de trabajo y calidad de la gestión en las escuelas. Se identificaron tres componentes como factores de riesgo para faltar al trabajo. El componente 1 se caracterizó por la falta de opciones relacionadas con la actualización en formación, insuficiencia de tiempo para la realización de tareas, percepción de recortes en su autonomía y el bajo o nulo apoyo social en el ambiente escolar; el componente 2 lo fue por la percepción de alta exigencia en las tareas, ambiente convulso, debido a la indisciplina de los alumnos y ruido intenso; y el componente 3 por la vivencia de violencia verbal o física ejecutada por alumnos. Los tres componentes presentaron mayor magnitud de asociación con las faltas de trabajo, ante el informe de estrés en la escuela (RPa = 3,87; IC95%: 2,93-5,10; p < 0,05/RPa = 3,18; IC95%: 2,47-4,09; p < 0,05/RPa = 3,31; IC95%: 2,58-4,25; p < 0,05, respectivamente) y por problemas emocionales (RPa = 2,28; IC95%: 1,93-2,70; p < 0,05/RPa = 2,43; IC95%: 2,05-2,87; p < 0,05/RPa = 2,09; IC95%: 1,78-2,45; p < 0,05, respectivamente). La identificación de estos componentes de riesgo evidenció la necesidad de cambios sistémicos en las escuelas de Educación Básica en el país.


Abstract: The study aimed to identify multiple exposures to the risk of work absenteeism among Brazilian schoolteachers, independently of the reasons reported by teachers (n = 6,510). The data came from a telephone survey on health, working conditions, and absenteeism among schoolteachers in Brazil (Educatel Study, 2015/2016). Exposures were identified and studied by principal components analysis and Poisson regression, with a focus on working conditions and quality of school administration. Three components of risk factors for work absenteeism were identified. Component 1 featured lack of opportunities for new learning experiences, insufficient time for performing tasks, constraints on teachers' autonomy, and little or no social support in the school environment; component 2 was characterized by the perception of heavy demand from tasks and an agitated classroom environment due to students' lack of discipline and intense noise; and component 3 by the experience of verbal or physical violence from students. All three components were specially associaed with stress-related work absenteeism in relation to reported stress at school (aPR = 3.87; 95%CI: 2.93-5.10; p < 0.05/aPR = 3.18; 95%CI: 2.47-4.09; p < 0.05/aPR = 3.31; 95%CI: 2.58-4.25; p < 0.05; respectively) and emotional problems (aPR = 2.28; 95%CI: 1.93-2.70; p < 0.05/aPR = 2.43; 95%CI: 2.05-2.87; p < 0.05/aPR = 2.09; 95%CI: 1.78-2.45; p < 0.05; respectively). The identification of these risk components highlighted the need for systemic changes in Brazilian Basic Education schools.

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Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001688

RESUMO

Morbidades em geral e licenças médicas são prevalentes no grupo dos professores da Educação Básica, cuja missão é essencial para a formação dos cidadãos. O objetivo foi produzir informações sobre as características demográficas, características da escola e da rede de ensino, e situação de saúde do grupo que percebeu pressão laboral. A amostra probabilística foi calculada por seleção aleatória simples, de maneira a representar o universo de 2.229.269 professores da Educação Básica no Brasil. O questionário multitemático foi respondido ao telefone. A pergunta que deu origem à variável desfecho, "Você tem dificuldade para faltar ao trabalho mesmo quando está com dor ou outro problema de saúde?", foi testada e validada. A resposta viabilizou operacionalizar empiricamente o conceito de pressão laboral. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado de Pearson e o método de árvore de decisão na análise multivariada. O ajuste do modelo final foi avaliado por meio da estimativa de risco de classificação incorreta. As subdivisões da árvore indicam o apoio social como o primeiro determinante da pressão laboral, 55% relataram que têm dificuldade para faltar ao trabalho, mesmo quando estão com dor ou qualquer outro problema de saúde, 70% do grupo que avaliou sua saúde como ruim e muito ruim se sentiram pressionados para comparecer ao trabalho quando doentes ou com dor. Os fatores associados foram: fraco apoio social, ambiente agitado em função da indisciplina dos alunos e problema de saúde considerado como doença ocupacional. Diante das metas de valorização dos professores da Educação Básica, diferenciais de gênero e estilos de gestão, além da infraestrutura nas escolas, devem ser considerados.


Morbilidades en general y bajas médicas son prevalentes en el grupo de los profesores de Educación Básica, cuya misión es esencial para la formación de ciudadanos. El objetivo fue producir información sobre las características demográficas, características de la escuela y de la red de enseñanza, y situación de salud del grupo que percibió presión laboral. La muestra probabilística se calculó por selección aleatoria simple, de manera que represente el universo de 2.229.269 profesores de Educación Básica en Brasil. El cuestionario multitemático se respondió por teléfono. La pregunta que dio origen a la variable desenlace: ¿usted tiene dificultad para faltar al trabajo incluso cuando sufre dolor u otro problema de salud? Se probó y validó. La respuesta hizo viable visibilizar empíricamente el concepto de presión laboral. Se utilizó el test del chi-cuadrado de Pearson y el método del árbol de decisión en el análisis multivariado. El ajuste del modelo final se evaluó mediante la estimativa de riesgo de clasificación incorrecta. Las subdivisiones del árbol indican el apoyo social como el primer determinante de presión laboral, un 55% informaron que tienen dificultad para faltar al trabajo, incluso cuando sufren dolor o cualquier otro problema de salud; un 70% del grupo, que evaluó su salud como mala y muy mala, se sintió presionado para comparecer al trabajo cuando estaban enfermos o sufrían dolores. Los factores asociados fueron: escaso apoyo social, ambiente agitado en función de la indisciplina de los alumnos y problema de salud considerado como enfermedad ocupacional. Ante estas metas de valorización de los profesores de educación básica, se deben considerar diferenciales de género y estilos de gestión, además de las infraestructuras en las escuelas.


Diseases in general and work absenteeism due to illness are prevalent among schoolteachers in Basic Education, whose mission is essential for preparing future citizens. This study study aimed to produce information on demographics, characteristics of the schools and school systems, and health status of the group of teachers that felt pressured to work even when sick. The probabilistic sample was calculated by simple random selection in order to represent the total universe of 2,229,269 Brazilian schoolteachers working in Basic Education (preschool-12). Teachers answered a multi-thematic questionnaire by telephone. The question leading to the outcome variable, "Do you experience difficulty missing work even when you're feeling pain or have some other health problem?", was tested and validated. The answer allowed empirically operationalizing the concept of pressure to work when sick. The multivariate analysis used Pearson's chi-square test and the decision tree method. The final model's fit was assessed by estimating the risk of incorrect classification. The tree's subdivisions pointed to weak social support as the first determinant of pressure to work, 55% reported difficulty missing work when they were feeling pain or having some other health problem, and 70% of the group that rated their health as bad or very bad felt pressured to appear for work even when sick or in pain. The associated factors were: weak social support, an agitated workplace due to unruly students, and health problems that were considered work-related diseases. Given the goals of valuing schoolteachers in Basic Education, attention should be given to gender differences, management styles, and infrastructure in the schools.

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Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(supl.1): e00167217, 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1001690

RESUMO

Resumo: O Educatel Brasil 2015/2016 foi um estudo transversal, realizado por entrevista telefônica, com o objetivo de oferecer informações a respeito da saúde e absenteísmo de professores da Educação Básica no país. O plano amostral adotado, com representatividade nacional, teve como base o método de amostragem estratificada simples, com estratificação definida visando a atender aos domínios de análise estabelecidos para o estudo (cinco regiões geográficas, duas áreas censitárias, quatro faixas etárias, sexo, três dependências administrativas da escola, cinco tipos de vínculo e seis etapas de ensino) e seleção por amostragem aleatória simples de professores dentro de cada estrato. O sorteio dos professores foi baseado no Censo Escolar de 2014, realizado pelo Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisas Educacionais Anísio Teixeira. Dos 2.229.269 professores registrados no censo, foram selecionados 13.243. Foram realizadas 119.378 ligações telefônicas, as quais permitiram identificar 7.642 professores elegíveis (57,7% do total inicialmente sorteado). Ao final, foram completadas 6.510 entrevistas, 85,2% de taxa de resposta. Ao término da coleta, pesos amostrais foram associados a cada um dos professores entrevistados. Esses fatores de ponderação estão conectados não apenas ao desenho amostral do Educatel, mas também aos termos de ajuste para tratamento dos casos de não resposta ocorridos durante o processo de coleta dos dados.


Resumen: Educatel Brasil 2015/2016 fue un estudio transversal, realizado mediante entrevista telefónica, con el objetivo de ofrecer información respecto a la salud y absentismo de profesores de Educación Básica en el país. El plan de muestras adoptado, representativo nacionalmente, tuvo como base el método de muestra estratificada simple, con una estratificación definida, con el fin de atender los dominios de análisis establecidos para el estudio (cinco regiones geográficas, dos sectores censitarios, cuatro franjas de edad, sexo, tres dependencias administrativas de la escuela, cinco tipos de vínculo y seis etapas de enseñanza), y selección por muestra aleatoria simple de profesores dentro de cada estrato. El sorteo de los profesores se basó en el Censo Escolar de 2014, realizado por el Instituto Nacional de Estudios e Investigaciones Educativas "Anísio Teixeira". De los 2.229.269 profesores registrados en el censo, fueron seleccionados 13.243. Se realizaron 119.378 llamadas telefónicas, que permitieron identificar a 7.642 profesores elegibles (57,7% del total inicialmente sorteado). Al final, se completaron 6.510 entrevistas, con un 85,2% de tasa de respuesta. Al término de la recogida, se asociaron los pesos de las muestras a cada uno de los profesores entrevistados. Estos factores de ponderación están conectados, no sólo por el diseño de muestras de Educatel, sino también por los términos de ajuste para el tratamiento de los casos de no respuesta producidos durante el proceso de recogida de datos.


Abstract: Educatel Brazil 2015/2016 was a cross-sectional study conducted by telephone interview with the aim of producing information on health and absenteeism in Brazilian schoolteachers. The nationally representative sampling plan was based on the simple stratified sampling method, with stratification defined to meet the analytical domains established for the study (five major geographic regions, two census areas, four age brackets, sex, three types of school administration, five types of teacher employment, and six grade levels) and selection by simple random sampling of teachers in each stratum. Teacher selection was based on the 2014 School Census conducted by the Brazilian National Institute for Educational Studies and Research "Anísio Teixeira". Of the 2,229,269 teachers recorded in the Census, 13,243 were selected. A total of 119,378 telephone calls were made, identifying 7,642 eligible teachers (57.7% of the total initially sampled). A total of 6,510 interviews were finally completed, for a response rate of 85.2%. At the end of data collection, sample weights were assigned to each of the teachers interviewed. These weighting factors are connected not only to the Educatel sample design, but also to the adjustment terms for treatment of non-response during the data collection process.

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