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1.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 14: 15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249608

RESUMO

Background: There is a widely held view that a major cause of delay in diagnosis of cancer at an early stage in Africa is the fact that many patients consult traditional healers first and are often treated by them until curative treatment cannot be undertaken. Purpose: This qualitative study aimed at identifying cancer patients who have used traditional healers and their traditional healers' understanding of cancer, its causes and treatment, patients' motivations for patronizing traditional healers and their opinion about collaboration between physicians of western medicine and traditional healers as part of overall health care system. Methods: Ethical approval was obtained from the UI/UCH IRB. Twenty people participated in the study, nine cancer patients, six traditional healers and five faith based healers using three focused group discussions employing a semi structured interview. Data analysis: The audio taped recorded responses to the semi structured questions were transcribed and thematically analyzed. The themes that emerged from focus group discussions with the patients and healers relate to the meaning of cancer, the causes of cancer (due to satanic attack), the cure for cancer (being possible through prayers to God and use of herbs), reason for using traditional healers (financial consideration, convenience, incorporation of their spiritual beliefs and recommendation by others) and need for collaboration between orthodox medicine and traditional healers. Conclusion: Patients and alternative healers have a poor understanding of the causes and treatment of cancer. They desire to seek a closer collaboration between healers and western physicians to enhance better care for cancer patients. This has implication for policy makers who will facilitate the relationship in order to control cancer care and improve the quality of care of cancer patients in Nigeria.

2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(1): 54-60, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924117

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One third of the world population are at risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB), resulting in significant mortality and morbidity. The reported low patronage in many TB clinics may not be unrelated to the quality of services received by clients. The objective of this study was to determine clients' perception of and satisfaction with quality of DOTs treatments in private and public health facilities in Oyo State. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross sectional study among 410 eligible clients selected using the multistage sampling method was conducted in Oyo State. Research instrument used were a structured pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software version 17.0. RESULTS: Mean age of respondents was 39.0 + 0.68 years, 211(51.5%) were male while 199 (48.5%) were females. 321(78.3%) worked in public health facilities. Majority of the respondents, 385 (94.0%), had good perception of quality of DOTs treatment received. These include good perception of communication (96.0%); of quality of care (90.4%), and good perception of staff attitude among 93.9% of respondents About 97% of the respondents had good satisfaction with the quality of DOTs treatment received. Good satisfaction was found among 98.3% in terms of adherence counseling received, 98.7% on TB treatment received and 98.7%, on waiting time spent, and these were far higher among private than public health facilities. Statistically significant association was found between the type of facility attended by respondents and having adherence counseling service and waiting period experienced (P-values < 0.05). Having received services in a private health facility is the major predictor of favourable perception and good satisfaction with quality of DOTS treatment among respondents studied. CONCLUSION: Though perception of and satisfaction with service delivery were good, this was better in private than in public; thus stressing the need for better monitoring and evaluation of services rendered by health care workers in order to encourage patronage by clients.


Assuntos
Terapia Diretamente Observada , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Satisfação Pessoal , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Tuberculose/terapia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 16(1): 37-43, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254557

RESUMO

Background: Reproductive health (RH) services are important to reduce reproductive morbidity and mortality. This is only possible if such services are used. Knowledge of the determinants of choice health facility for reproductive morbidity is useful to design interventions aimed at increasing utilization of RH services. Objective: This study therefore explored the determinants of choice of health facility for reproductive morbidity among female traders within Ibadan metropolis. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using interviewer-administered questionnaire among 410 female traders aged 15-49 years selected by systematic random sampling in Aleshinloye market in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Government and private hospitals were classified as orthodox health facilities. Data was analysed using logistic regression at 5% significance level. Results: Mean age was 34.6 ± 7.8, 78.2% were married and 58.7% had secondary education. Above half (52.9%) used orthodox health facilities. Perceived quality of care influenced the use of orthodox facilities and likelihood of using the same facility in the future. Factors predicting the use of orthodox health services were social economic status (OR 2.77 95%CI 1.06-6.73), delay in attaining conception (OR 2.70 95%CI 1.39-5.22), menstrual problems (OR 2.15 95%CI 1.19-3.90) and complications in previous pregnancy (OR 2.11 95%CI 1.21-3.78). Conclusion: The use of orthodox health facilities was affected by respondents' past experience of reproductive morbidity and socioeconomic status. These factors should be borne in mind in planning interventions for improvement in reproductive health service utilisation.

4.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 16(2): 125-130, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217769

RESUMO

Introduction: Oral health problems arising from tobacco use have been reported and some of these conditions can be prevented through Tobacco Cessation (TC). Dentists are well positioned to provide tobacco cessation services to patients. In Nigeria, little is documented on the provision of cessation services among dentists and the challenges. This study was conducted to assess the cessation practices of dentists and their related challenges in Southwest Nigeria. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in all the tertiary healthcare facilities within the six states of the Southwest geopolitical zone. A total population survey involving dentists below the cadre of Consultant/Chief Dental Officers undergoing postgraduate training and/or providing services in the tertiary hospitals was conducted using a pretested semi structured self-administered questionnaire. This included questions on challenges experienced in the provision of TC services in their respective facilities. Results: A total of 224 eligible dentists were approached to participate in this study with a response rate of 91.5%. Mean age and completed years of working experience were 33.8±5.2 and 6.1±4.4 respectively. In reporting challenges to implementing tobacco cessation services, 60% of respondents reported 'lack of perceived efficacy and training' as the major barriers. Conclusion: From this study, incorporation of tobacco cessation into the dental curriculum will increase the knowledge and competence of dentists. Provision of systems support to dentists willing to help patients quit smoking may be important in ensuring the health system is responsive to the tobacco control needs of patients in Southwest Nigeria.

5.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 15(1): 7-15, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28970765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of stunting among selected primary school children in rural and urban communities of Obafemi Owode Local Government Area, Ogun State. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of rural and urban primary school children was conducted. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on respondents' and parents' socio-demographic characteristics. Stunting was defined as height-for-age less than two standard deviations from the median height-for-age of the standard World Health Organization reference population. Using EPI-INFO version 6.03, children were classified as stunted if z-scores of height-for-age were less than 2 standard deviations below the National Centre for Health statistics (NCHS)/WHO median. Height and weight were taken using a stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 16.0 while predictors were determined using logistic regression at 95% level of significance. RESULTS: A total of 1,160 primary school children were studied with 52.2% from rural schools. Males constituted 57.1% and 51.8% in the rural and urban school respectively. Prevalence of stunting among rural school children was 46.2%, and was significantly higher (p≤0.001) than among urban children at 33.8%. Younger children <10 years (OR: 0.088; 95CI: 0.052 - 0.150) and children between 11-12 years (OR: 0.534; 95CI: 0.322 - 0.886) were at a significantly lower risk of stunting both in rural schools compared to children >13 years. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of stunting was high especially among pupils from schools in the rural communities. This underscores the need for urgent feasible and effective nutrition programs for primary school children especially those in rural schools within the study area.

6.
Psychooncology ; 26(3): 369-376, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26577066

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed cancer patients' use of traditional healers, the association between delay in coming to this clinic and patients' use of traditional healers, reasons cancer patients use western medicine after trying traditional treatment and the cost of obtaining traditional treatment. METHODS: Participants were made of 400 consecutive and consenting new patients in the Department of Radiotherapy, University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan. A validated interviewer-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Focus group discussions were held with some of the clients as well as the traditional healers. RESULTS: It showed that 34.5% of the patients patronized traditional healers, while 65.5% used only hospitals. The most common reason given among patients who patronized traditional healers for doing so was their desire to be healed and to be rid of pains (45.9%), while the most common reason they opt for western medicine afterwards was lack of improvement in their health condition (70.1%). The cost of traditional treatment for cancer ranged between no cost to N5,000 (that is approximately $31.25 @ $1 = N160) to be treated. The cost of orthodox care would range from a minimum of N40,000 to several millions of naira. CONCLUSIONS: Patients patronize traditional healers to be rid of pains; hence physicians should endeavor to control cancer-related symptoms, especially pains as the patients await diagnosis. Also, the low cost of obtaining traditional treatment, regular assurance of cure and other assistances given to them, could be an enticing factor in its use. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/psicologia , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Nigéria , Projetos Piloto , Terapias Espirituais , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 12(1): 7-14, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25332695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular utilization of dental services is key to the attainment of optimal oral health state, an integral component of general health and well being needed for effective productivity by working personnel. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the rate and pattern of dental service utilization among civil servants and their attitudes towards its regular use. METHODOLOGY: A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select participants from the Federal Secretariat in Ibadan, Nigeria. A structured, standardized, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was utilized to elicit responses on dental services and attitudes towards their regular utilization. Responses to knowledge and attitude questions were scored and categorized. Chi-squared test was used to test associations between variables at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: A total of 400 civil servants participated in the study. Their mean age was 44.0 ±7.3years. Many 291(72.8%) were well informed about dental health care and services, but few 156 (39%) had ever utilized it. Of the utilizers, 32 (20.5%) visited within the previous one year period, while others last visited in more than one year period. Few 17 (10.9%) of the utilizers visited for routine dental checks, 103 (66%) for acute pain relief, while the rest had other dental health care needs. The majority 312 (78.0%) showed positive attitude towards regular dental service utilization and this improved with higher educational attainment, improved level of income, being aware of dental services and having ever utilized it (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Despite the awareness and positive attitude towards regular dental service use, their utilization rate was relatively low, episodic and problem driven. Appropriate oral health promotion strategies to enhance utilization of preventive dental services are strongly recommended for them.

8.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 21(2): 115-21, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25126864

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine an algorithm for malaria diagnosis using presenting signs and symptoms of children (aged 0-13 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Gwagwalada Area Council of Abuja, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validated questionnaire was used to obtain relevant data from 400 children diagnosed presumptively of simple malaria by clinicians and 400 other children of similar sex and age considered as not having malaria. Giemsa-stained thick blood films were used to determine parasitaemia. Data obtained was analysed using Epi-Info version 3.3.2. RESULTS: Thirty-eight per cent of children with presumptive diagnosis of malaria had parasitaemia. Fever, rigor, vomiting, jaundice, pallor and spleen enlargement had significant statistical relationship with parasitaemia on bivariate analysis, but only fever (p=0.00), rigor (p=0.00), vomiting (p=0.00), and pallor (p=0.00) maintained the relationship when subjected to logistic regression analysis. But these symptoms individually had low sensitivity and/or specificity. Candidate algorithms (combinations of symptoms) were then successively subjected to bivariate, logistic and validity analyses. Fever with vomiting gave the highest sensitivity (56.2%), specificity (76.4%) and PPV (60.0%) and were therefore adopted as the algorithm of choice. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Children presenting with fever and vomiting without any other obvious cause in health facilities without laboratory support in the research area should receive antimalarial treatment, to help reduce the malaria scourge. This algorithm should be field-tested and if found reliable should be adopted to ease the problem of malaria diagnosis in peripheral health facilities.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Malária/diagnóstico , Parasitemia/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/provisão & distribução , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Febre/parasitologia , Humanos , Lactente , Icterícia/parasitologia , Malária/complicações , Masculino , Rigidez Muscular/parasitologia , Nigéria , Palidez/parasitologia , Parasitemia/complicações , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Esplenomegalia/parasitologia , Vômito/parasitologia
9.
East Afr Med J ; 90(6): 189-94, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Employees should be happy at their work, considering the amount of time they devote to it throughout their working life. There is paucity of data on the job satisfaction and psychological health of medical doctors in Nigeria. OBJECTIVE: To assess the level of job satisfaction and its relationship to psychological health among medical doctors in a southern city of Nigeria. DESIGN: A cross-sectional descriptive survey. SETTING: Three major public hospitals in Calabar, Nigeria. SUBJECTS: Medical doctors who had worked for at least six months in the hospitals. RESULTS: Response rate was 73.0%. More than half (56.7%) of the respondents expressed overall satisfaction with their job. Inadequate pay and work overload were the most commonly mentioned reasons for job dissatisfaction. About a fifth of the respondents were at increased likelihood of psychological disorder. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between job satisfaction scores and GHQ scores. Satisfied respondents were least likely to have psychological disorder. CONCLUSION: Causes of job dissatisfaction among medical doctors should be addressed to improve their psychological health.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Satisfação no Emprego , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Adulto Jovem
10.
Niger J Med ; 20(1): 144-50, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21970277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous quality improvement is linked to the use of timely and useful feedback from clients in Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) care. HIV experts and care professionals agree that consumer involvement, such as patient satisfaction survey, is an essential part of HIV care and policy making today. The introduction ofAnti-Retroviral Treatment (ART) services in Nigeria has significantly impacted positively on the overall well being of People Living with HIV and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (PLWHA). However, there is little understanding of their satisfaction and perception of quality of care provided. Consequently, this study was carried out to assess patients' satisfaction with ambulatory HIV/AIDS care in a tertiary health facility in Anambra State. METHODS: The study design is cross-sectional. A total of 150 patients from Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi were selected using systematic sampling technique from the daily AntiRetroviral (ARV) clinic register obtained from the medical records department of the centre. Data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 38.3 +/- 9.1. Majority (50.7%) of the patients was married, and most of them (74.7%) were semi-skilled workers. There was a statistically significant difference in the numbers of those who spent >240 naira for transportation to the clinic, compared to those who spent < or = 240 naira (98 versus 52). Similarly, the number of subjects that spent >30 minutes are significantly larger than the number that spent < or = 30 minutes to reach the clinic (142 versus 8). Also significantly greater number of participants spend >750 naira than those who spend <750 naira on non-HIV related laboratory (20 versus 9) tests. PLWHAs in this facility were least satisfied with access to care, while they expressed greatest satisfaction with good patient care and quality of service by staff. The overall satisfaction score of the subjects was 4.04 +/- 0.33. CONCLUSION: HIV patients' overall satisfaction with the services provided to them was quite high. Therefore, there is need to sustain the current level of quality of care provided to the patients and if possible improve upon it. However, efforts should be made to further decentralize ART services to make them more accessible to the growing number of PLWHAs needing care and support.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
West Afr J Med ; 30(1): 35-41, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21863587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Effective maternal and child healthcare delivery requires a proper and adequate funding of the health sector. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of government-community healthcare co-financing on maternal and child healthcare services' delivery. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study with an intervention component, conducted amongst 240 women from Igboukwu (intervention area), and Ekwuluobia (control area), of Anambra State of Nigeria. RESULTS: The biosocial characteristics of the respondents were essentially similar. Better utilization of health services occurred in the intervention area post-intervention. Quality of service from intervention clients' perspective showed significant improvement post-intervention. Distance less than five km, transportation cost less than N40, and maternal education above secondary level impacted positively on utilization of maternal and child health services. Acceptability of the scheme was better for the intervention facility evident from the higher number of respondents showing "willingness to join", and "willingness to pay". CONCLUSION: Health sector funding partnership, positively impacts on maternal and child health services. Government's total commitment, backed with legislation, and community mobilization, will sustain the scheme.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/economia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/economia , Nigéria , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Niger Med J ; 52(4): 239-43, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22529506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hitherto efforts to implement data driven prevention guidelines for hospital-acquired infections (HAI) in Nigeria have been limited by the inadequate knowledge of the risks of these infections. This study evaluated the occurrence of HAI in a foremost tertiary health facility over a 5-year period for the purpose of reinforcing control efforts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective survey of records from the infection control unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, was done for the years 2005-09. For the 5 years studied 22,941 in-patients were reviewed and the data of those who developed infections during admission were retrieved and analyzed. The prevalence, types, and causative organisms of HAI were determined. The chi-square test was used to evaluate associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of HAI over the 5-year period was 2.6% (95% CI: 2.4-2.8). Surgical and medical wards had the most infections (48.3%) and (20.5%) respectively. Urinary tract infection (UTI) and surgical site infection (30.7%) were the most prevalent (43.9%) HAI. UTIs were significantly higher in surgical and medical wards, surgical site infections in obstetrics and gynecology wards, and soft tissue infections and bacteremia in pediatric wards (P<0.05). Gram-negative infections occurred about four times as often as gram-positive infections with Klebsiella sp. and staphylococcus aureus being the predominant isolates (34.3%) and (20.1%) respectively. CONCLUSION: Efforts to limit HAI should be guided by local surveillance data if progress is to be made in improving the quality of patient care in Nigeria.

13.
Afr J Med Med Sci ; 40(4): 353-60, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22783685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents' reproductive health needs and problems have become contemporary concerns globally. Of great concern is the high rate of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS arguably influenced by lack of reproductive health knowledge. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at examining the effect of peer education on school adolescents' reproductive health knowledge in Saki, Southwestern, Nigeria, in a nurse-led concurrently controlled community interventional study. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study employed pre - and post - intervention (quasi - experimental) design. The experimental group was exposed to the peer education programme for six months. Pre and post differential data in the experimental and control groups were compared and analysed using analysis of covariance. RESULTS: The intervention had significant effect on adolescents in the experimental group compared with the control group in the area of knowledge of reproductive health issues (F1,519) = 37.117, (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The intervention significantly improved the adolescents' reproductive health knowledge. It is recommended that community health nurses as well as other community workers should embrace peer education approach as a strategy to empower adolescents with reproductive health knowledge.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Grupo Associado , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Estudantes , Adolescente , Criança , Avaliação Educacional , Escolaridade , Feminino , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Educacionais , Nigéria , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , População Rural , Instituições Acadêmicas , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 16(4): 256-9, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20037620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe driving and road traffic accident prevention could be attained through ensuring good condition of vehicles, the road as well as the physical and mental state of the driver among others Objectives: To determine the ocular health status of professional drivers of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria METHODS: A cross sectional survey of all drivers in the employment of the University of Ibadan, excluding the College of Medicine, was carried out between March and June 2002 at the University Medical Centre and the eye clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety seven all male drivers were screened. Their ages ranged from 31 to 64 years (mean 48.3 +/-5.9yr). Less than satisfactory presenting (functional) binocular visual acuity (< 6/18) was found in 11(5.6%) of the drivers. With refraction no driver had binocular vision of <6/18, but three drivers each had corrected visual acuity in the worse eye of 6/12, 6/18 and 6/36 respectively. The commonest visual problems were presbyopia 100 (50.8%), and refractive errors 38 (19.3%). Other ocular pathologies included pterygium 11 (5.6%), optic atrophy 9 (5.0%), colour vision defects 7 (3.6%) cataract 2 (1.0%), age related macular degeneration 4 (2.0%), glaucoma 3 (1.5%) retinal scar 2 (1.0%), exotropia 1 (0.5%), and pingueculum 1 (0.5%), CONCLUSION: Periodic screening of driver population of any establishment is a worthwhile task that may help to identify potentially blinding or visually impairing conditions such as glaucoma and refractive-error which can be promptly treated.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Ocupações , Universidades , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Seleção Visual/métodos
16.
Afr Health Sci ; 9(2): 92-7, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19652742

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reported low condom use amongst out of school requires studying the context in which condom use occurs. METHODS: A cross sectional study of 350 out-of-school youth aged 15-24 years in a local government area of Nigeria was enrolled using cluster sampling. RESULTS: Those who had ever had sexual intercourse were 74.9%. Of these, 56.5% used no protection while 29.0% used condoms. Up to 78.6% have had sex within the preceding 12 months with 38.9% condom use. The commonest reason for non-condom use was that it reduces sexual enjoyment. Those who believed a single unprotected sexual exposure may result in HIV infection reported more condom use than those who believed otherwise (42% vs 27.2%, P<0.05). Those who had prior discussion with their partners on HIV/AIDS reported more condom use compared to those who had not (50% vs 25%, P<0.05). Also, those who had sexual intercourse occurring as a spontaneous event reported less condom use compared to those who have previously discussed about the possibility of having sex (68.0% vs 51.8%, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Condom use is likely to occur within relationships where opportunity exists for discussion on sexual matters. Thus, further studies are needed on communication and condom use within sexual partnerships.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 12(4): 398-402, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20329680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine the knowledge and practice, as well as factors influencing universal precautions practices amongst Nigerian House officers and Nurses. METHODS: A Cross-sectional descriptive study. Sample selection was by stratified random sampling. Information was elicited using pretested, structured, self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using EPI-info. RESULTS: Most Doctors, 66.6%, were aged 26-30 years while the Nurses, 41.1%, were aged 40 years. 57.6% of the Doctors were males, while 85.7% of the nurses were females. Knowledge of universal precautions measures was high for both categories of respondents--97.0% for doctors and 92.0% for nurses, although practice was better for the nurses, 75.0%, compared to the doctors, 15.2%, p < 0.05. The most important factor influencing universal precautions practice is the lack of provision of adequate protective equipments. Other factors, all of which show significant difference between the doctors and nurses (p < 0.05), include carelessness; lack of display of universal precautions guidelines; emergency nature of the procedure; insufficient water supply; patient perceived to be at low risk of blood borne pathogens; pressure of time; and universal precautions equipments interfering with technical skills. CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge of universal precautions is high for both house officers and nurses, practice is however better amongst the latter than the former. The effective knowledge and practice of universal precautions amongst hospital workers are of absolute necessity to prevent infections from blood and body fluid pathogens.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Precauções Universais , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Controle de Infecções/normas , Masculino , Nigéria , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital , Médicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Ann Ib Postgrad Med ; 7(1): 10-5, 2009 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25161456

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The concept of the street child in rural communities has received little attention. This study describes the sociodemographic characteristics of the street children found in a group of rural communities. METHOD: This descriptive study is nested in a cross sectional analytical study of street children in a group of rural communities undergoing urbanization. A cluster sample of street children as defined by the United Nations was taken in the seven chosen political wards. RESULTS: Majority of the street children (88.9%) were within the age group 15-17 years with more males (58.3%) than females (41.7%). Up to 64.7% had attained secondary level education while only 3.9% had no formal education. A high percentage, (61.4%) were still attending school and 15.8% had no work. Of those who work on the streets, being an apprentice (16.4%), petty trading (15.0%), part-time driving (9.5%) and car washing (5.0%) were the commonest types of work. Of those still schooling, 41.6% had no form of part-time work on the streets. None of the street children lived on the street with 65% still living with parents. However, 75% had been involved in the street life for 1-2 years with a median time of 2 years. More than 30% of their parents work outside town. CONCLUSION: The street child in rural communities differs from the urban perception which often has to do with those living rough and existing outside the family framework. More studies would be needed on the driving factors for street life in rural communities undergoing urbanization.

19.
Int Q Community Health Educ ; 29(1): 71-87, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19342358

RESUMO

This study investigated HIV/AIDS preventive health education involving nurses alone (IG1) and another involving both nurses and trained parents/ guardians (IG2) on students' knowledge of HIV/AIDS' transmission and prevention in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Subjects included 339 students selected through a multistage and stratified random sampling technique. A pre-test/post-test intervention design with control group was used. Data were obtained using questionnaire, and analysis involved the use of analysis of covariance, multiple classification analysis, and Scheffe's post-hoc test. Results show that students exposed to parental involvement had significantly better mean scores on knowledge of prevention (IG2: x=7.51; IG1: x=6.96 control: x=3.82). Furthermore, although the male students had significantly higher mean score with intervention involving only nurses, the females had higher mean score with intervention involving parents/guardians. It is recommended that parents/guardians should be trained and involved in HIV/AIDS' preventive education of secondary school students.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pais , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Tanzan Health Res Bull ; 9(1): 52-5, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17547102

RESUMO

Wood dusts are known to cause respiratory disorders like rhinitis and asthma. This study was therefore done to determine the magnitude of the problem among woodworkers in south-eastern Nigeria exposed to high level of wood dust. Five hundred and ninety one woodworkers were selected using a stratified random sampling. The prevalence of woodwork-related rhinitis and asthma were then observed in the study population. Also the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of each woodworker was obtained. The prevalence of occupational rhinitis was 78%, while that of asthma was 6.5%. As period of woodwork increased the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma increased (rhinitis: chi2 trend = 53.015, df = 1, P = 0.000). For asthma, chi2 trend = 19.721, df = 1, P = 0.000). Also the PEFR significantly became low with increasing years of exposure to woodwork (chi2 trend = 75.965, df = 1, P = 0.000). In conclusion the prevalence of rhinitis and asthma in woodworkers was high and significantly increased with years of working as a woodworker.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asma/epidemiologia , Poeira , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Rinite/epidemiologia , Madeira/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indústrias , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Prevalência , Tempo
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