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1.
Br J Haematol ; 195(1): 123-132, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34402052

RESUMO

Glomerular hyperfiltration is common in sickle cell disease (SCD) and precedes proteinuria and declining kidney function. We evaluated hyperfiltration in SCD patients and its "normalization." Routine visit data were collected retrospectively from adult SCD patients in a single centre from 2004 to 2013. Baseline was defined as first available serum creatinine and hyperfiltration as estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) >130 ml/min/1·73 m2 for women and >140 ml/min/1·73 m2 for men. Normalization of hyperfiltration was eGFR reduction to 90-130 ml/min/1·73 m2 for women or 90-140 ml/min/1·73 m2 for men. Among 292 patients, median age was 27 years [interquartile range (IQR):20·0-38·0], and 56·8% had baseline hyperfiltration. Baseline hyperfiltration was inversely associated with age [odds ratio (OR):0·86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0·82-0·90; P < 0·0001], male sex (OR:0·16, 95% CI: 0·07-0·41; P = 0·0001), haemoglobin (OR:0·76, 95% CI 0·61-0·94; P = 0·01), weight (OR:0·96, 95% CI: 0·93-0·99; P = 0·004), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACE-I/ARB) use (OR:0·08, 95% CI: 0·01-0·75; P = 0·03), and positively with hydroxycarbamide use (OR:2·99, 95% CI: 1·18-7·56; P = 0·02). Of 89 hyperfiltration patients without baseline proteinuria, 10 (11·2%) developed new-onset proteinuria [median 1·05 years (IQR:0·63-2·09)]. Normalization of hyperfiltration was less likely with higher baseline eGFR [hazard ratio (HR):0·90, 95% CI: 0·86-0·95; P < 0·0001] and more likely in males (HR:6·35, 95% CI:2·71-14·86, <0·0001). Hyperfiltration is common in adult SCD patients, particularly when younger. Decline to normal values is more likely in males, possibly representing kidney function loss rather than improvement in hyperfiltration.

2.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 629338, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335138

RESUMO

Objectives: Newborn screening in the United States and Europe allows early identification of congenital disorders but does not yet exist in most low-resource settings, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Newborn screening can identify multiple inherited hematological disorders, but feasibility and effectiveness for Africa are not fully determined. Methods: Surplus dried blood spot collected in Central Malawi through the HIV Early Infant Diagnosis surveillance program were repurposed and tested by isoelectric focusing for sickle cell disease and trait. Additional genetic testing identified G6PD deficiency and alpha thalassemia. Results: Testing of 10,529 cards revealed an overall sickle cell trait prevalence of 7.0% (range 3.9-9.7% by district); 10 of 14 infants identified with sickle cell disease (prevalence 0.1%) were located and received care at a specialized clinic. Subsequent testing of 1,329 randomly selected cards identified alpha thalassemia trait in 45.7% of samples, and G6PD deficiency in 20.4% of males and 3.4% of females, with 29.0% of females as heterozygous carriers. Conclusion: Inherited hematological disorders are common in Central Malawi; early identification through newborn screening can improve clinical outcomes and should be supported throughout Africa.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Doenças Hematológicas , Triagem Neonatal , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Feminino , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/genética , Doenças Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Hematológicas/genética , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico , Talassemia alfa/genética
3.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; : 15353702211035778, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407676

RESUMO

Silent cerebral infarcts and arteriopathy are common and progressive in individuals with sickle cell anemia. However, most data describing brain lesions in sickle cell anemia are cross-sectional or derive from pediatric cohorts with short follow-up. We investigated the progression of silent cerebral infarct and cerebral vessel stenosis on brain MRI and MRA, respectively, by describing the incidence of new or worsening lesions over a period of up to 25 years among young adults with sickle cell anemia and explored risk factors for progression. Forty-four adults with sickle cell anemia (HbSS or HbSß0thalassemia), exposed to chronic transfusions (n = 12) or hydroxyurea (n = 32), median age 19.2 years (range 18.0-31.5), received a screening brain MRI/MRA and their results were compared with a clinical exam performed during childhood and adolescence. We used exact log-rank test to compare MRI and MRA progression among any two groups. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated from Cox regression analyses. Progression of MRI and MRA occurred in 12 (27%) and 4 (9%) young adults, respectively, relative to their pediatric exams. MRI progression risk was high among participants with abnormal pediatric exams (HR: 11.6, 95% CI: 2.5-54.7) and conditional or abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasound velocities (HR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.0-15.1). Among individuals treated with hydroxyurea, high fetal hemoglobin measured in childhood was associated with lower hazard of MRI progression (HR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.76-0.98). MRA progression occurred more frequently among those with prior stroke (HR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.2-64), abnormal pediatric exam (P = 0.00084), and elevated transcranial Doppler ultrasound velocities (P = 0.004). Brain MRI/MRA imaging in pediatrics can identify high-risk patients for CNS disease progression in young adulthood, prompting consideration for early aggressive treatments.

4.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(10): e29209, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Care continuity prevents increased health care utilization and mortality during transition from pediatric to adult care. Our program employs a co-located care delivery model, in which pediatric provider involvement continues during young adulthood. We tested the hypothesis that individuals who participated in the co-located model have greater retention in adult care compared to those who only received pediatric transition services. METHODS: This study consisted of 311 youth with SCD (51.4% male; 63.0% HbSS/HbSß0 -thalassemia) who transferred to adult care from 2007 to 2017. Retention was defined as continuation with an adult provider for ≥12 or ≥24 months post-pediatric care. Logistic regression estimated the association between co-location status and retention at 12 and 24 months. Logistic regression and t-tests were used to evaluate potential predictors of retention in adult care. RESULTS: Individuals who participated in the co-location model were 1.9 times more likely to remain in adult care 12 (95% CI: 1.01, 3.47) and 24 (95% CI: 1.01, 3.70) months post-pediatric care compared to those who did not participate. Individuals with HbSS/HbSß0 -thalassemia were 1.9 times more likely to be retained at 12 months compared to those with HbSC/HbSß+ -thalassemia/HbS/HPFH (95% CI: 1.12, 3.09). For every clinic encounter in the last 2 years of pediatric care, the odds of being retained at least 24 months after initiating adult care increased 1.1 times (95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). CONCLUSIONS: Continuity of providers from pediatric to adult care may increase long-term retention in adult care. Longitudinal monitoring of adult outcomes is critical to identifying the efficacy of transition services.

6.
Br J Haematol ; 194(2): 469-473, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137022

RESUMO

Albuminuria predicts kidney disease progression in individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA); however, earlier prediction of kidney disease with introduction of reno-protective therapies prior to the onset of albuminuria may attenuate disease progression. A genetic risk score (GRS) for SCA-related nephropathy may provide an improved one-time test for early identification of high-risk patients. We utilized a GRS from a recent, large, trans-ethnic meta-analysis to identify three single nucleotide polymorphisms that associate individually and in a GRS with time to first albuminuria episode in children with SCA.

7.
Lancet Haematol ; 8(5): e323-e333, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For decades, patients with sickle cell disease have had only a limited number of therapies available. In 2019, voxelotor (1500 mg), an oral once-daily sickle haemoglobin polymerisation inhibitor, was approved in the USA for the treatment of sickle cell disease in patients aged 12 years and older on the basis of HOPE trial data. To further describe the applicability of voxelotor as a treatment for this chronic illness, we report the long-term efficacy and safety of this drug at 72 weeks of treatment; the conclusion of the placebo-controlled HOPE trial. METHODS: HOPE is an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial done at 60 clinical sites in Canada, Egypt, France, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Lebanon, Netherlands, Oman, Turkey, the USA, and the UK. Patients (aged 12-65 years) with confirmed sickle cell disease, a haemoglobin concentration of 5·5-10·5 g/dL at enrolment, and who had between one and ten vaso-occlusive crisis events in the previous 12 months were enrolled. Patients receiving regularly scheduled transfusion therapy, who had received a transfusion in the previous 60 days, or who had been admitted to hospital for a vaso-occlusive crisis in the previous 14 days were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either once-daily oral voxelotor 1500 mg, voxelotor 900 mg, or placebo for 72 weeks. Randomisation was done centrally by use of an interactive web response system, stratified by baseline hydroxyurea use (yes vs no), age group (adolescents [12 to <18 years] vs adults [18 to 65 years]), and geographic region (North America vs Europe vs other). The primary endpoint (already reported) was the proportion of patients who achieved a haemoglobin response at week 24. In this final analysis, we report prespecified long-term efficacy assessments by intention to treat, including changes in haemoglobin concentrations from baseline to week 72, changes in the concentration of haemolysis markers (absolute and percentage reticulocytes, indirect bilirubin concentrations, and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations) from baseline to week 72, the annualised incidence of vaso-occlusive crises, and patient functioning, as assessed with the Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C) scale. Safety was assessed in patients who received at least one dose of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03036813. FINDINGS: Between Dec 5, 2016, and May 3, 2018, 449 patients were screened, of whom 274 were randomly assigned to the voxelotor 1500 mg group (n=90), the voxelotor 900 mg group (n=92), or the placebo group (n=92). At week 72, the adjusted mean change in haemoglobin concentration from baseline was 1·0 g/dL (95% CI 0·7 to -1·3) in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 0·5 g/dL (0·3 to -0·8) in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 0·0 g/dL (-0·3 to 0·3) in the placebo group, with a significant difference observed between the voxelotor 1500 mg group and the placebo group (p<0·0001), and between the voxelotor 900 mg group and the placebo group (p=0·014). Significant improvements in markers of haemolysis, as assessed by the difference in adjusted mean percentage change from baseline at week 72 versus placebo, were observed in the voxelotor 1500 mg group in indirect bilirubin concentrations (-26·6% [95% CI -40·2 to -12·9]) and percentage of reticulocytes (-18·6% [-33·9 to -3·3]). The proportion of patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group who were rated as "moderately improved" or "very much improved" at week 72 with the CGI-C was significantly greater than in the placebo group (39 [74%] of 53 vs 24 [47%] of 51; p=0·0057). Serious adverse events unrelated to sickle cell disease were reported in 25 (28%) of 88 patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, 20 (22%) of 92 patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and 23 (25%) of 91 patients in the placebo group. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events were infrequent (ie, occurred in <10% of patients); anaemia occurred in five or more patients (two [2%] patients in the voxelotor 1500 mg group, seven [8%] patients in the voxelotor 900 mg group, and three [3%] patients in the placebo group). Of all 274 patients, six (2%) deaths occurred during the study (two deaths in each treatment group), all of which were judged as unrelated to treatment. INTERPRETATION: Voxelotor 1500 mg resulted in rapid and durable improvements in haemoglobin concentrations maintained over 72 weeks and has potential to address the substantial morbidity associated with haemolytic anaemia in sickle cell disease. FUNDING: Global Blood Therapeutics.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Benzaldeídos/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Benzaldeídos/efeitos adversos , Criança , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Cefaleia/etiologia , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Pirazinas/efeitos adversos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Transfusion ; 61(6): 1694-1698, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660875

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The contribution of coagulation activation to the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD) remains incompletely defined. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, in subjects with sickle cell anemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this pilot, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, eligible subjects with sickle cell anemia received rivaroxaban or placebo. The effect of rivaroxaban on coagulation activation, endothelial activation, inflammation, and microvascular blood flow was evaluated. RESULTS: Fourteen patients (HbSS - 14; females - 9) with mean age of 38 ± 10.6 years were randomized to receive rivaroxaban 20 mg daily or placebo for 4 weeks and, following a 2-week washout phase, were "crossed-over" to the treatment arm opposite to which they were initially assigned. Mean adherence to treatment with rivaroxaban, assessed by pill counts, was 85.6% in the first treatment period and 93.6% in the second period. Treatment with rivaroxaban resulted in a decrease from baseline of thrombin-antithrombin complex versus placebo (-34.4 ug/L [95% CI: -69.4, 0.53] vs. 0.35 ug/L [95% CI: -3.8, 4.5], p = .08), but the difference was not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed in changes from baseline of D-dimer, inflammatory, and endothelial activation markers or measures of microvascular blood flow. Rivaroxaban was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Rivaroxaban was safe but did not significantly decrease coagulation activation, endothelial activation, or inflammation. Rivaroxaban did not improve microvascular blood flow. Adequately powered studies are required to further evaluate the efficacy of rivaroxaban in SCD. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02072668.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Blood Adv ; 5(1): 89-98, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570630

RESUMO

Elevated tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV) ≥2.5 m/s is a predictor of disease severity in adults and children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), but how disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affect this biomarker is incompletely understood. We investigated the effect of DMTs on TRV elevation in children. In a prospective single-center study, 204 subjects with HbSS or HbSß0 thalassemia (mean age, 10.6 years; range, 5-18) had echocardiograms with assessment of TRV, with repeat evaluations after 2 years of observation. One-hundred and twelve participants received DMTs (hydroxyurea, n = 72; monthly erythrocyte transfusions, n = 40), 58 did not receive any DMT, and 34 were begun on hydroxyurea during this observation period. In the entire cohort, an increase in hemoglobin of 1.0 g/dL was associated with a 0.03-m/s decrease in TRV (P = .024), and a decrease in absolute reticulocyte count of 1.0 × 106/mL was associated with a 0.34-m/s decrease in TRV (P = .034). Compared with baseline, hydroxyurea exposure (continuous or newly started) was associated with an average 5% decline in mean TRV at the 2-year evaluation. Among participants newly started on hydroxyurea (mean treatment duration 1.2 ± 0.6 years), an increase in hemoglobin of 1.0 g/dL was associated with a 0.06-m/s decrease in TRV (P = .05). We conclude that hydroxyurea therapy may mitigate TRV elevation in children with SCA, possibly as a result of a reduction in hemolysis and improvement in anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Talassemia , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência da Valva Tricúspide/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
F1000Res ; 92020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32765834

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) afflicts millions of people worldwide but is referred to as an orphan disease in the United States. Over the past several decades, there has been an increasing understanding of the pathophysiology of SCD and its complications. While most individuals with SCD in resource-rich countries survive into adulthood, the life expectancy of patients with SCD remains substantially shorter than for the general African-American population. SCD can be cured using hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and possibly gene therapy, but these treatment approaches are not available to most patients, the majority of whom reside in low- and middle-income countries. Until relatively recently, only one drug, hydroxyurea, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to ameliorate disease severity. Multiple other drugs (L-glutamine, crizanlizumab, and voxelotor) have recently been approved for the treatment of SCD, with several others at various stages of clinical testing. The availability of multiple agents to treat SCD raises questions related to the choice of appropriate drug therapy, combination of multiple agents, and affordability of recently approved products. The enthusiasm for new drug development provides opportunities to involve patients in low- and middle-income nations in the testing of potentially disease-modifying therapies and has the potential to contribute to capacity building in these environments. Demonstration that these agents, alone or in combination, can prevent or decrease end-organ damage would provide additional evidence for the role of drug therapies in improving outcomes in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e14693, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder of the red blood cells, resulting in multiple acute and chronic complications, including pain episodes, stroke, and kidney disease. Patients with SCD develop chronic organ dysfunction, which may progress to organ failure during disease exacerbations. Early detection of acute physiological deterioration leading to organ failure is not always attainable. Machine learning techniques that allow for prediction of organ failure may enable early identification and treatment and potentially reduce mortality. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that machine learning physiomarkers can predict the development of organ dysfunction in a sample of adult patients with SCD admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). METHODS: We applied diverse machine learning methods, statistical methods, and data visualization techniques to develop classification models to distinguish SCD from controls. RESULTS: We studied 63 sequential SCD patients admitted to ICUs with 163 patient encounters (mean age 30.7 years, SD 9.8 years). A subset of these patient encounters, 22.7% (37/163), met the sequential organ failure assessment criteria. The other 126 SCD patient encounters served as controls. A set of signal processing features (such as fast Fourier transform, energy, and continuous wavelet transform) derived from heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate was identified to distinguish patients with SCD who developed acute physiological deterioration leading to organ failure from patients with SCD who did not meet the criteria. A multilayer perceptron model accurately predicted organ failure up to 6 hours before onset, with an average sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 98%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrated the viability of using machine learning to predict acute organ failure among hospitalized adults with SCD. The discovery of salient physiomarkers through machine learning techniques has the potential to further accelerate the development and implementation of innovative care delivery protocols and strategies for medically vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/complicações , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Aprendizado de Máquina/normas , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229959, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243480

RESUMO

Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by deoxygenation-induced polymerization of hemoglobin in red blood cells, leading to hemolytic anemia, vaso-occlusion, and the development of multiple clinical complications. To characterize the clinical burden associated with differences in hemoglobin concentration and hemolysis measures, a systematic literature review of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and related meta-analyses was undertaken. For quantitative analyses related to hemoglobin concentration, pooled results were analyzed using random effects models to control for within-and between-study variability. To derive risk ratios associated with hemoglobin concentration change, we combined ratios of means from select studies, which reported hazard and odds ratios in meta-analyses for hemoglobin concentration-related outcomes and changes between groups. Forty-one studies were identified for inclusion based on relating hemoglobin concentration to clinical outcomes. Meta-analyses demonstrated that mean hemoglobin concentration was significantly lower in patients with cerebrovascular disease (0.4 g/dL), increased transcranial Doppler velocity in cerebral arteries (0.6 g/dL), albuminuria (0.6 g/dL), elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure (0.9 g/dL), and in patients that subsequently died (0.6 g/dL). In a risk reduction meta-analysis, modeled increased hemoglobin concentrations of 1 g/dL or greater resulted in decreased risk of negative clinical outcomes of 41% to 64%. In conclusion, chronic anemia is associated with worse clinical outcomes in individuals with SCD and even modest increases in hemoglobin concentration may be beneficial in this patient population. This systematic review has been registered on Prospero (Registration number CRD42018096860; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/).


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/sangue , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/sangue , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Nefropatias/sangue , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/patologia , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/patologia , Hemoglobina Falciforme/genética , Hemoglobina Falciforme/metabolismo , Hemólise , Humanos , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Razão de Chances , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
16.
Blood Adv ; 3(23): 3867-3897, 2019 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevention and management of end-organ disease represent major challenges facing providers of children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Uncertainty and variability in the screening, diagnosis, and management of cardiopulmonary and renal complications in SCD lead to varying outcomes for affected individuals. OBJECTIVE: These evidence-based guidelines of the American Society of Hematology (ASH) are intended to support patients, clinicians, and other health care professionals in their decisions about screening, diagnosis, and management of cardiopulmonary and renal complications of SCD. METHODS: ASH formed a multidisciplinary guideline panel that included 2 patient representatives and was balanced to minimize potential bias from conflicts of interest. The Mayo Evidence-Based Practice Research Program supported the guideline development process, including performing systematic evidence reviews up to September 2017. The panel prioritized clinical questions and outcomes according to their importance for clinicians and patients. The panel used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, including GRADE evidence-to-decision frameworks, to assess evidence and make recommendations, which were subject to public comment. RESULTS: The panel agreed on 10 recommendations for screening, diagnosis, and management of cardiopulmonary and renal complications of SCD. Recommendations related to anticoagulation duration for adults with SCD and venous thromboembolism were also developed. CONCLUSIONS: Most recommendations were conditional due to a paucity of direct, high-quality evidence for outcomes of interest. Future research was identified, including the need for prospective studies to better understand the natural history of cardiopulmonary and renal disease, their relationship to patient-important outcomes, and optimal management.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Hematologia/normas , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16891, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729453

RESUMO

We introduce machine learning (ML) to perform classification and quantitation of images of nuclei from human blood neutrophils. Here we assessed the use of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) using free, open source software to accurately quantitate neutrophil NETosis, a recently discovered process involved in multiple human diseases. CNNs achieved >94% in performance accuracy in differentiating NETotic from non-NETotic cells and vastly facilitated dose-response analysis and screening of the NETotic response in neutrophils from patients. Using only features learned from nuclear morphology, CNNs can distinguish between NETosis and necrosis and between distinct NETosis signaling pathways, making them a precise tool for NETosis detection. Furthermore, by using CNNs and tools to determine object dispersion, we uncovered differences in NETotic nuclei clustering between major NETosis pathways that is useful in understanding NETosis signaling events. Our study also shows that neutrophils from patients with sickle cell disease were unresponsive to one of two major NETosis pathways. Thus, we demonstrate the design, performance, and implementation of ML tools for rapid quantitative and qualitative cell analysis in basic science.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neutrófilos/patologia , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Necrose/metabolismo , Necrose/patologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fenótipo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27954, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397075

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is among the most common inherited hematologic diseases in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Historically, hydroxyurea administration in SSA has been restricted due to limited region-specific evidence for safety and efficacy. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of pediatric patients with SCD in Malawi. From January 2015 to November 2017, hydroxyurea at doses of 10-20 mg/kg/day was administered to children with clinically severe disease (targeted use policy). From December 2017 to July 2018, hydroxyurea was prescribed to all patients (universal use policy). RESULTS: Of 187 patients with SCD, seven (3.7%) died and 23 (12.3%) were lost to follow-up. The majority (135, 72.2%) were prescribed hydroxyurea, 59 (43.7%) under the targeted use policy and 76 (56.3%) under the universal use policy. There were no documented severe toxicities. Under the targeted use policy, children with SCD demonstrated absolute decreases in the rates of hospitalization (-4.1 per 1000 person-days; -7.2, -1.0; P = .004), fevers (-4.2 per 1000 person-days; -7.2, -1.1; P = .002), transfusions (-2.3 per 1000 person-days; 95% confidence interval: -4.9, 0.3; P = .06), and annual school absenteeism (-51.2 per person-year; -60.1, -42.3; P < .0001) within 6 months of hydroxyurea commencement. CONCLUSION: We successfully implemented universal administration of hydroxyurea to children with SCD at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Similar to recently reported trials, hydroxyurea was safe and effective during routine programmatic experience, with clinical benefits particularly among high-risk children. This highlights the importance of continued widespread scale-up of hydroxyurea within SCD programs across SSA.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Hidroxiureia/uso terapêutico , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hidroxiureia/efeitos adversos , Hidroxiureia/provisão & distribuição , Lactente , Cooperação Internacional , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , North Carolina , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Br J Haematol ; 186(6): 900-907, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168785

RESUMO

We evaluated the prevalence of rapid decline in kidney function, its potential risk factors and influence upon mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD) in a retrospective single-center study. Rapid decline of kidney function was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss of >3·0 ml/min/1·73 m2 per year. A multivariable logistic regression model for rapid eGFR decline was constructed after evaluating individual covariates. We constructed multivariate Cox-regression models for rapid eGFR decline and mortality. Among 331 SCD patients (median age 29 years [interquartile range, IQR: 20, 41]; 187 [56·5%] female) followed for median 4·01 years (IQR: 1·66, 7·19), rapid eGFR decline was noted in 103 (31·1%). History of stroke (odds ratio [OR]: 2·91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·25-6·77) and use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (OR: 3·17, 95% CI: 1·28-7·84) were associated with rapid eGFR decline. The rate of eGFR change over time was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 0·99, 95% CI: 0·984-0·995, P = 0·0002). In Cox-regression, rapid eGFR decline associated with mortality (HR: 2·07, 95% CI: 1·039-4·138, P = 0·04) adjusting for age, sex and history of stroke. Rapid eGFR decline is common in SCD and associated with increased mortality. Long-term studies are needed to determine whether attenuating loss of kidney function may decrease mortality in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Modelos Biológicos , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/mortalidade , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
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