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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639421

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to trace an exposure profile to traffic-derived pollution during pediatric age. For this purpose, two biomonitoring campaigns for the determination of urinary (u-) methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE) were carried out in two different periods of the year (summer 2017 and winter 2018), among a large sample of healthy children (n = 736; 5-11 years old) living in rural and urban areas in central Italy. The quantification of u-MTBE, u-ETBE, u-TAME, and u-DIPE was performed by HS-SPME-GC/MS technique and information on participants was collected by a questionnaire. u-DIPE concentrations resulted always under the LOQ. u-TAME mean levels were similar in both seasons (18.7 ng L-1 in summer vs. 18.9 ng L-1 in winter), while u-MTBE and u-ETBE levels were, respectively, 69.9 and 423.5 ng L-1 (summer) and 53.3 and 66.2 ng L-1 (winter). Main predictors of urinary excretion resulted the time spent in motor vehicles, being male and younger.


Assuntos
Éteres Metílicos , Poluição Relacionada com o Tráfego , Monitoramento Biológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Poluição Ambiental , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443466

RESUMO

Bees and their products are useful bioindicators of anthropogenic activities and could overcome the deficiencies of air quality networks. Among the environmental contaminants, mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that can accumulate in living organisms. The first aim of this study was to develop a simple analytical method to determine Hg in small mass samples of bees and beehive products by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The proposed method was optimized for about 0.02 g bee, pollen, propolis, and royal jelly, 0.05 g beeswax and honey, or 0.1 g honeydew with 0.5 mL HCl, 0.2 mL HNO3, and 0.1 mL H2O2 in a water bath (95 °C, 30 min); samples were made up to a final volume of 5 mL deionized water. The method limits sample manipulation and the reagent mixture volume used. Detection limits were lower than 3 µg kg-1 for a sample mass of 0.02 g, and recoveries and precision were within 20% of the expected value and less than 10%, respectively, for many matrices. The second aim of the present study was to evaluate the proposed method's performances on real samples collected in six areas of the Lazio region in Italy.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Espectrometria de Fluorescência/métodos , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cucumis melo/química , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Mel/análise , Itália , Pólen/química , Própole/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos , Ceras/análise
3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202906

RESUMO

Urinary concentrations of 16 different exposure biomarkers to metals were determined at the beginning and at the end of a working shift on a group of workers in the metal carpentry industry. Five different oxidative stress biomarkers were also measured, such as the oxidation products of RNA and DNA metabolized and excreted in the urine. The results of workers exposed to metals were compared to those of a control group. The metal concentrations found in these workers were well below the occupational exposure limit values and exceeded the mean concentrations of the same metals in the urine of the control group by a factor of four at maximum. Barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and strontium (Sr) were correlated with the RNA oxidative stress biomarker, 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo), which was found able to discriminate exposed workers from controls with a high level of specificity and sensitivity. The power of this early diagnostic technique was assessed by means of the ROC curve. Ba, rubidium (Rb), Sr, tellurium (Te), and vanadium (V) were correlated with the level of the protein oxidation biomarker 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NO2Tyr), and Ba, beryllium (Be), copper (Cu), and Rb with 5-methylcytidine (5-MeCyt), an epigenetic marker of RNA damage. These effect biomarkers can help in identifying those workers that can be defined as "occupationally exposed" even at low exposure levels, and they can provide information about the impact that such doses have on their health.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064840

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to analyze all powdered infant formulas authorized and commercialized in Italy at the time of the study to measure the concentrations of 40 elements, and to estimate the infants' intake of some toxic heavy metals for assessing possible related health risks. For this purpose, an optimized multi-element method was used through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Be, B, Al, Zr, Nb, Sb, Te, W, V, Cr and As concentrations were

Assuntos
Fórmulas Infantis , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Pós , Medição de Risco , Oligoelementos/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 360: 130027, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029926

RESUMO

The accurate determination of trace elements in vegetable edible oils is still an analytical challenge, owing to their low concentration levels and the complex matrix of the vegetable oils. The aim of this study was to develop a fast and simple analytical method to quantify 45 elements in small mass samples (0.5 g) of extra virgin olive oils by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To evaluate the best and fastest sample preparation procedure, ultrasonic extraction and wet digestion methods were compared using oil certified reference material with different reagent mixtures, reagent volumes, and times for sample extraction or digestion. The use of 5 mL reagent mixture F [10% (v/v) HNO3 and H2O2, 2:1 (v/v)] for sample digestion in a water bath (95 °C, 40 min) was found to produce satisfactory results in all cases as validated from sample recovery experiments over three different extra virgin olive oil samples.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Calibragem , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sonicação
6.
N Biotechnol ; 60: 27-35, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683048

RESUMO

A continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor was developed in a previous study to address the bioremediation of groundwater contaminated by trichloroethene (TCE). The present report investigated the applicability of the same system in the presence of Cr(VI) and its possible inhibitory effect on dehalorespiring bacterial populations. Preliminary batch tests were performed at the optimal cathodic reducing potential for the reductive dechlorination (RD) of TCE (-0.65 V vs. the standard hydrogen electrode) with two different dechlorinating microorganism consortia. The results demonstrated that Cr(VI) removal efficacy was increased by microorganisms that had been previously acclimatised to Cr(VI). Specifically, Cr(VI) was completely reduced only in the presence of acclimated microorganisms. The presence of chromate negatively affected RD performance, by either (i) limiting the TCE transformation to cis-dichloroethene at lower concentrations, or (ii) completely inhibiting RD at higher concentrations. In contrast, after the acclimation period, RD was extended down to vinyl chloride, which is the main TCE daughter product. Finally, the continuous flow reactor was fed by synthetic groundwater contaminated with TCE (50 µM) and Cr(VI) (45 µM), and the experimental results showed that Cr(VI) was completely reduced under RD conditions. Moreover, TCE removal was complete, with vinyl chloride and ethene as the main intermediates, thus indicating that chromate inhibition was decreased by Cr(VI) removal.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Cromatos/metabolismo , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Tricloroetileno/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromatos/química , Eletrodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Halogenação , Solventes/química , Solventes/metabolismo , Tricloroetileno/química
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 762: 144100, 2021 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360460

RESUMO

In 2008 the Italian government classified the Bussi sul Tirino area (Central Italy) as Site of National Interest destined to remediation which, unfortunately, has not yet begun. The decision followed >20 years of illegal dumping of industrial wastes, lasting from 1984 to 2005, that generated the biggest illegal toxic waste disposal site in Europe. The contamination profile of the site was mainly characterized by PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PAHs, chlorinated solvents, Hg, and Pb. Due to the health concern of the population and local authorities, an extensive monitoring and biomonitoring campaign was carried out in 2017-2018, checking the site-specific pollutants in local food (free-range hens' eggs, milk from grazing sheep and goats, wild edible mushrooms, and drinking water), environmental (air and freshwaters) and biological (human urine) matrices. A total of 314 samples were processed, obtaining 3217 analytical data that were compared with regulatory limits, when available, and values reported by international literature. The sum PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 3.6 pg TEQ g-1 fat, and from 0.46 to 8.3 pg TEQ g-1 fat, respectively in milk in eggs, in line with the maximum levels established by CE Regulations except for an egg sample. As regards PAHs, all our results were lower than the literature data, as well as for Hg and Pb. Outdoor air showed levels of chlorinated solvents ranging from

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291387

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide is produced or imported into the EU for over one million tons/year. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification is 2B, a possible inhalation carcinogen for humans. This study evaluates urinary biomarkers of oxidative stress in workers of a plant producing TiO2 pigment powder, having 0.25 µm average particle size and an ultrafine fraction, compared to unexposed subjects. Urine samples were collected from forty workers before and after the shift, from six employees of the same company and eighteen volunteers from the same geographical area. Titanium and other metals concentrations were measured by ICP-MS, while DNA, RNA, and protein oxidation products by HPLC/MS-MS. A statistically significant increase was found for the urinary concentration of Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ti, and Zr, and for all biomarkers of oxidative stress in post-shift workers' urine samples. Urinary concentrations after the working shift were higher than for employees and volunteers pooled together for Cd, Mn, and Zr, and for the oxidative stress biomarkers 8-oxoGuo, 8-oxodGuo, and 3NO2Tyr. Biomonitoring studies on dose and effect biomarkers for TiO2 occupational exposure provide information useful for protecting workers' health even in conditions that comply with health and safety standards, highlighting reversible effects of chronic exposure at very low doses.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/urina , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Titânio/urina , Trabalho , Adulto , Indústria Química , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Titânio/efeitos adversos , Titânio/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321748

RESUMO

Urinary mercury (Hg) levels are suitable to assess long-term exposure to both elemental and inorganic Hg. In this study, the urinary Hg levels of 250 children (aged 6-11 years) from three areas with different anthropogenic impacts in the Rieti province, central Italy, were assessed. The Hg concentrations were in the range of 0.04-2.18 µg L-1 with a geometric mean equal to 0.18 µg L-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.20 µg L-1] or 0.21 µg g-1 creatinine (95% CI, 0.19-0.23 µg g-1 creatinine), and a reference value calculated as 95th percentile of 0.53 µg L-1 (95% CI, 0.44-0.73 µg L-1) or 0.55 µg g-1 creatinine (95% CI, 0.50-0.83 µg g-1 creatinine). In all cases, urinary Hg data were below the HBM-I values (7 µg L-1 or 5 µg g-1 creatinine) established for urine, while the 95th percentile was above the German Human Biomonitoring Commission's RV95 (0.4 µg L-1) set for children without amalgam fillings. A significant correlation (p < 0.05) was found between creatinine-corrected results and residence area, with higher urinary Hg levels in children living in the industrial area. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that creatinine was the main predictor of urinary Hg.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Mercúrio , Criança , Creatinina/urina , Amálgama Dentário/química , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Mercúrio/urina , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33233360

RESUMO

Children's development and health may be affected by toxic heavy metal exposure or suboptimal essential element intake. This study aimed to provide updated information regarding the concentrations of 41 elements in children's hair (aged under 18) living in a rural area of the Benishangul-Gumuz region, Ethiopia. The highest average levels (as a geometric mean) for toxic heavy metals were obtained for Al (1 mg kg-1), Pb (3.1 mg kg-1), and Ni (1.2 mg kg-1), while the lowest concentrations among the essential elements were found for Co (0.32 mg kg-1), Mo (0.07 mg kg-1), Se (0.19 mg kg-1), and V (0.8 mg kg-1). Hair analysis was combined with a survey to evaluate relationships and variations among subgroups and potential metal exposure predictors. Females showed significantly higher concentrations for most hair elements, excluding Zn, than males, and the 6-11 years age group reported the highest levels for Be, Ce, Co, Fe, La, Li, Mo, and Na. The main predictors of exposure to toxic elements were fish consumption for Hg and drinking water for Ba, Be, Cs, Li, Ni, Tl, and U. The data from this study can be used to develop prevention strategies for children's health and protection in developing countries.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Cabelo/química , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Oligoelementos/análise , Adolescente , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Cabelo/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Chumbo/metabolismo , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
11.
Molecules ; 25(18)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957599

RESUMO

Bee health and beehive products' quality are compromised by complex interactions between multiple stressors, among which toxic elements play an important role. The aim of this study is to optimize and validate sensible and reliable analytical methods for biomonitoring studies and the quality control of beehive products. Four digestion procedures, including two systems (microwave oven and water bath) and different mixture reagents, were evaluated for the determination of the total content of 40 elements in bees and five beehive products (beeswax, honey, pollen, propolis and royal jelly) by using inductively coupled plasma mass and optical emission spectrometry. Method validation was performed by measuring a standard reference material and the recoveries for each selected matrix. The water bath-assisted digestion of bees and beehive products is proposed as a fast alternative to microwave-assisted digestion for all elements in biomonitoring studies. The present study highlights the possible drawbacks that may be encountered during the elemental analysis of these biological matrices and aims to be a valuable aid for the analytical chemist. Total elemental concentrations, determined in commercially available beehive products, are presented.


Assuntos
Metais/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Animais , Abelhas , Ácidos Graxos/química , Mel , Espectrometria de Massas , Micro-Ondas , Pólen/química , Própole/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Temperatura , Ceras/química
12.
J Environ Manage ; 273: 111164, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768764

RESUMO

The removal of arsenic from water by adsorption is currently hindered by the elevated cost of conventional adsorbent materials. To overcome this limit, an innovative iron-coated adsorbent was produced by hydrothermal carbonization (170 °C, 30 min) of olive pomace, an inexpensive byproduct of the olive oil production. Hydrothermal carbonization experiments were performed starting from olive pomace dispersions in solutions with acidic, neutral and alkaline pH, in presence and absence of FeCl3. Acidic conditions improved the carbonization, ensuring reduced H/C and O/C ratios, and increased the adsorbent stability. However, acidic pH yielded unsatisfactory iron coating, with only 32% of the iron dissolved in the initial solution transferred to the produced hydrochar. Under alkaline pH, 96% of the iron in the feedwater was, in contrast, stably dispersed over the hydrochar surface, giving the highest maximum arsenic adsorption capacity (4.1 mg/g). However, alkaline pH promoted biomass hydrolysis, causing the loss of 60% and 87% of the total C and N, respectively, and reducing the stability of the produced hydrochar. A two-stage process was tested to overcome these issues, including hydrothermal carbonization under acidic pH with FeCl3, followed by the addition of NaOH. This process prevented biomass hydrolysis yielding a stable hydrochar. However, as compared to the one-stage alkaline synthesis, the two-stage process produced an hydrochar with reduced arsenic adsorption capacity (1.4 mg/g), indicating that biomass hydrolysis could positively influence hydrochar adsorption characteristics, possibly by increasing the specific surface area. Indications are then provided on how to optimize the two-stage process in order to produce a hydrochar with both satisfactory stability and arsenic adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Adsorção , Biomassa , Carbono , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro
13.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115271, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814272

RESUMO

The ability of particulate matter (PM) to induce oxidative stress is frequently estimated by acellular oxidative potential (OP) assays, such as ascorbic acid (AA) and 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), used as proxy of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in biological systems, and particle-bound ROS measurement, such as 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCFH) assay. In this study, we evaluated the spatial and size distribution of OP results obtained by three OP assays (OPAA, OPDCFH and OPDTT), to qualitative identify the relative relevance of single source contributions in building up OP values and to map the PM potential to induce oxidative stress in living organisms. To this aim, AA, DCFH and DTT assays were applied to size-segregated PM samples, collected by low-pressure cascade impactors, and to PM10 samples collected at 23 different sampling sites (about 1 km between each other) in Terni, an urban and industrial hot-spot of Central Italy, by using recently developed high spatial resolution samplers of PM, which worked in parallel during three monitoring periods (February, April and December 2017). The sampling sites were chosen for representing the main spatially disaggregated sources of PM (vehicular traffic, rail network, domestic heating, power plant for waste treatment, steel plant) present in the study area. The obtained results clearly showed a very different sensitivity of the three assays toward each local PM source. OPAA was particularly sensitive toward coarse particles released from the railway, OPDCFH was sensible to fine particles released from the steel plant and domestic biomass heating, and OPDTT was quite selectively sensitive toward the fine fraction of PM released by industrial and biomass burning sources.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Itália , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Tamanho da Partícula
14.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127472, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599378

RESUMO

In line with the Circular Economy approach, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) with organic waste as the feedstock may a biotechnological application to reduce waste and recover high-value materials. The potential contaminants that could transfer from bio-waste to a PHA include inorganic elements, such as heavy metals. Hence, the total content and migratability of certain elements were evaluated in several PHA samples produced from different origins and following different methods. The total content of certain elements in PHA ranged between 0.0001 (Be) and 49,500 mg kg-1 (Na). The concentrations of some alkaline (Na and K) and alkaline earth (Ca and Mg) metals were highest, which are of little environmental concern. The feedstock type and PHA stabilisation and extraction procedures affected the element contents. Several sets of experiments were conducted to evaluate the migration of elements from the PHA samples under different storage times, temperatures, and pH levels. The total contents of some heavy metals (As, Cd, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in PHA produced from fruit waste or crops (commercial PHA) were lower than those in the PHA samples produced from the mixture of the organic fraction of municipal waste and sludge from wastewater treatment. Both the PHA obtained by extraction from wet biomass (acid storage) with aqueous phase extraction reagents and commercial PHA were below the migration limits stipulated by the current Toy Safety Directive and by Commission Regulation (EU) October 2011 on plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with food under frozen and refrigerated conditions.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis/análise , Plásticos/análise , Resíduos/análise , Biomassa , Biotecnologia , Alimentos , Metais Pesados/análise , Polímeros , Esgotos/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183479

RESUMO

Small-scale or artisanal mining, using gold-mercury amalgamation to extract gold from ore, is a significant source of exposure for the workers and nearby populations. Few studies on hair mercury (Hg) have been conducted in Africa despite the fact that Africa has several gold deposits. No studies have been conducted in Eritrea that is one of the emerging gold producing countries in Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the Hg concentration in hair samples (n = 120) of a population living in Asmara, capital of Eritrea, and to evaluate the influence of some factors on the Hg levels in hair. Information on age, height, weight, occupation, smoking and fish consumption of participants were collected via questionnaire. Hair Hg concentration was significantly higher among women compared to men (p < 0.001) and among women preparing spicy products in Medeber market compared to those who did other jobs (p = 0.010). These results highlight the need for routine biomonitoring surveys and for health promotion campaigns devoted to local decision makers and workers.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , África , Animais , Monitoramento Biológico , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Adulto Jovem
16.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125368, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790990

RESUMO

This review provides a general overview of the suitability of different agro-industrial wastes for enzyme immobilization. For the purposes of this literary study, the support materials are divided into two main groups, called lignocellulosic (coconut fiber, corn cob, spent grain, spent coffee, husk, husk ash, and straw rice, soybean and wheat bran) and not lignocellulosic by-products (eggshell and eggshell membranes). The study pointed out that all of these wastes are materials of great potentiality for enzyme immobilization even if coconut fiber is preferred. This result is of significant interest due to the low cost and great availability of such wastes, which actually are underused and cause significant environmental problems for improper storage. In addition, the development of economic biocatalysts more sustainable, besides reduce environmental impacts, improve the application of enzymatic technology in industry. Therefore, the enzyme immobilization reaction and the application of biocatalysts are reviewed and discussed.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Resíduos Industriais , Grão Comestível , Indústrias , Oryza
17.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 197(1): 89-100, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792772

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate occupational exposure to 40 elements among a group of Eritrean adults employed at the Medeber metal market by analysing human scalp hair samples and by investigating the role of some predictors (gender, age, and body mass index-BMI) on their levels. Scalp hair samples were collected from 60 subjects (32 subjects working at the Medeber metal market and 28 subjects not working at Medeber and not employed in other industrial or artisanal activities) and were analysed through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the contents of 40 major and trace elements. Information on participants was collected via questionnaire. Significant differences were found in the hair levels of certain elements between subjects working at the Medeber metal market and subjects not exposed. In particular, working at the Medeber metal market increased hair levels of Be, B, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, Sb, Tl, Pb, and Fe from 25 to 100%, while reduced Na, K, and Rb levels from 30 to 50%. With multivariate adjustment for age, gender, and BMI, the results confirm that working at Medeber significantly increased the hair levels of Cu, Zn, Sb, Pb, and Fe. This finding reveals the need for more accurate and routine biomonitoring surveys and the necessity of health promotion campaigns both for local decision-makers and workers to increase health promotion and safety in this workplace.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Oligoelementos , Adulto , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Metais , Couro Cabeludo/química , Oligoelementos/análise
18.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(24)2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861202

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the potential of food waste materials (banana peel, potato peel, apple peel, lemon peel, coffee waste, decaf coffee waste, grape waste, and carob peel) as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of aliphatic and aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater. The ability of examined food waste materials to adsorb VOCs from synthetic multi-component standard solutions was evaluated and the examined food waste materials showed high removal efficiency. Performances of coffee waste, grape waste, and lemon peel were detailed by using Trichloroethylene and p-Xylene in mono-component standard solutions. The adsorption capacity of the three selected food wastes was determined by using linear Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Two errors functions, average percentage error (APE) and the chi-square test (χ2), were used for isotherm optimization prediction. Freundlich isotherm well described the adsorption of VOCs on the considered materials. According to the obtained results, a multilayer, physical, and cooperative adsorption process was hypothesized, particularly evident when the VOCs' concentrations are high. This was confirmed by the high adsorption efficiency percentages (E% > 80%) of VOCs from a real polluted matrix (urban solid waste leachate), containing high concentrations of total organic content.

19.
Environ Pollut ; 254(Pt A): 113013, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415978

RESUMO

The study was aimed to evaluate the ability of native lichen Xanthoria (X.) parietina to biomonitor and bioaccumulate some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb), PAHs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and PBDEs and to evaluate the use of the native X. parietina as a multi-tracer tool for scenarios characterized by different anthropogenic pressures. Samples of native X. parietina were collected in six different sites (two green, two residential and two industrial areas, respectively) and analyzed for the target compounds. The results show that X. parietina was a useful tool for the biomonitoring of air quality in the selected areas, and was able to bioaccumulate all the studied metals and POPs. In particular, the total concentrations dry weight (dw) ranged between 8.1 and 103.4 mg kg-1 for metals, from 113 × 103 to 183 × 103 ng kg-1 for PAHs, from 868 to 7685 ng kg-1 for PCBs, from 14.3 to 113.8 ng kg-1 for PCDDs/Fs (∑TEq = 0.9-7.1), and from 194 to 554 ng kg-1 for PBDEs. Besides, in general, the levels of analytes recovered in the different samples of lichen show an increasing trend from green to industrial sites, especially for PCBs (mean values equal to 1218, 4253 and 7192 ng kg-1 respectively for green, residential and industrial areas). The statistical approach, based on Pearson's correlation and principal component analysis tests, showed that one of the industrial sites was well-separated from the others, that resulted grouped due to some similarities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/química , Poluição do Ar/análise , Ascomicetos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Indústrias , Metais Pesados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
20.
Environ Int ; 130: 104818, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279184

RESUMO

Potential exposure to toxic elements initially occurs during gestation and after birth via breast milk, which is the principal source of nutrients for infants during the first months of life. In this study, we evaluated whether maternal oral supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic product can protect infants from exposure to arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) via breast milk. In-vitro studies of the bacterial strains present in this probiotic product showed a high bacterial tolerance for As, Cd, Hg, and Pb, and good binding capacity for Cd, Hg, and Pb (72%, 81%, and 64%, respectively) within 1 h of contact. We evaluated concentrations (5 mg L-1 for Cd and Pb, and 2 mg L-1 for Hg) that largely exceeded the provisional tolerable weekly intake of these toxic elements via food or water applicable for human consumption. Changes in the levels of these elements in breast milk and newborn stools were evaluated in the control (orally supplemented with placebo) and experimental (orally supplemented with probiotic) groups at birth (t0), 15 days (t15), and 30 days (t30) after delivery. Elemental analysis of breast milk did not show significant differences between the control and experimental groups at different stages of lactation; however, stool samples obtained from newborns of mothers supplemented with the probiotic product showed that Cd levels were significantly reduced (by 26%) at t15 compared with the levels of the controls. Our data did not show an association between concentration of toxic elements in breast milk and that in newborn stools. Indeed, the concentration of Cd, Hg, and Pb in breast milk decreased during the lactation period, whereas the levels of these elements in newborn stools were stable over time. Although our in-vitro data indicate that the consortium of these probiotic strains can absorb toxic compounds, this study was limited by its small sample size and potential uncontrolled confounding effects, such as maternal diet and lifestyle. Therefore, we could not confirm whether prophylactic use of this probiotic product can reduce the absorption of toxic elements. The risk assessment in the studied population evidenced a margin of exposure (MOE) of 1, or between 1 and 10 for Pb, and lower than 50 for As. This poses a potential risk for breastfed infants, indicating that interventions aimed to avoid breastfeeding-related health risks remain a major challenge in public health.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Fezes/química , Metais Pesados , Leite Humano/química , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Intoxicação por Metais Pesados/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente
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