Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 125
Filtrar
1.
Geroscience ; 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562202

RESUMO

Impairments in muscle microvascular function are associated with the pathogenesis of sarcopenia and cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an intervention by which a myriad of beneficial skeletal muscle/cardiovascular adaptations have been reported across age, including capillarisation and improved endothelial function. Herein, we hypothesised that HIIT would enhance muscle microvascular blood flow and vascular reactivity to acute contractile activity in older adults, reflecting HIIT-induced vascular remodelling. In a randomised controlled-trial, twenty-five healthy older adults aged 65-85 years (mean BMI 27.0) were randomised to 6-week HIIT or a no-intervention control period of an equal duration. Measures of microvascular responses to a single bout of muscle contractions (i.e. knee extensions) were made in the m. vastus lateralis using contrast-enhanced ultrasound during a continuous intravenous infusion of Sonovue™ contrast agent, before and after the intervention period, with concomitant assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness and resting blood pressure. HIIT led to improvements in anaerobic threshold (13.2 ± 3.4 vs. 15.3 ± 3.8 ml/kg/min, P < 0.001), dynamic exercise capacity (145 ± 60 vs. 159 ± 59 W, P < 0.001) and resting (systolic) blood pressure (142 ± 15 vs. 133 ± 11 mmHg, P < 0.01). Notably, HIIT elicited significant increases in microvascular blood flow responses to acute contractile activity (1.8 ± 0.63 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 (arbitrary contrast units (AU), P < 0.01)), with no change in any of these parameters observed in the control group. Six weeks HIIT improves skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness to acute contractile activity in the form of active hyperaemia-induced by a single bout of resistance exercise. These findings likely reflect reports of enhanced large vessel distensibility, improved endothelial function, and muscle capillarisation following HIIT. Moreover, our findings illustrate that HIIT may be effective in mitigating deleterious alterations in muscle microvascular mediated aspects of sarcopenia.

2.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21830, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342902

RESUMO

Muscle disuse leads to a rapid decline in muscle mass, with reduced muscle protein synthesis (MPS) considered the primary physiological mechanism. Here, we employed a systems biology approach to uncover molecular networks and key molecular candidates that quantitatively link to the degree of muscle atrophy and/or extent of decline in MPS during short-term disuse in humans. After consuming a bolus dose of deuterium oxide (D2 O; 3 mL.kg-1 ), eight healthy males (22 ± 2 years) underwent 4 days of unilateral lower-limb immobilization. Bilateral muscle biopsies were obtained post-intervention for RNA sequencing and D2 O-derived measurement of MPS, with thigh lean mass quantified using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Application of weighted gene co-expression network analysis identified 15 distinct gene clusters ("modules") with an expression profile regulated by disuse and/or quantitatively connected to disuse-induced muscle mass or MPS changes. Module scans for candidate targets established an experimentally tractable set of candidate regulatory molecules (242 hub genes, 31 transcriptional regulators) associated with disuse-induced maladaptation, many themselves potently tied to disuse-induced reductions in muscle mass and/or MPS and, therefore, strong physiologically relevant candidates. Notably, we implicate a putative role for muscle protein breakdown-related molecular networks in impairing MPS during short-term disuse, and further establish DEPTOR (a potent mTOR inhibitor) as a critical mechanistic candidate of disuse driven MPS suppression in humans. Overall, these findings offer a strong benchmark for accelerating mechanistic understanding of short-term muscle disuse atrophy that may help expedite development of therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/genética , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044676, 2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Means-based analysis of maximal rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max) has traditionally been used as the exercise response indicator to assess the efficacy of endurance (END), high intensity interval (HIIT) and resistance exercise training (RET) for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and whole-body health. However, considerable heterogeneity exists in the interindividual variability response to the same or different training modalities. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate exercise response rates in the context of VO2max: (1) in each training modality (END, HIIT and RET) versus controls, (2) in END versus either HIIT or RET and (3) exercise response rates as measured by VO2max versus other indicators of positive exercise response in each exercise modality. METHODS: Three databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CENTRAL) and additional sources were searched. Both individual response rate and population average data were incorporated through continuous data, respectively. Of 3268 identified manuscripts, a total of 29 studies were suitable for qualitative synthesis and a further 22 for quantitative. Stratification based on intervention duration (less than 12 weeks; more than or equal to 12 weeks) was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 62 data points were procured. Both END and HIIT training exhibited differential improvements in VO2max based on intervention duration. VO2max did not adequately differentiate between END and HIIT, irrespective of intervention length. Although none of the other exercise response indicators achieved statistical significance, LT and HRrest demonstrated common trajectories in pooled and separate analyses between modalities. RET data were highly limited. Heterogeneity was ubiquitous across all analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The potential for LT and HRrest as indicators of exercise response requires further elucidation, in addition to the exploration of interventional and intrinsic sources of heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Treinamento de Força , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio
4.
FASEB J ; 35(8): e21773, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324735

RESUMO

Acute hypoxia has previously been suggested to potentiate resistance training-induced hypertrophy by activating satellite cell-dependent myogenesis rather than an improvement in protein balance in human. Here, we tested this hypothesis after a 4-week hypoxic vs normoxic resistance training protocol. For that purpose, 19 physically active male subjects were recruited to perform 6 sets of 10 repetitions of a one-leg knee extension exercise at 80% 1-RM 3 times/week for 4 weeks in normoxia (FiO2 : 0.21; n = 9) or in hypoxia (FiO2 : 0.135, n = 10). Blood and skeletal muscle samples were taken before and after the training period. Muscle fractional protein synthetic rate was measured over the whole period by deuterium incorporation into the protein pool and muscle thickness by ultrasound. At the end of the training protocol, the strength gain was higher in the hypoxic vs the normoxic group despite no changes in muscle thickness and in the fractional protein synthetic rate. Only early myogenesis, as assessed by higher MyoD and Myf5 mRNA levels, appeared to be enhanced by hypoxia compared to normoxia. No effects were found on myosin heavy chain expression, markers of oxidative metabolism and lactate transport in the skeletal muscle. Though the present study failed to unravel clearly the mechanisms by which hypoxic resistance training is particularly potent to increase muscle strength, it is important message to keep in mind that this training strategy could be effective for all athletes looking at developing and optimizing their maximal muscle strength.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068170

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with postprandial muscle vascular and metabolic dysfunction, suggesting vascular modifying interventions may be of benefit. Reflecting this, we investigated the impact of acute cocoa flavanol (450-500 mg) intake (versus placebo control) on vascular (via ultrasound) and glucose/insulin metabolic responses (via arterialised/venous blood samples and ELISA) to an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) in twelve healthy older adults (50% male, 72 ± 4 years), in a crossover design study. The cocoa condition displayed significant increases in m. vastus lateralis microvascular blood volume (MBV) in response to feeding at 180 and 240-min after ONS consumption (baseline: 1.00 vs. 180 min: 1.09 ± 0.03, p = 0.05; 240 min: 1.13 ± 0.04, p = 0.002), with MBV at these timepoints significantly higher than in the control condition (p < 0.05). In addition, there was a trend (p = 0.058) for MBV in m. tibialis anterior to increase in response to ONS in the cocoa condition only. Leg blood flow and vascular conductance increased, and vascular resistance decreased in response to ONS (p < 0.05), but these responses were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Similarly, glucose uptake and insulin increased in response to ONS (p < 0.05) comparably between conditions (p > 0.05). Thus, acute cocoa flavanol supplementation can potentiate oral feeding-induced increases in MBV in older adults, but this improvement does not relay to muscle glucose uptake.


Assuntos
Cacau , Suplementos Nutricionais , Flavonóis/uso terapêutico , Glucose/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Microcirculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Método Simples-Cego
6.
Appl Physiol Nutr Metab ; 46(9): 1147-1151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181868

RESUMO

We explored the views of older (≥65 years) past and potential volunteers in regard to participating in physiology research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an online questionnaire and focus groups, we found that past volunteers (n = 55) were more likely to take part in both acute (p < 0.05) and chronic (p < 0.05) physiology studies, compared with potential future volunteers (n = 57). Both cohorts demonstrated a positive attitude towards volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic, although concern was evident. Novelty: Volunteers demonstrated a positive attitude and also concern towards participating in physiology research during COVID-19.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Fisiologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Voluntários/psicologia , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 866-879, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Declines in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and fat-free mass (FFM) with age are linked to mortality, morbidity and poor quality of life. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve CRF and FFM in many groups, but its efficacy in the very old, in whom comorbidities are present is undefined. We aimed to assess the efficacy of and physiological/metabolic responses to HIIT, in a cohort of octogenarians with comorbidities (e.g. hypertension and osteoarthritis). METHODS: Twenty-eight volunteers (18 men, 10 women, 81.2 ± 0.6 years, 27.1 ± 0.6 kg·m-2 ) with American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) Grade 2-3 status each completed 4 weeks (12 sessions) HIIT after a control period of equal duration. Before and after each 4 week period, subjects underwent body composition assessments and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Quadriceps muscle biopsies (m. vastus lateralis) were taken to quantify anabolic signalling, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and cumulative muscle protein synthesis (MPS) over 4-weeks. RESULTS: In comorbid octogenarians, HIIT elicited improvements in CRF (anaerobic threshold: +1.2 ± 0.4 ml·kg-1 ·min-1 , P = 0.001). HIIT also augmented total FFM (47.2 ± 1.4 to 47.6 ± 1.3 kg, P = 0.04), while decreasing total fat mass (24.8 ± 1.3 to 24 ± 1.2 kg, P = 0.0002) and body fat percentage (33.1 ± 1.5 to 32.1 ± 1.4%, P = 0.0008). Mechanistically, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity increased after HIIT (i.e. citrate synthase activity: 52.4 ± 4 to 67.9 ± 5.1 nmol·min-1 ·mg-1 , P = 0.005; membrane protein complexes (C): C-II, 1.4-fold increase, P = 0.002; C-III, 1.2-fold increase, P = 0.03), as did rates of MPS (1.3 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1%·day-1 , P = 0.03). The increase in MPS was supported by up-regulated phosphorylation of anabolic signalling proteins (e.g. AKT, p70S6K, and 4E-BP1; all P < 0.05). There were no changes in any of these parameters during the control period. No adverse events were reported throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: The HIIT enhances skeletal muscle mass and CRF in octogenarians with disease, with up-regulation of MPS and mitochondrial capacity likely underlying these improvements. HIIT can be safely delivered to octogenarians with disease and is an effective, time-efficient intervention to improve muscle mass and physical function in a short time frame.

8.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(4): 973-982, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of muscle mass is a key determinant of the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We introduce for the first time an ultrasound imaging method for diagnosing sarcopenia based on changes in muscle geometric proportions. METHODS: Vastus lateralis muscle fascicle length (Lf) and thickness (Tm) were measured at 35% distal femur length by ultrasonography in a population of 279 individuals classified as moderately active elderly (MAE), sedentary elderly (SE) (n = 109), mobility impaired elderly (MIE) (n = 43), and in adult young controls (YC) (n = 60). The ratio of Lf/Tm was calculated to obtain an ultrasound index of the loss of muscle mass associated with sarcopenia (USI). In a subsample of elderly male individuals (n = 76) in which corresponding DXA measurements were available (MAE, n = 52 and SE, n = 24), DXA-derived skeletal muscle index (SMI, appendicular limb mass/height2 ) was compared with corresponding USI values. RESULTS: For both young and older participants, USI values were found to be independent of sex, height and body mass. USI values were 3.70 ± 0.52 for YC, 4.50 ± 0.72 for the MAE, 5.05 ± 1.11 for the SE and 6.31 ± 1.38 for the MIE, all significantly different between each other (P < 0.0001). Based on the USI Z-scores, with reference to the YC population, the 219 elderly participants were stratified according to their muscle sarcopenic status. Individuals with USI values within a range of 3.70 < USI ≥ 4.23 were classified as non-sarcopenic (prevalence 23.7%), those with USI values within 4.23 < USI ≥ 4.76 were classified as pre-sarcopenic (prevalence 23.7%), those with USI values within 4.76 < USI ≥ 5.29 were classified as moderately sarcopenic (prevalence 15.1%), those with USI values within range 5.29 < USI ≥ 5.82 were classified as sarcopenic (prevalence 27.9%), and those with USI values >5.82 were classified as severely sarcopenic (prevalence 9.6%). The DXA-derived SMI was found to be significantly correlated with USI (r = 0.61, P < 0.0001). Notably, the USI cut-off value for moderate sarcopenia (4.76 a.u.) was found to coincide with the DXA cut-off value of sarcopenia (7.26 kg/m2 ). CONCLUSIONS: We propose a novel, practical, and inexpensive imaging marker of the loss of muscle mass associated with sarcopenia, called the ultrasound sarcopenic index (USI), based on changes in muscle geometric proportions. These changes provide a useful 'signature of sarcopenia' and allow the stratification of individuals according to the presence and severity of muscle sarcopenia. We are convinced that the USI will be a useful clinical tool for confirming the diagnosis of sarcopenia, of which the assessment of muscle mass is a key-component.

9.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 645881, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177798

RESUMO

Introduction: Assuming myokines underlie some of the health benefits of exercise, we hypothesised that 'high responder trainer' (HRT) rats would exhibit distinct myokine profiles to 'low responder trainers' (LRT), reflecting distinct health and adaptive traits. Methods: Blood was collected from LRT and HRT (N=8) rats at baseline (BL), immediately (0h), 1h, and 3h after running; repeated after 3-wks training. Myokines were analysed by ELISA (i.e. BDNF/Fractalkine/SPARC/Irisin/FGF21/Musclin/IL-6). Results: At baseline, Musclin (LRT: 84 ± 24 vs HRT: 26 ± 3 pg/ml, P=0.05) and FGF21 (LRT: 133 ± 34 vs HRT: 63.5 ± 13 pg/ml, P=0.08) were higher in LRT than HRT. Training increased Musclin in HRT (26 ± 3 to 54 ± 9 pg/ml, P<0.05) and decreased FGF21 in LRT (133 ± 34 to 60 ± 28 pg/ml, P<0.05). Training increased SPARC (LRT: 0.8 ± 0.1 to 2.1 ± 0.6 ng/ml, P<0.05; HRT: 0.7 ± 0.06 to 1.8 ± 0.3 ng/ml, P=0.06) and Irisin (LRT 0.62 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.4 ng/ml, P<0.01; HRT 0.53 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.7 ng/ml, P<0.01) while decreasing BDNF (LRT: 2747 ± 293 to 1081 ± 330 pg/ml, P<0.01; HRT: 1976 ± 328 to 797 ± 160 pg/ml, P<0.05). Acute exercise response of Musclin (AUC) was higher in LRT vs HRT (306 ± 74 vs. 88 ± 12 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01) and elevated in HRT after training (221 ± 31 pg/ml×3h-1, P<0.01). Training elevated SPARC (LRT: 2.4 ± 0.1 to 7.7 ± 1.3 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.05; HRT: 2.5 ± 0.13 to 11.2 ± 2.2 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001) and Irisin (LRT: 1.34 ± 0.3 to 9.6 ± 1.7 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.001; HRT: 1.5 ± 0.5 to 12.1 ± 1.9 ng/ml×3h-1, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Exercise training alters how myokines are secreted in response to acute exercise. Myokine responses were not robustly linked to adaptive potential in aerobic capacity, making them an unlikely regulator of adaptive traits.

10.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 12(3): 629-645, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle atrophy manifests across numerous diseases; however, the extent of similarities/differences in causal mechanisms between atrophying conditions in unclear. Ageing and disuse represent two of the most prevalent and costly atrophic conditions, with resistance exercise training (RET) being the most effective lifestyle countermeasure. We employed gene-level and network-level meta-analyses to contrast transcriptomic signatures of disuse and RET, plus young and older RET to establish a consensus on the molecular features of, and therapeutic targets against, muscle atrophy in conditions of high socio-economic relevance. METHODS: Integrated gene-level and network-level meta-analysis was performed on publicly available microarray data sets generated from young (18-35 years) m. vastus lateralis muscle subjected to disuse (unilateral limb immobilization or bed rest) lasting ≥7 days or RET lasting ≥3 weeks, and resistance-trained older (≥60 years) muscle. RESULTS: Disuse and RET displayed predominantly separate transcriptional responses, and transcripts altered across conditions were mostly unidirectional. However, disuse and RET induced directly inverted expression profiles for mitochondrial function and translation regulation genes, with COX4I1, ENDOG, GOT2, MRPL12, and NDUFV2, the central hub components of altered mitochondrial networks, and ZMYND11, a hub gene of altered translation regulation. A substantial number of genes (n = 140) up-regulated post-RET in younger muscle were not similarly up-regulated in older muscle, with young muscle displaying a more pronounced extracellular matrix (ECM) and immune/inflammatory gene expression response. Both young and older muscle exhibited similar RET-induced ubiquitination/RNA processing gene signatures with associated PWP1, PSMB1, and RAF1 hub genes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited opposing gene profiles, transcriptional signatures of disuse are not simply the converse of RET. Thus, the mechanisms of unloading cannot be derived from studying muscle loading alone and provides a molecular basis for understanding why RET fails to target all transcriptional features of disuse. Loss of RET-induced ECM mechanotransduction and inflammatory profiles might also contribute to suboptimal ageing muscle adaptations to RET. Disuse and age-dependent molecular candidates further establish a framework for understanding and treating disuse/ageing atrophy.

11.
Physiol Rep ; 9(10): e14799, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34042295

RESUMO

The development of safe and practical strategies to prevent weakening of bone tissue is vital, yet attempts to achieve this have been hindered by a lack of understanding of the short-term (days-weeks) physiology of bone collagen turnover. To address this, we have developed a method to quantify bone collagen synthesis in vivo, using deuterium oxide (D2 O) tracer incorporation techniques combined with gas chromatography pyrolysis isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC-pyrolysis-IRMS). Forty-six male and female rats from a selectively bred model ingested D2 O for 3 weeks. Femur diaphyses (FEM), tibia proximal (T-PRO), and distal (T-DIS) epiphyses-metaphyses and tibia mid-shaft diaphyses (T-MID) were obtained from all rats after necropsy. After demineralisation, collagen proteins were isolated and hydrolysed and collagen fractional synthetic rates (FSRs) determined by incorporation of deuterium into protein-bound alanine via GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. The collagen FSR for the FEM (0.131 ± 0.078%/day; 95% CI [0.106-0.156]) was greater than the FSR at T-MID (0.055 ± 0.049%/day; 95% CI [0.040-0.070]; p < 0.001). The T-PRO site had the highest FSR (0.203 ± 0.123%/day; 95% CI [0.166-0.241]) and T-DIS the lowest (0.027 ± 0.015%/day; 95% CI [0.022-0.031]). The three tibial sites exhibited different FSRs (p < 0.001). Herein, we have developed a sensitive method to quantify in vivo bone collagen synthesis and identified site-specific rates of synthesis, which could be applicable to studies of human bone collagen turnover.

12.
Geroscience ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046811

RESUMO

Optimising approaches for measuring skeletal muscle mass and turnover that are widely applicable, minimally invasive and cost effective is crucial in furthering research into sarcopenia and cachexia. Traditional approaches for measurement of muscle protein turnover require infusion of expensive, sterile, isotopically labelled tracers which limits the applicability of these approaches in certain populations (e.g. clinical, frail elderly). To concurrently quantify skeletal muscle mass and muscle protein turnover i.e. muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB), in elderly human volunteers using stable-isotope labelled tracers i.e. Methyl-[D3]-creatine (D3-Cr), deuterium oxide (D2O), and Methyl-[D3]-3-methylhistidine (D3-3MH), to measure muscle mass, MPS and MPB, respectively. We recruited 10 older males (71 ± 4 y, BMI: 25 ± 4 kg.m2, mean ± SD) into a 4-day study, with DXA and consumption of D2O and D3-Cr tracers on day 1. D3-3MH was consumed on day 3, 24 h prior to returning to the lab. From urine, saliva and blood samples, and a single muscle biopsy (vastus lateralis), we determined muscle mass, MPS and MPB. D3-Cr derived muscle mass was positively correlated to appendicular fat-free mass (AFFM) estimated by DXA (r = 0.69, P = 0.027). Rates of cumulative myofibrillar MPS over 3 days were 0.072%/h (95% CI, 0.064 to 0.081%/h). Whole-body MPB over 6 h was 0.052 (95% CI, 0.038 to 0.067). These rates were similar to previous literature. We demonstrate the potential for D3-Cr to be used alongside D2O and D3-3MH for concurrent measurement of muscle mass, MPS, and MPB using a minimally invasive design, applicable for clinical and frail populations.

13.
J Endocrinol ; 249(2): 113-124, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33862598

RESUMO

Vitamin D deficiency is associated with symptoms of skeletal muscle myopathy including muscle weakness and fatigue. Recently, vitamin D-related metabolites have been linked to the maintenance of mitochondrial function within skeletal muscle. However, current evidence is limited to in vitro models and the effects of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency upon skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in vivo have received little attention. In order to examine the role of vitamin D in the maintenance of mitochondrial function in vivo, we utilised an established model of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were either fed a control diet (2200 IU/kg i.e. vitamin D replete) or a vitamin D-deplete (0 IU/kg) diet for periods of 1, 2 and 3 months. Gastrocnemius muscle mitochondrial function and ADP sensitivity were assessed via high-resolution respirometry and mitochondrial protein content via immunoblotting. As a result of 3 months of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency, respiration supported via complex I + II (CI + IIP) and the electron transport chain (ETC) were 35 and 37% lower when compared to vitamin D-replete mice (P < 0.05). Despite functional alterations, citrate synthase activity, AMPK phosphorylation, mitofilin, OPA1 and ETC subunit protein content remained unchanged in response to dietary intervention (P > 0.05). In conclusion, we report that 3 months of diet-induced vitamin D deficiency reduced skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in C57BL/6J mice. Our data, when combined with previous in vitro observations, suggest that vitamin D-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function may underlie the exacerbated muscle fatigue and performance deficits observed during vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue , Animais , Composição Corporal , Cálcio/sangue , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etiologia
14.
Physiol Rep ; 9(6): e14797, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769716

RESUMO

AIM: Exercise is able to increase both muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. However, acidosis, which can occur in pathological states as well as during high-intensity exercise, can decrease mitochondrial function, whilst its impact on muscle protein synthesis is disputed. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of a mild physiological decrease in pH, by administration of ammonium chloride, on myofibrillar and mitochondrial protein synthesis, as well as associated molecular signaling events. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were given either a placebo or ammonium chloride prior to a short interval training session. Rats were killed before exercise, immediately after exercise, or 3 h after exercise. RESULTS: Myofibrillar (p = 0.036) fractional protein synthesis rates was increased immediately after exercise in the soleus muscle of the placebo group, but this effect was absent in the ammonium chloride group. However, in the gastrocnemius muscle NH4 Cl increased myofibrillar (p = 0.044) and mitochondrial protein synthesis (0 h after exercise p = 0.01; 3 h after exercise p = 0.003). This was accompanied by some small differences in protein phosphorylation and mRNA expression. CONCLUSION: This study found ammonium chloride administration immediately prior to a single session of exercise in rats had differing effects on mitochondrial and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in soleus (type I) and gastrocnemius (type II) muscle in rats.

15.
Geroscience ; 43(4): 1555-1565, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763775

RESUMO

Motor unit (MU) expansion enables rescue of denervated muscle fibres helping to ameliorate age-related muscle atrophy, with evidence to suggest master athletes are more successful at this remodelling. Electrophysiological data has suggested MUs located superficially are larger than those located deeper within young muscle. However, the effects of ageing and exercise on MU heterogeneity across deep and superficial aspects of vastus lateralis (VL) remain unclear. Intramuscular electromyography was used to record individual MU potentials (MUPs) and near fibre MUPs (NFMs) from deep and superficial regions of the VL during 25% maximum voluntary contractions, in 83 males (15 young (Y), 17 young athletes (YA), 22 old (O) and 29 master athletes (MA)). MUP size and complexity were assessed using area and number of turns, respectively. Multilevel mixed effects linear regression models were performed to investigate the effects of depth in each group. MUP area was greater in deep compared with superficial MUs in Y (p<0.001) and O (p=0.012) but not in YA (p=0.071) or MA (p=0.653). MUP amplitude and NF MUP area were greater, and MUPs were more complex in deep MUPs from Y, YA and O (all p<0.05) but did not differ across depth in MA (all p>0.07). These data suggest MU characteristics differ according to depth within the VL which may be influenced by both ageing and exercise. A more homogenous distribution of MUP size and complexity across muscle depths in older athletes may be a result of a greater degree of age-related MU adaptations.

16.
Exp Physiol ; 106(4): 828-836, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638246

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How does peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) compare with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) used clinically to reduce muscle atrophy? What is the main finding and its importance? NMES resulted in progressive increases in M-wave duration and delay of muscle relaxation throughout a single stimulation protocol, findings not observed with PNS. This suggests PNS recruits from a wider pool of muscle fibres/motor units, providing a more favourable alternative to NMES for rehabilitation intervention. ABSTRACT: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is increasingly viewed as a central tenet to minimise muscle loss during periods of disuse/illness - typically applied directly over a muscle belly. Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is afforded less attention, despite providing a more global contractile stimulus to muscles. We investigated NMES versus PNS in relation to performance fatigability and peripheral contributions to voluntary force capacity. Two fatigue protocols were assessed separately: (1) over-quadriceps NMES and (2) peripheral (femoral) nerve stimulation (PNS). Before and after each session, a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was performed to assess force loss. Knee-extensor force was measured throughout to assess contractile function in response to submaximal electrical stimulation, and M-wave features quantified myoelectrical activity. NMES and PNS induced similar voluntary (MVC, NMES: -12 ± 9%, PNS: -10 ± 8%, both P < 0.001) and stimulated (NMES: -45 ± 12%, PNS -27 ± 27%, both P < 0.001) force reductions. Although distinct between protocols, myoelectrical indicators of muscle recruitment (M-wave area and amplitude) and nerve conduction time did not change throughout either protocol. Myoelectrical propagation speed, represented as M-wave duration, and the delay before muscle relaxation began both progressively increased during NMES only (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). NMES myoelectrical changes suggested performance fatigability, indicating activation of superficial fibres only, which was not observed with PNS. This suggests PNS recruits a wider pool of muscle fibres and motor units and is a favourable alternative for rehabilitation. Future work should focus on implementing PNS interventions in clinically relevant scenarios such as immobilisation, care homes and critical illness.

17.
J Physiol ; 599(1): 193-205, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006148

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Masters athletes maintain high levels of activity into older age and allow an examination of the effects of aging dissociated from the effects of increased sedentary behaviour. Evidence suggests masters athletes are more successful at motor unit remodelling, the reinnervation of denervated fibres acting to preserve muscle fibre number, but little data are available in females. Here we used intramuscular electromyography to demonstrate that motor units sampled from the tibialis anterior show indications of remodelling from middle into older age and which does not differ between males and females. The age-related trajectory of motor unit discharge characteristic differs according to sex, with female athletes progressing to a slower firing pattern that was not observed in males. Our findings indicate motor unit remodelling from middle to older age occurs to a similar extent in male and female athletes, with discharge rates progressively slowing in females only. ABSTRACT: Motor unit (MU) remodelling acts to minimise loss of muscle fibres following denervation in older age, which may be more successful in masters athletes. Evidence suggests performance and neuromuscular function decline with age in this population, although the majority of studies have focused on males, with little available data on female athletes. Functional assessments of strength, balance and motor control were performed in 30 masters athletes (16 male) aged 44-83 years. Intramuscular needle electrodes were used to sample individual motor unit potentials (MUPs) and near-fibre MUPs in the tibialis anterior (TA) during isometric contractions at 25% maximum voluntary contraction, and used to determine discharge characteristics (firing rate, variability) and biomarkers of peripheral MU remodelling (MUP size, complexity, stability). Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models examined effects of age and sex. All aspects of neuromuscular function deteriorated with age (P < 0.05) with no age × sex interactions, although males were stronger (P < 0.001). Indicators of MU remodelling also progressively increased with age to a similar extent in both sexes (P < 0.05), whilst MU firing rate progressively decreased with age in females (p = 0.029), with a non-significant increase in males (p = 0.092). Masters athletes exhibit age-related declines in neuromuscular function that are largely equal across males and females. Notably, they also display features of MU remodelling with advancing age, probably acting to reduce muscle fibre loss. The age trajectory of MU firing rate assessed at a single contraction level differed between sexes, which may reflect a greater tendency for females to develop a slower muscle phenotype.


Assuntos
Neurônios Motores , Músculo Esquelético , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atletas , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas
18.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 39(1): 48-59, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037688

RESUMO

Despite vitamin D-deficiency clinically presenting with myopathy, muscle weakness and atrophy, the mechanisms by which vitamin D exerts its homeostatic effects upon skeletal muscle remain to be fully established. Recent studies have shown that the receptor by which 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2 D3 ) exerts its biological actions (ie, the vitamin D receptor, VDR) elicits both genomic and non-genomic effects upon skeletal muscle. The controversy surrounding skeletal muscle VDR mRNA/protein expression in post-natal muscle has been allayed by myriad recent studies, while dynamic expression of VDR throughout myogenesis, and association of higher VDR levels during muscle regeneration/immature muscle cells, suggests a role in myogenesis and perhaps an enrichment of VDR in satellite cells. Accordingly, in vitro studies have demonstrated 1,25(OH)2 D3 is anti-proliferative in myoblasts, yet pro-differentiation in latter stages of myogenesis. These effects involve modulation of gene expression (VDR as a transcriptional co-activator controls ~3% of the genome) and post-genomic intracellular signalling for example, via c-Src and alterations to intramuscular calcium homeostasis and proteostasis. The aim of this review is to consider the biomolecular role for the vitamin D/VDR axis in myogenesis, while also exploring global evidence for genomic and non-genomic mechanisms of action for 1,25(OH)2 D3 /VDR.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Animais , Genômica , Humanos , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Deficiência de Vitamina D/metabolismo
19.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(2): 106-117, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023679

RESUMO

Dietary protein is a pre-requisite for the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass; stimulating increases in muscle protein synthesis (MPS), via essential amino acids (EAA), and attenuating muscle protein breakdown, via insulin. Muscles are receptive to the anabolic effects of dietary protein, and in particular the EAA leucine, for only a short period (i.e. about 2-3 h) in the rested state. Thereafter, MPS exhibits tachyphylaxis despite continued EAA availability and sustained mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 signalling. Other notable characteristics of this 'muscle full' phenomenon include: (i) it cannot be overcome by proximal intake of additional nutrient signals/substrates regulating MPS; meaning a refractory period exists before a next stimulation is possible, (ii) it is refractory to pharmacological/nutraceutical enhancement of muscle blood flow and thus is not induced by muscle hypo-perfusion, (iii) it manifests independently of whether protein intake occurs in a bolus or intermittent feeding pattern, and (iv) it does not appear to be dependent on protein dose per se. Instead, the main factor associated with altering muscle full is physical activity. For instance, when coupled to protein intake, resistance exercise delays the muscle full set-point to permit additional use of available EAA for MPS to promote muscle remodelling/growth. In contrast, ageing is associated with blunted MPS responses to protein/exercise (anabolic resistance), while physical inactivity (e.g. immobilisation) induces a premature muscle full, promoting muscle atrophy. It is crucial that in catabolic scenarios, anabolic strategies are sought to mitigate muscle decline. This review highlights regulatory protein turnover interactions by dietary protein, exercise, ageing and physical inactivity.

20.
J Physiol ; 599(3): 963-979, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33258480

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: Reduced vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression prompts skeletal muscle atrophy. Atrophy occurs through catabolic processes, namely the induction of autophagy, while anabolism remains unchanged. In response to VDR-knockdown mitochondrial function and related gene-set expression is impaired. In vitro VDR knockdown induces myogenic dysregulation occurring through impaired differentiation. These results highlight the autonomous role the VDR has within skeletal muscle mass regulation. ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is estimated to affect ∼40% of the world's population and has been associated with impaired muscle maintenance. Vitamin D exerts its actions through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), the expression of which was recently confirmed in skeletal muscle, and its down-regulation is linked to reduced muscle mass and functional decline. To identify potential mechanisms underlying muscle atrophy, we studied the impact of VDR knockdown (KD) on mature skeletal muscle in vivo, and myogenic regulation in vitro in C2C12 cells. Male Wistar rats underwent in vivo electrotransfer (IVE) to knock down the VDR in hind-limb tibialis anterior (TA) muscle for 10 days. Comprehensive metabolic and physiological analysis was undertaken to define the influence loss of the VDR on muscle fibre composition, protein synthesis, anabolic and catabolic signalling, mitochondrial phenotype and gene expression. Finally, in vitro lentiviral transfection was used to induce sustained VDR-KD in C2C12 cells to analyse myogenic regulation. Muscle VDR-KD elicited atrophy through a reduction in total protein content, resulting in lower myofibre area. Activation of autophagic processes was observed, with no effect upon muscle protein synthesis or anabolic signalling. Furthermore, RNA-sequencing analysis identified systematic down-regulation of multiple mitochondrial respiration-related protein and genesets. Finally, in vitro VDR-knockdown impaired myogenesis (cell cycling, differentiation and myotube formation). Together, these data indicate a fundamental regulatory role of the VDR in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle mass, whereby it acts to maintain muscle mitochondrial function and limit autophagy.


Assuntos
Receptores de Calcitriol , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...