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1.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 110(5): 1079-1087, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization studies in adults suggest that abdominal adiposity is causally associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease in adults, but its causal effect on cardiometabolic risk in children remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the causal relation of abdominal adiposity with cardiometabolic risk factors in children by applying Mendelian randomization. METHODS: We constructed a genetic risk score (GRS) using variants previously associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) and examined its associations with cardiometabolic factors by linear regression and Mendelian randomization in a meta-analysis of 6 cohorts, including 9895 European children and adolescents aged 3-17 y. RESULTS: WHRadjBMI GRS was associated with higher WHRadjBMI (ß = 0.021 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.016, 0.026 SD/allele; P = 3 × 10-15) and with unfavorable concentrations of blood lipids (higher LDL cholesterol: ß = 0.006 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.011 SD/allele; P = 0.025; lower HDL cholesterol: ß = -0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: -0.012, -0.002 SD/allele; P = 0.009; higher triglycerides: ß = 0.007 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.012 SD/allele; P = 0.006). No differences were detected between prepubertal and pubertal/postpubertal children. The WHRadjBMI GRS had a stronger association with fasting insulin in children and adolescents with overweight/obesity (ß = 0.016 SD/allele; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.032 SD/allele; P = 0.037) than in those with normal weight (ß = -0.002 SD/allele; 95% CI: -0.010, 0.006 SD/allele; P = 0.605) (P for difference = 0.034). In a 2-stage least-squares regression analysis, each genetically instrumented 1-SD increase in WHRadjBMI increased circulating triglycerides by 0.17 mmol/L (0.35 SD, P = 0.040), suggesting that the relation between abdominal adiposity and circulating triglycerides may be causal. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal adiposity may have a causal, unfavorable effect on plasma triglycerides and potentially other cardiometabolic risk factors starting in childhood. The results highlight the importance of early weight management through healthy dietary habits and physically active lifestyle among children with a tendency for abdominal adiposity.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504550

RESUMO

Although hundreds of GWAS-implicated loci have been reported for adult obesity-related traits, less is known about the genetics specific for early-onset obesity, and with only a few studies conducted in non-European populations to date. Searching for additional genetic variants associated with childhood obesity, we performed a trans-ancestral meta-analysis of thirty studies consisting of up to 13,005 cases (≥95th percentile of BMI achieved 2-18 years old) and 15,599 controls (consistently <50th percentile of BMI) of European, African, North/South American and East Asian ancestry. Suggestive loci were taken forward for replication in a sample of 1,888 cases and 4,689 controls from seven cohorts of European and North/South American ancestry. In addition to observing eighteen previously implicated BMI or obesity loci, for both early and late onset, we uncovered one completely novel locus in this trans-ancestral analysis (nearest gene: METTL15). The variant was nominally associated in only the European subgroup analysis but had a consistent direction of effect in other ethnicities. We then utilized trans-ancestral Bayesian analysis to narrow down the location of the probable causal variant at each genome-wide significant signal. Of all the fine-mapped loci, we were able to narrow down the causative variant at four known loci to fewer than ten SNPs (FAIM2, GNPDA2, MC4R and SEC16B loci). In conclusion, an ethnically diverse setting has enabled us to both identify an additional pediatric obesity locus and further fine-map existing loci.

3.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 51(10): 730-737, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364897

RESUMO

Background: Mucormycosis is a rare, worldwide fungal infection with high mortality, which mostly affects immunocompromised patients. Compared to large parts of Asia, Europe, and the USA, information on clinical expression and fungal species distribution in mucormycosis in Turkey is limited. Objectives and methods: The main aim of this study was to evaluate the demographic features of mucormycosis cases, identify the isolates at the species level by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF), compare culture results with histopathological examination and determine the antifungal susceptibility patterns of the pathogens. Results: Between 2016 and 2018, 10 mucormycosis cases (six female, four male; age range: 35-74 years) were evaluated retrospectively. The predominance of the cases were in late autumn and winter. Diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying condition. Seven patients had rhinoorbitocerebral, two had pulmonary and one had cutaneous mucormycosis. By mycological culture and direct microscopic examination nine strains were identified as Rhizopus spp. and one as Mucor spp. Seven of these strains were identified at the species level by MALDI-TOF. Histopathological examination of eight tissues were reported as compatible with mucormycosis. All isolates were resistant to azoles and echinocandins. Two isolates were resistant to Amphotericin B and one was resistant to posaconazole. Surgical debridement combined with antifungal therapy was the main treatment option. The mortality rate was 40% (n = 4) and the mean number of days between the onset of complaints and the initiation of treatment was 9.25. Conclusions: Early, rapid and accurate diagnosis of mucormycosis is of critical importance in the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(10): 2007-2016, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most obese children show cardiometabolic impairments, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Yet some obese children retain a normal cardiometabolic profile. The mechanisms underlying this variability remain largely unknown. We examined whether genetic loci associated with increased insulin sensitivity and relatively higher fat storage on the hip than on the waist in adults are associated with a normal cardiometabolic profile despite higher adiposity in children. METHODS: We constructed a genetic score using variants previously linked to increased insulin sensitivity and/or decreased waist-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and examined the associations of this genetic score with adiposity and cardiometabolic impairments in a meta-analysis of six cohorts, including 7391 European children aged 3-18 years. RESULTS: The genetic score was significantly associated with increased degree of obesity (higher BMI-SDS beta = 0.009 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.003; higher body fat mass beta = 0.009, SE = 0.004, P = 0.031), yet improved body fat distribution (lower WHRadjBMI beta = -0.014 SD/allele, SE = 0.006, P = 0.016), and favorable concentrations of blood lipids (higher HDL cholesterol: beta = 0.010 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.002; lower triglycerides: beta = -0.011 SD/allele, SE = 0.003, P = 0.001) adjusted for age, sex, and puberty. No differences were detected between prepubertal and pubertal/postpubertal children. The genetic score predicted a normal cardiometabolic profile, defined by the presence of normal glucose and lipid concentrations, among obese children (OR = 1.07 CI 95% 1.01-1.13, P = 0.012, n = 536). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic predisposition to higher body fat yet lower cardiometabolic risk exerts its influence before puberty.

5.
Curr Pharm Des ; 25(15): 1729-1739, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many of the activities associated with pepper fruits have been attributed to piperine, the most active compound present in these spices. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide an overview of the known properties of piperine, i.e. piperine's chemistry, its physiological activity, documented interactions as a bioenhancer and reported data concerning its toxicity, antioxidant properties and anticancer activity. DISCUSSION: It is known that piperine possesses several properties. In its interaction with other drugs, it can act as a bioavailability enhancer; this effect is also manifested in combination with other nutraceuticals, e.g. with curcumin, i.e. piperine can modify curcumin's antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer effects. Piperine displays significant immunomodulating, antioxidant, chemopreventive and anticancer activity; these effects have been shown to be dose-dependent and tissue-specific. However, the main limitation associated with piperine seems to be its low bioavailability, a disadvantage that innovative formulations are overcoming. CONCLUSION: It is predicted that an increasing number of studies will focus on piperine, especially those directed towards unraveling its properties at molecular level. The current knowledge about the action of piperine will form a foundation for ways to improve piperine's bioavailability e.g. exploitation of different carrier systems. The therapeutical applications of this compound will be clarified, and piperine will be recognized as an important nutraceutical.

6.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 159-167, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205039

RESUMO

Invasive candidiasis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, which primarily occurs in intensive care units. The Candida colonization index is an accepted score as an early warning tool for invasive candidiasis. This study was performed in a medical PICU with patients prone to contracting invasive candidiasis, to determine the usefulness of the Candida colonization index in forecasting invasive candidiasis in children. This prospective study including 87 patients (children 1 month to 16 years old with several illnesses and requiring ICU care) was conducted in a 22-bed medical PICU, Health Science University of Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, between January 2015 and September 2016. Those patients not on antifungal therapy, who were expected to stay more than seven days in PICU and had no history of a PICU stay within the previous two months were included in the study. In all patients, rectal, cervical, throat, axillary, perineal and nasal swab cultures, urine culture and blood culture tests were performed at admission and every week throughout their stay. Overall, 2639 swab and urine cultures (mean: 30.3) and 325 blood cultures (mean: 3.73) were obtained from 87 patients and a total of 576 grew Candida spp. In patients' swab and urine cultures C. albicans was detected in 64.5%, C. parapsilosis in 12.1%, C. glabrata in 7.5%, Saccharomyces spp in 3.0 %, C. tropicalis in 2.4%, C. krusei in 2.1% and C. kefyr in 1.2%. Three patients had C. albicans and one had C. parapsilosis growth in blood culture. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for CI were found to be 33.73%, 100%, 6.7%, and 100%, respectively. Patients are at risk of fungal infection in paediatric intensive care units. Specificity and the negative predictive value of 100 % indicate that CI is a useful score to rule out the presence of invasive fungal disease. On the other hand, the low rate of sensitivity (33.3 %) and positive predictive value (6,7%) make this score less reliable in forecasting invasive candidiasis in children.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866573

RESUMO

Oxidative stress resulting from decreased antioxidant protection and increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) production may contribute to muscle mass loss and dysfunction during aging. Curcumin is a phenolic compound shown to upregulate antioxidant defenses and directly quench RONS in vivo. This study determined the impact of prolonged dietary curcumin exposure on muscle mass and function of aged rats. Thirty-two-month-old male F344xBN rats were provided a diet with or without 0.2% curcumin for 4 months. The groups included: ad libitum control (CON; n = 18); 0.2% curcumin (CUR; n = 18); and pair-fed (PAIR; n = 18) rats. CUR rats showed lower food intake compared to CON, making PAIR a suitable comparison group. CUR rats displayed larger plantaris mass and force production (vs. PAIR). Nuclear fraction levels of nuclear factor erythroid-2 related-factor-2 were greater, and oxidative macromolecule damage was lower in CUR (vs. PAIR). There were no significant differences in measures of antioxidant status between any of the groups. No difference in any measure was observed between CUR and CON rats. Thus, consumption of curcumin coupled with reduced food intake imparted beneficial effects on aged skeletal muscle. The benefit of curcumin on aging skeletal muscle should be explored further.


Assuntos
Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Animais , Curcumina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos
8.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 126(4): 799-809, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653415

RESUMO

Excessive iron loading may cause skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness because of its free radical generating properties. To determine whether a clinically relevant degree of iron loading impairs skeletal muscle function, young male mice received injections of iron dextran (4 mg iron/200 µl) or 2 mM d-glucose (control) 5 days/week for 2 weeks ( n = 10/group). Systemic iron loading induced an approximate fourfold increase in the skeletal muscle nonheme iron concentration. Soleus specific tension (1, 30-250 Hz) was lower among iron-loaded animals compared with controls despite similar body mass and muscle mass. Soleus lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxynonenal adducts) and protein oxidation (protein carbonyls) levels were similar between groups. In gastrocnemius muscle, reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase activity were similar but glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and the GSSG/GSH ratio were greater in iron-loaded muscle. A greater protein expression level of endogenous thiol antioxidant thioredoxin (TRX) was observed among iron-loaded muscle whereas its endogenous inhibitor thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNip) and the TRX/TXNip ratio were similar. Glutaredoxin2, a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activated by GSSG-induced destabilization of its iron-sulfur [2Fe-2S] cluster, was lower following iron loading. Additionally, protein levels of α-actinin and αII-spectrin at 240 kDa were lower in the iron-loaded group. Ryanodine receptor stabilizing subunit calstabin1 was also lower following iron loading. In summary, the contractile dysfunction that resulted from moderate iron loading may be mediated by a disturbance in the muscle redox balance and from changes arising from an increased proteolytic response and aberrant sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although severe iron loading is known to cause muscle oxidative stress and dysfunction, the effects of a moderate degree of systemic iron loading on muscle contractile function and biochemical responses remain unclear. This study demonstrates that a pathophysiological elevation in the skeletal muscle iron load leads to force deficits that coincide with impaired redox status, structural integrity, and lower ryanodine receptor-associated calstabin1 in the absence of muscle mass changes or oxidative damage.

9.
Eur J Sport Sci ; : 1-9, 2018 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132382

RESUMO

Irisin is a myokine that is thought to be secreted in response to exercise that may help to prevent obesity and maintain normal glucose metabolism. In this study we investigated the associations between irisin and glucose homeostasis in middle-aged, overweight and obese men (n = 144) with impaired glucose regulation, and the impact of exercise training on these relationships. The participants underwent 12 weeks of resistance or aerobic (Nordic walking) exercise training three times per week, 60 minutes per session. Venous blood (n = 105) and skeletal muscle samples (n = 45) were obtained at baseline and post-intervention. Compared to controls, Nordic walking, but not resistance training, increased irisin levels in plasma (9.6 ± 4.2%, P = 0.014; 8.7 ± 4.9%, P = 0.087; respectively) compared to controls. When considering all subjects, baseline irisin correlated positively with atherogenic index of plasma (r = 0.244, P = 0.013) and 2-hour insulin levels (r = 0.214, P = 0.028), and negatively with age (r = -0.262, P = 0.007), adiponectin (r = -0.240, P = 0.014) and McAuley index (r = -0.259, P = 0.008). Training-induced FNDC5 mRNA changes were negatively correlated with HbA1c (r = -0.527, P = 0.030) in the resistance training group and with chemerin in the Nordic walking group (r = -0.615, P = 0.033). In conclusion, 12-weeks of Nordic walking was more effective than resistance training in elevating plasma irisin, in middle-aged men with impaired glucose tolerance. Thus, the change in irisin in response to exercise training varied by the type of exercise but showed limited association with improvements in glucose homeostasis.

10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 2894247, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29765493

RESUMO

The current study examined the effect of aging and long-term wheel-running on the expression of heat shock protein (HSP), redox regulation, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in tibialis anterior (T.A.) and soleus muscle of mice. Male mice were divided into young (Y, 3-month-old), old-sedentary (OS, 24-month-old), and old-exercise (OE, 24-month-old) groups. The OE group started voluntary wheel-running at 3 months and continued until 24 months of age. Aging was associated with a higher thioredoxin-interacting protein (TxNiP) level, lower thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1) to TxNiP ratio-a determinant of redox regulation and increased CHOP, an indicator of ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in both muscles. Notably, GRP78, a key indicator of ER stress, was selectively elevated in T.A. Long-term exercise decreased TxNiP in T.A. and soleus muscles and increased the TRX-1/TxNiP ratio in soleus muscle of aged mice. Inducible HSP70 and constituent HSC70 were upregulated, whereas CHOP was reduced after exercise in soleus muscle. Thus, our data demonstrated that aging induced oxidative stress and activated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas long-term wheel-running improved redox regulation, ER stress adaptation and attenuated ER stress-related apoptosis signaling. These findings suggest that life-long exercise can protect against age-related cellular stress.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Idoso , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
11.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 20(3): e12871, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29512304

RESUMO

Skin infections caused by Paecilomyces species have been rarely described in patients with solid organ transplantation. Cutaneous manifestations are highly variable and include erythematous macules, nodules, pustules, and vesicular and necrotic lesions. The diagnosis of these infections is generally made by examination of a skin biopsy. Management of these fungal infections is difficult due to the immunocompromised state of the patients. Moreover, antifungal therapy and immunosuppressive drug interactions should be considered during treatment management. Herein, we reported a case of cellulitis caused by Paecilomyces variotii in a 56-year-old man who had undergone a kidney transplantation. Erythematous macular and nodular lesions on the left hand and left foot appeared first; within 2 months the skin lesions became ulcerated, hemorrhagic, and progressively painful and the patient was admitted to our hospital. The diagnosis was made by skin biopsy and tissue culture. The skin lesions resolved by the sixth week of the treatment with voriconazole.


Assuntos
Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Paecilomyces/isolamento & purificação , Pele/patologia , Transplantados , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatomicoses/etiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paecilomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(1): 88-102, 2018 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29304378

RESUMO

Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by DXA is used to evaluate bone health. In children, total body (TB) measurements are commonly used; in older individuals, BMD at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) is used to diagnose osteoporosis. To date, genetic variants in more than 60 loci have been identified as associated with BMD. To investigate the genetic determinants of TB-BMD variation along the life course and test for age-specific effects, we performed a meta-analysis of 30 genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of TB-BMD including 66,628 individuals overall and divided across five age strata, each spanning 15 years. We identified variants associated with TB-BMD at 80 loci, of which 36 have not been previously identified; overall, they explain approximately 10% of the TB-BMD variance when combining all age groups and influence the risk of fracture. Pathway and enrichment analysis of the association signals showed clustering within gene sets implicated in the regulation of cell growth and SMAD proteins, overexpressed in the musculoskeletal system, and enriched in enhancer and promoter regions. These findings reveal TB-BMD as a relevant trait for genetic studies of osteoporosis, enabling the identification of variants and pathways influencing different bone compartments. Only variants in ESR1 and close proximity to RANKL showed a clear effect dependency on age. This most likely indicates that the majority of genetic variants identified influence BMD early in life and that their effect can be captured throughout the life course.

13.
Bone ; 108: 106-114, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307776

RESUMO

Lean body mass (LM) has been positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in children and adolescents, but the relationship between body fat mass (FM) and BMD remains controversial. Several biomarkers secreted by adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, or bone may affect bone metabolism and BMD. We investigated the associations of LM, FM, and such biomarkers with BMD in children. We studied a population sample of 472 prepubertal Finnish children (227 girls, 245 boys) aged 6-8years. We assessed BMD, LM, and FM using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and analysed several biomarkers from fasting blood samples. We studied the associations of LM, FM, and the biomarkers with BMD of the whole body excluding the head using linear regression analysis. LM (standardized regression coefficient ß=0.708, p<0.001), FM (ß=0.358, p<0.001), and irisin (ß=0.079, p=0.048) were positive correlates for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height in all children. These associations remained statistically significant after further adjustment for LM or FM. The positive associations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS), insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), leptin, free leptin index, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the negative association of leptin receptor with BMD were explained by FM. The positive associations of DHEAS and HOMA-IR with BMD were also explained by LM. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was a positive correlate for BMD adjusted for age, sex, and height and after further adjustment for FM but not for LM. LM and FM were positive correlates for BMD also in girls and boys separately. In girls, insulin, HOMA-IR, leptin, and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height, and FM, none of the biomarkers was associated with BMD. In boys, leptin and free leptin index were positively and leptin receptor was negatively associated with BMD adjusted for age, height, and LM. After adjustment for age, height and FM, 25(OH)D was positively and IGF-1 and leptin were negatively associated with BMD. FM strongly modified the association between leptin and BMD. LM but also FM were strong, independent positive correlates for BMD in all children, girls, and boys. Irisin was positively and independently associated with BMD in all children. The associations of other biomarkers with BMD were explained by LM or FM.

14.
Redox Biol ; 13: 421-425, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28697486

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic condition caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. Persons with DS exhibit pronounced muscle weakness, which also occurs in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Oxidative stress is thought to be an underlying factor in the development of DS-related pathologies including muscle dysfunction. High-levels of oxidative stress have been attributed to triplication and elevated expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1); a gene located on chromosome 21. The elevated expression of SOD1 is postulated to increase production of hydrogen peroxide and cause oxidative injury and cell death. However, it is unknown whether SOD1 protein expression is associated with greater oxidant production in skeletal muscle from Ts65Dn mice. Thus, our objective was to assess levels of SOD1 expression and oxidant production in skeletal myofibers from the flexor digitorum brevis obtained from Ts65Dn and control mice. Measurements of oxidant production were obtained from myofibers loaded with 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA) in the basal state and following 15min of stimulated unloaded contraction. Ts65Dn myofibers exhibited a significant decrease in basal DCF emissions (p < 0.05) that was associated with an approximate 3-fold increase in SOD1 (p < 0.05). DCF emissions were not affected by stimulating contraction of Ts65Dn or wild-type myofibers (p > 0.05). Myofibers from Ts65Dn mice tended to be smaller and myonuclear domain was lower (p < 0.05). In summary, myofibers from Ts65Dn mice exhibited decreased basal DCF emissions that were coupled with elevated protein expression of SOD1. Stimulated contraction in isolated myofibers did not affect DCF emissions in either group. These findings suggest the skeletal muscle dysfunction in the adult Ts65Dn mouse is not associated with skeletal muscle oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Down/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Contração Muscular , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética
15.
Infez Med ; 25(1): 38-44, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28353454

RESUMO

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in paediatric patients. Early diagnosis and the initiation of efficacious antifungal treatments could affect the prognosis of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical contribution of Galactomannan (GM) screening in paediatric patients. We reviewed the records of all in-patients, and followed up, in the various units at the Medical Faculty Children's Hospital of Erciyes University (Kayseri, Turkey), those who had at least one GM assay result from August 2009 to April 2012. Paediatric patients were classified as proven, probable or possible, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG). Twenty-five patients, with proven IA (n=3), probable IA (n=9) and possible IA (n=13) were included in the study. The GM antigen assay results were analysed in 158 blood samples from 47 patients. At the cut-off value of 0.5 ng/ml, the sensitivity was 68% [95% confidence interval (CI); 47-85]; specificity, 77% (95% CI; 55-92). To obtain more accurate results with GM testing, the diagnosis of IA should be confirmed by clinical investigation and the factors causing false positivity of the test should also be considered.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Mananas/sangue , Neutropenia , Adolescente , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/sangue , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais Pediátricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Turquia/epidemiologia
16.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 51(1): 87-93, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28283014

RESUMO

Saprochaete capitata (formerly known as Blastoschizomyces capitatus, Trichosporon capitatum, Geotrichum capitatum) is a rare but emerging yeast-like fungus. It is commonly found in environmental sources and can be isolated from skin, gastrointestinal system and respiratory tract of healthy individuals as well. It mainly infects patients with hematological malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), especially in the presence of neutropenia; and mortality rates are high in those patients. Although the data about the in vitro antifungal susceptibility are limited, it is being reported that amphotericin B and voriconazole are more effective on S.capitata isolates whereas caspofungin had no activity. Here, we report a case of fungemia and septic arthritis due to S.capitata in a patient with Fanconi aplastic anemia. A 22-year-old male patient with Fanconi aplastic anemia was hospitalized in our hematology department for bone marrow transplantation. Two days after the hospitalization, neutropenic fever developed and multiple nodules similar to candidiasis were detected in his liver with the whole abdomen magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Caspofungin treatment (single 70 mg/kg loading dose, followed by 1 x 50 mg/kg/day) was started. The patient remained febrile, and his blood culture yielded S.capitata. The treatment regimen was changed to a combination of liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/day) and voriconazole (2 x 4 mg/kg/day). A few days later, pain and swelling came out on patient's left knee and he underwent a surgical process with the prediagnosis of septic arthritis. Culture of synovial fluid was also positive for S.capitata. On the 26th day of the hospitalization, the patient died due to sepsis and multiple organ failure. Patient's blood and synovial fluid samples were incubated in BacT/Alert automated blood culture system (bioMérieux, France). After receiving the growth signal, yeast cells were seen in Gram staining and cream-coloured, wrinkled, yeast-like colonies that were able to grow at 45oC and resistant to cycloheximide were detected on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Urease test was negative, and according to API 20C AUX (bioMérieux, France) system, none of the carbonhydrates were utilized except glucose. The isolates that were able to produce annelloconidia in corn meal-Tween 80 agar slide culture were identified as S.capitata. The identification was further confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin were found to be 0.5 µg/ml, 1.5 µg/ml, 0.032 µg/ml, and > 16 µg/ml respectively. Repetitive sequence based PCR (rep-PCR) (DiversiLab system, bioMérieux, France) was used to determine clonal relatedness of the isolates from blood and synovial fluid samples. The isolates were indistinguishable (similarity coefficient > 97%) according to rep-PCR. In conclusion, S.capitata infections should be taken into consideration in the presence of fungemia and septic arthritis in hematological patients who receive caspofungin therapy.


Assuntos
Artrite Infecciosa/microbiologia , Anemia de Fanconi/complicações , Fungemia/microbiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales/patogenicidade , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Anemia de Fanconi/cirurgia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Mycoses ; 60(5): 348-354, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220547

RESUMO

Dermatophyte species, isolation and identification in clinical samples are still difficult and take a long time. The identification and molecular epidemiology of dermatophytes commonly isolated in a clinical laboratory in Turkey by repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) were assessed by comparing the results with those of reference identification. A total of 44 dermatophytes isolated from various clinical specimens of 20 patients with superficial mycoses in Kayseri and 24 patients in Hatay were studied. The identification of dermatophyte isolates was based on the reference identification and rep-PCR using the DiversiLab System (BioMerieux). The genotyping of dermatophyte isolates from different patients was determined by rep-PCR. In the identification of dermatophyte isolates, agreement between rep-PCR and conventional methods was 87.8 % ( 36 of 41). The dermatophyte strains belonged to four clones (A -D) which were determined by the use of rep-PCR. The dermatophyte strains in Clone B, D showed identical patterns with respect to the region. In conclusion, rep-PCR appears to be useful for evaluation of the identification and clonal relationships between Trichophyton rubrum species complex and Trichophyton mentagrophytes species complex isolates. The similarity and diversity of these isolates may be assessed according to different regions by rep-PCR.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/genética , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , DNA Fúngico/genética , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Trichophyton/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Trichophyton/classificação , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Sports Sci ; 35(23): 2342-2349, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966392

RESUMO

We investigated how cytokines are implicated with overtraining syndrome (OTS) in athletes during a prolonged period of recovery. Plasma IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IL-1ß, adipokine leptin, and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations were measured in overtrained (OA: 5 men, 2 women) and healthy control athletes (CA: 5 men, 5 women) before and after exercise to volitional exhaustion. Measurements were conducted at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Inflammatory cytokines did not differ between groups at rest. However, resting leptin concentration was lower in OA than CA at every measurement (P < 0.050) but was not affected by acute exercise. Although IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations increased with exercise in both groups (P < 0.050), pro-inflammatory IL-1ß concentration increased only in OA (P < 0.050) and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was greater in CA (P < 0.001). In OA, exercise-related IL-6 and TNF-α induction was enhanced during the follow-up (P < 0.050). IGF-1 decreased with exercise in OA (P < 0.050); however, no differences in resting IGF-1 were observed. In conclusion, low leptin level at rest and a pro-inflammatory cytokine response to acute exercise may reflect a chronic maladaptation state in overtrained athletes. In contrast, the accentuation of IL-6 and TNF-α responses to acute exercise seemed to associate with the progression of recovery from overtraining.


Assuntos
Citocinas/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Síndrome , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
19.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 99: 308-322, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27554968

RESUMO

Protein homeostasis in cells, proteostasis, is maintained through several integrated processes and pathways and its dysregulation may mediate pathology in many diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Oxidative stress, heat shock proteins, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and its response, i.e. unfolded protein response (UPR), play key roles in proteostasis but their involvement in the pathology of DMD are largely unknown. Moreover, exercise and activin receptor IIB blocking are two strategies that may be beneficial to DMD muscle, but studies to examine their effects on these proteostasis pathways are lacking. Therefore, these pathways were examined in the muscle of mdx mice, a model of DMD, under basal conditions and in response to seven weeks of voluntary exercise and/or activin receptor IIB ligand blocking using soluble activin receptor-Fc (sAcvR2B-Fc) administration. In conjunction with reduced muscle strength, mdx muscle displayed greater levels of UPR/ER-pathway indicators including greater protein levels of IRE1α, PERK and Atf6b mRNA. Downstream to IRE1α and PERK, spliced Xbp1 mRNA and phosphorylation of eIF2α, were also increased. Most of the cytoplasmic and ER chaperones and mitochondrial UPR markers were unchanged in mdx muscle. Oxidized glutathione was greater in mdx and was associated with increases in lysine acetylated proteome and phosphorylated sirtuin 1. Exercise increased oxidative stress when performed independently or combined with sAcvR2B-Fc administration. Although neither exercise nor sAcvR2B-Fc administration imparted a clear effect on ER stress/UPR pathways or heat shock proteins, sAcvR2B-Fc administration increased protein expression levels of GRP78/BiP, a triggering factor for ER stress/UPR activation and TxNIP, a redox-regulator of ER stress-induced inflammation. In conclusion, the ER stress and UPR are increased in mdx muscle. However, these processes are not distinctly improved by voluntary exercise or blocking activin receptor IIB ligands and thus do not appear to be optimal therapeutic choices for improving proteostasis in DMD.


Assuntos
Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/genética , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Proteostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 6 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/genética , Receptores de Activinas Tipo II/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Endorribonucleases/genética , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/genética , Fator de Iniciação 2 em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos mdx , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/metabolismo , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/patologia , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/terapia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Proteostase/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/genética , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo
20.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 50(3): 438-48, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27525399

RESUMO

The colonization rate of Candida spp. reaches up to 80% in patients who reside in intensive care units (ICUs) more than a week, and the mean rate of development of invasive disease is 10% in colonized patients. Since invasive candidiasis (IC) in ICU patients presents with septic shock and high mortality rate, rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between invasive infection and the determination of Candida colonization index (CI) and Candida score (CS) in patients admitted to ICU who are at high risk for IC and likely to benefit from early antifungal therapy. A total of 80 patients (34 female, 46 male; age range: 12-92 years, mean age: 69.57 ± 16.30) who were in ICU over seven days or longer of Anesthesia Department of Kayseri Education and Research Hospital between April, 2014 and July, 2015 were included in the study. None of the patients were neutropenic. After admission, throat, nose, skin (axillary region), urine, rectal swab and blood cultures have been collected weekly beginning from day zero. Isolation and identification of Candida strains were performed by using conventional mycological methods. CI was calculated as the ratio of the number of culture-positive distinct body sites (except blood culture) to the total number of body sites cultured. CI> 0.2 was considered as fungal colonization, while CI≥ 0.5 as intensive colonization. CS value was calculated according to the components including total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (plus 0.908 points), surgery (plus 0.907 points), colonization in multiple areas (plus 1.112) and severe sepsis (plus 2.038 points), and cut-off value for CS was accepted as >2.5. In our study, overall 1009 cultures (mean: 13 cultures per patient) were taken from 80 patients, and yeast growth was detected in 365 (36.2%) of them. Accordingly, among 68 (85%) of 80 patients included, in at least one sample, yeast growth was determined. No yeast growth was observed in the blood cultures. Of 365 yeast-positive cultures, C.albicans was isolated from 184 (50.4%), C.glabrata from 66 (18%), C.parapsilosis from 42 (11.5%), C.tropicalis from 12 (3.3%), C.kefyr from three (0.8%), and C.krusei from one (0.3%) samples, whereas six (1.6%) samples yielded other yeasts (3 Saprochaete capitata, 3 Trichosporon spp.) and 51 (13.9%) samples yielded multiple yeast growth. The highest colonization rates were detected in rectal swabs (27.4%), urine (23.3%) and throat (22.5%) samples. CI value was found as >0.2 in 65% (52/80), and ≥0.5 in 25% (20/80) of the patients, whereas CS value was >2.5 in only 2.5% (2/80) of the patients. In the statistical evaluation, significant correlations were found between fungal colonization (CI> 0.2) and gender (p=0.032) and length of stay in ICU (p=0.004), and between intensive colonization (CI≥ 0.5) and gender (p=0.008) and age (p=0.012). However, the correlation between Candida colonization and the presence of underlying diseases, APACHE II score, Glasgow coma scale, invasive procedures, use of extended-spectrum antibiotics, presence of bacterial infections, haemodialysis, transfusion and history of previous hospitalization was not statistically significant. Our results have also indicated a statistically significant relationship between fungal colonization and the positivity of C.albicans, C.glabrata, C.parapsilosis ang C.albicans/C.glabrata (p=0.001, p=0.002, p=0.008 and p=0.028, respectively), emphasizing the importance of species-level identification of Candida isolates. The reason of lacking of IC development in our patients may be explained by their low CI and CS values. In conclusion, monitoring of ICU patients who are at high risk for IC in terms of CI and CS would be beneficial. However it is clear that our data need to be supported by multi-center and high-scale studies.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candida glabrata/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candidíase/microbiologia , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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