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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3621, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399563

RESUMO

Susceptibility to many human autoimmune diseases is under strong genetic control by class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele combinations. These genes remain by far the greatest risk factors in the development of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. Despite this, little is known about HLA influences on the composition of the human gut microbiome, a potential source of environmental influence on disease. Here, using a general population cohort from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study, we report that genetic risk for developing type 1 diabetes autoimmunity is associated with distinct changes in the gut microbiome. Both the core microbiome and beta diversity differ with HLA risk group and genotype. In addition, protective HLA haplotypes are associated with bacterial genera Intestinibacter and Romboutsia. Thus, general population cohorts are valuable in identifying potential environmental triggers or protective factors for autoimmune diseases that may otherwise be masked by strong genetic control.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1357-1364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167894

RESUMO

Current efforts to prevent progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes largely focus on immunomodulatory approaches. However, emerging data suggest that the development of diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive individuals may also involve factors such as obesity and genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes, and the influence of these factors increases with age at diagnosis. Although these factors have been linked with metabolic outcomes, particularly through their impact on ß-cell function and insulin sensitivity, growing evidence suggests that they might also interact with the immune system to amplify the autoimmune response. The presence of factors shared by both forms of diabetes contributes to disease heterogeneity and thus has important implications. Characteristics that are typically considered to be nonimmune should be incorporated into predictive algorithms that seek to identify at-risk individuals and into the designs of trials for disease prevention. The heterogeneity of diabetes also poses a challenge in diagnostic classification. Finally, after clinically diagnosing type 1 diabetes, addressing nonimmune elements may help to prevent further deterioration of ß-cell function and thus improve clinical outcomes. This Perspectives in Care article highlights the role of type 2 diabetes-associated genetic factors (e.g., gene variants at transcription factor 7-like 2 [TCF7L2]) and obesity (via insulin resistance, inflammation, ß-cell stress, or all three) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and their impacts on age at diagnosis. Recognizing that type 1 diabetes might result from the sum of effects from islet autoimmunity and type 2 diabetes-associated factors, their interactions, or both affects disease prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

3.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 26(4): 188-194, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145130

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies demonstrating lowered levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and discuss their potential roles in the disorder's pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: IGFs have long been recognized as a class of hormones that promote growth, development, and cellular metabolism throughout the human body. More recently, studies have noted an association between reduced pancreatic weight/volume and T1D. Thus, we believe it is important to understand pancreatic regulation of IGF expression and bioavailability, as well as the impact of IGFs on pancreatic growth and islet health. Additional studies of IGFs have been extended to their influence on the inflammatory/regulatory balance of monocytes, B cells, and T cells; features which have been previously established to show dysregulation in settings of T1D. SUMMARY: These data suggest that IGFs may prevent known impairments in the pancreas and immune system in T1D and underscore the need to extend these studies, some of which were performed in health or other autoimmune diseases, toward T1D specifically. Collectively, the work emphasized here support the potential therapeutic use of IGFs in T1D prevention efforts as pancreatic growth factors and/or immunoregulatory agents.

4.
Diabetes ; 68(7): 1394-1402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127054

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes risk can reliably be predicted by markers of autoimmunity, but approaches to prevent or modify the underlying disease process are needed. We posit this void fundamentally results from a limited understanding of immune-islet cell interactions within the pancreas and relevant immune organs, contributions of ß-cells to their own demise, and epigenetic predispositions affecting both immune and islet cells. Because biopsy of the human pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes carries risk and the pancreas begins to autodigest soon after death, detailed cellular and molecular phenotyping of the human type 1 diabetes pancreas is lacking, limiting our understanding of the mechanisms of ß-cell loss. To address these challenges, the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases established the Human Pancreas Analysis Program (HPAP) to procure human type 1 diabetes pancreata for an extensive array of tissue-based, cellular, and epigenetic assays aimed at critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of the local immune attack and loss of ß-cells. In this Methodology Review, we describe how HPAP is performing detailed islet and immune cell phenotyping and creating publicly available data sets with the goals of an improved understanding of type 1 diabetes and the development of more effective treatments to prevent or reverse the disease.

5.
Islets ; 11(2): 44-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084520

RESUMO

Histopathology based studies of the pancreas obtained from organ donors are increasing our awareness of islet phenotypic heterogeneity during development and aging, as well as in settings of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes or other forms of this metabolic disease. Islet amyloidosis represents a histopathological feature classically ascribed to patients with type 2 diabetes. Herein, the occurrence of islet amyloidosis and its severity are reported in a child with type 1 diabetes along with histological comparisons of islet amyloidosis in two young adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Islet amyloidosis was infrequent yet widely distributed throughout the pancreas in the child with type 1 diabetes and both adults with type 1 diabetes, with no such pathology seen in matched control donors. Analysis of these cases add to the increasing appreciation of islet heterogeneity in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Such knowledge also supports a notion that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms underlie the loss of functional ß-cell mass in the spectrum of clinical phenotypes in patients with type 1 diabetes.

7.
Diabetes ; 68(6): 1267-1276, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967424

RESUMO

A three-arm, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial performed by the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group previously demonstrated that low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.5 mg/kg) preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c for 1 year in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Subjects (N = 89) were randomized to 1) ATG and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), 2) ATG alone, or 3) placebo. Herein, we report 2-year area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and HbA1c, prespecified secondary end points, and potential immunologic correlates. The 2-year mean mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated AUC C-peptide, analyzed by ANCOVA adjusting for baseline C-peptide, age, and sex (n = 82) with significance defined as one-sided P < 0.025, was significantly higher in subjects treated with ATG versus placebo (P = 0.00005) but not ATG/GCSF versus placebo (P = 0.032). HbA1c was significantly reduced at 2 years in subjects treated with ATG (P = 0.011) and ATG/GCSF (P = 0.022) versus placebo. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced circulating CD4:CD8 ratio, increased regulatory T-cell:conventional CD4 T-cell ratios, and increased PD-1+CD4+ T cells following low-dose ATG and ATG/GCSF. Low-dose ATG partially preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c 2 years after therapy in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Future studies should determine whether low-dose ATG might prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes.

8.
Anal Chem ; 91(9): 5794-5801, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843680

RESUMO

Comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of small populations of cells remains a daunting task due primarily to the insufficient MS signal intensity from low concentrations of enriched phosphopeptides. Isobaric labeling has a unique multiplexing feature where the "total" peptide signal from all channels (or samples) triggers MS/MS fragmentation for peptide identification, while the reporter ions provide quantitative information. In light of this feature, we tested the concept of using a "boosting" sample (e.g., a biological sample mimicking the study samples but available in a much larger quantity) in multiplexed analysis to enable sensitive and comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomic measurements with <100 000 cells. This simple boosting to amplify signal with isobaric labeling (BASIL) strategy increased the overall number of quantifiable phosphorylation sites more than 4-fold. Good reproducibility in quantification was demonstrated with a median CV of 15.3% and Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.95 from biological replicates. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated the ability of BASIL to distinguish acute myeloid leukemia cells based on the phosphoproteome data. Moreover, in a pilot application, this strategy enabled quantitative analysis of over 20 000 phosphorylation sites from human pancreatic islets treated with interleukin-1ß and interferon-γ. Together, this signal boosting strategy provides an attractive solution for comprehensive and quantitative phosphoproteome profiling of relatively small populations of cells where traditional phosphoproteomic workflows lack sufficient sensitivity.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4269, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862859

RESUMO

There has been considerable debate as to whether obesity can act as an accelerator of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed this possibility using transgenic mice (MIP-TF mice) whose ß-cells express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Infecting these mice with EGFP-expressing murine herpes virus-68 (MHV68-EGFP) caused occasional transient elevation in their blood glucose, peri-insulitis, and Th1 responses to EGFP which did not spread to other ß-cell antigens. We hypothesized that obesity-related systemic inflammation and ß-cell stress could exacerbate the MHV68-EGFP-induced ß-cell autoreactivity. We crossed MIP-TF mice with Avy mice which develop obesity and provide models of metabolic disease alongside early stage T2D. Unlike their MIP-TF littermates, MHV68-EGFP-infected Avy/MIP-TF mice developed moderate intra-insulitis and transient hyperglycemia. MHV68-EGFP infection induced a more pronounced intra-insulitis in older, more obese, Avy/MIP-TF mice. Moreover, in MHV68-EGFP-infected Avy/MIP-TF mice, Th1 reactivity spread from EGFP to other ß-cell antigens. Thus, the spreading of autoreactivity among ß-cell antigens corresponded with the transition from peri-insulitis to intra-insulitis and occurred in obese Avy/MIP-TF mice but not lean MIP-TF mice. These observations are consistent with the notion that obesity-associated systemic inflammation and ß-cell stress lowers the threshold necessary for T cell autoreactivity to spread from EGFP to other ß-cell autoantigens.

10.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 755-768.e5, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713109

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing ß cells. A comprehensive picture of the changes during T1D development is lacking due to limited sample availability, inability to sample longitudinally, and the paucity of technologies enabling comprehensive tissue profiling. Here, we analyzed 1,581 islets from 12 human donors, including eight with T1D, using imaging mass cytometry (IMC). IMC enabled simultaneous measurement of 35 biomarkers with single-cell and spatial resolution. We performed pseudotime analysis of islets through T1D progression from snapshot data to reconstruct the evolution of ß cell loss and insulitis. Our analyses revealed that ß cell destruction is preceded by a ß cell marker loss and by recruitment of cytotoxic and helper T cells. The approaches described herein demonstrate the value of IMC for improving our understanding of T1D pathogenesis, and our data lay the foundation for hypothesis generation and follow-on experiments.

11.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 769-783.e4, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713110

RESUMO

The interaction between the immune system and endocrine cells in the pancreas is crucial for the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Imaging mass cytometry (IMC) enables multiplexed assessment of the abundance and localization of more than 30 proteins on the same tissue section at 1-µm resolution. Herein, we have developed a panel of 33 antibodies that allows for the quantification of key cell types including pancreatic exocrine cells, islet cells, immune cells, and stromal components. We employed this panel to analyze 12 pancreata obtained from donors with clinically diagnosed T1D and 6 pancreata from non-diabetic controls. In the pancreata from donors with T1D, we simultaneously visualized significant alterations in islet architecture, endocrine cell composition, and immune cell presentation. Indeed, we demonstrate the utility of IMC to investigate complex events on the cellular level that will provide new insights on the pathophysiology of T1D.

12.
Diabetes Care ; 42(3): 406-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic risk scores (GRS) have been developed that differentiate individuals with type 1 diabetes from those with other forms of diabetes and are starting to be used for population screening; however, most studies were conducted in European-ancestry populations. This study identifies novel genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk in African-ancestry participants and develops an African-specific GRS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data with the ImmunoChip on 1,021 African-ancestry participants with type 1 diabetes and 2,928 control participants. HLA class I and class II alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA. Logistic regression models were used to identify genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes in the African-ancestry samples and validate SNPs associated with risk in known European-ancestry loci (P < 2.79 × 10-5). RESULTS: African-specific (HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01) and known European-ancestry HLA haplotypes (HLA-DRB1*03:01-HLA-DQA1*05:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01-HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*03:02) were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes risk. Among European-ancestry defined non-HLA risk loci, six risk loci were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes in subjects of African ancestry. An African-specific GRS provided strong prediction of type 1 diabetes risk (area under the curve 0.871), performing significantly better than a European-based GRS and two polygenic risk scores in independent discovery and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk of type 1 diabetes includes ancestry-specific, disease-associated variants. The GRS developed here provides improved prediction of type 1 diabetes in African-ancestry subjects and a means to identify groups of individuals who would benefit from immune monitoring for early detection of islet autoimmunity.

13.
Diabetologia ; 62(5): 744-753, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675626

RESUMO

In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by chronic autoimmune responses. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals, but a role for environmental factors has been postulated. Viral infections have long been considered as candidates for environmental triggers but, given the lack of evidence for an acute, widespread, cytopathic effect in the pancreas in type 1 diabetes or for a closely related temporal association of diabetes onset with such infections, a role for viruses in type 1 diabetes remains unproven. Moreover, viruses have rarely been isolated from the pancreas of individuals with type 1 diabetes, mainly (but not solely) due to the inaccessibility of the organ. Here, we review past and recent literature to evaluate the proposals that chronic, recurrent and, possibly, persistent enteroviral infections occur in pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes. We also explore whether these infections may be sustained by different virus strains over time and whether multiple viral hits can occur during the natural history of type 1 diabetes. We emphasise that only a minority of beta cells appear to be infected at any given time and that enteroviruses may become replication defective, which could explain why they have been isolated from the pancreas only rarely. We argue that enteroviral infection of beta cells largely depends on the host innate and adaptive immune responses, including innate responses mounted by beta cells. Thus, we propose that viruses could play a role in type 1 diabetes on multiple levels, including in the triggering and chronic stimulation of autoimmunity and in the generation of inflammation and the promotion of beta cell dysfunction and stress, each of which might then contribute to autoimmunity, as part of a vicious circle. We conclude that studies into the effects of vaccinations and/or antiviral drugs (some of which are currently on-going) is the only means by which the role of viruses in type 1 diabetes can be finally proven or disproven.

14.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(1): 52-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528099

RESUMO

With the conceptual advance about four decades ago that type 1 diabetes represents an autoimmune disease, hope arose that immune-based therapies would soon emerge to prevent and reverse the disorder. However, despite dozens of clinical trials seeking to achieve these goals, the promise remains unfulfilled, at least in a pragmatic form. With the benefit of hindsight, several important reasons are likely to account for this disappointing outcome, including failure to appreciate disease heterogeneity, inappropriate use of rodent models of disease, inadequacies in addressing the immunological and metabolic contributions to the disease, suboptimal trial designs, and lack of a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In this Series paper, we convey how recent knowledge gains in these areas, combined with efforts related to disease staging and emerging mechanistic data from clinical trials, provide cautious optimism that immune-based approaches to prevent the loss of ß cells in type 1 diabetes will emerge into clinical practice.

15.
Diabetes Care ; 42(2): 281-287, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pancreas size is reduced in patients at type 1 diabetes onset and in autoantibody (AAB)-positive donors without diabetes. We sought to determine whether pancreas volume (PV) imaging could improve understanding of the loss of pancreas size in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with type 1 diabetes. We also examined relationships among PV, AAB status, and endocrine and exocrine functions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included five groups: AAB- control subjects (no diabetes and no first- or second-degree relatives with type 1 diabetes) (N = 49), AAB- FDRs (N = 61), AAB+ FDRs (N = 67 total: n = 31 with a single positive AAB [AAB+ single] and n = 36 with multiple positive AABs [AAB+ multiple]), and patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (<1 year) (N = 52). Fasting subjects underwent 1.5T pancreatic MRI, and PV and relative PV (RPV) (PV-to-BMI ratio) were analyzed between groups and for correlations with HbA1c, C-peptide, glucose, and trypsinogen. RESULTS: All FDR groups had significantly lower RPV adjusted for BMI (RPVBMI) than control subjects (all P < 0.05). Patients with type 1 diabetes had lower RPVBMI than AAB- FDR (P < 0.0001) and AAB+ multiple (P ≤ 0.013) subjects. Transformed data indicated that trypsinogen levels were lowest in patients with type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates, for the first time, all FDRs having significantly smaller RPVBMI compared with AAB- control subjects. Furthermore, RPVBMI was significantly lower in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes than in the AAB- FDR and AAB+ multiple groups. As such, RPVBMI may be a novel noninvasive biomarker for predicting progression through stages of type 1 diabetes risk. This study highlights the potential paracrine relationships between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas in progression to type 1 diabetes in subjects at risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Família , Pâncreas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Pâncreas/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Diabetes Care ; 41(12): 2480-2486, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30275285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The type 2 diabetes-associated alleles at the TCF7L2 locus mark a type 1 diabetes phenotype characterized by single islet autoantibody positivity as well as lower glucose and higher C-peptide measures. Here, we studied whether the TCF7L2 locus influences progression of islet autoimmunity, from single to multiple (≥2) autoantibody positivity, in relatives of patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated 244 participants in the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study with confirmed single autoantibody positivity at screening and Immunochip single nucleotide polymorphism data (47.5% male; median age 12.8 years, range 1.2-45.9; 90.2% white). We analyzed risk allele frequency at TCF7L2 rs4506565 (in linkage disequilibrium with rs7903146). Altogether, 62.6% participants carried ≥1 risk allele. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and Kaplan-Meier statistical methods were used. RESULTS: During follow-up (median 5.2 years, range 0.2-12.6), 62% of the single autoantibody-positive participants developed multiple autoantibody positivity. In the overall cohort, the TCF7L2 locus did not significantly predict progression to multiple autoantibody positivity. However, among single GAD65 autoantibody-positive participants (n = 158), those who carried ≥1 risk allele had a lower rate of progression to multiple autoantibody positivity (hazard ratio [HR] 0.65, P = 0.033) than those who did not, after adjustment for HLA risk haplotypes and age. Among subjects who were either IA-2 or insulin autoantibody positive only, carrying ≥1 TCF7L2 risk allele was not a significant factor overall, but in overweight or obese participants, it increased the risk of progression to multiple autoantibody positivity (HR 3.02, P = 0.016) even with adjustment for age. CONCLUSIONS: The type 2 diabetes-associated TCF7L2 locus influences progression of islet autoimmunity, with differential effects by autoantibody specificity and interaction by obesity/overweight.

17.
Chem Sci ; 9(34): 6944-6951, 2018 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210768

RESUMO

Multidimensional peptide separations can greatly increase the depth of coverage in proteome profiling. However, a major challenge for multidimensional separations is the requirement of large biological samples, often containing milligram amounts of protein. We have developed nanowell-mediated two-dimensional (2D) reversed-phase nanoflow liquid chromatography (LC) separations for in-depth proteome profiling of low-nanogram samples. Peptides are first separated using high-pH LC and the effluent is concatenated into 4 or 12 nanowells. The contents of each nanowell are reconstituted in LC buffer and collected for subsequent separation and analysis by low-pH nanoLC-MS/MS. The nanowell platform minimizes peptide losses to surfaces in offline 2D LC fractionation, enabling >5800 proteins to be confidently identified from just 50 ng of HeLa digest. Furthermore, in combination with a recently developed nanowell-based sample preparation workflow, we demonstrated deep proteome profiling of >6000 protein groups from small populations of cells, including ∼650 HeLa cells and 10 single human pancreatic islet thin sections (∼1000 cells) from a pre-symptomatic type 1 diabetic donor.

18.
Diabetes ; 67(10): 2038-2053, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30065030

RESUMO

Extracellular ATP (eATP) activates T cells by engaging the P2X7R receptor. We identified two loss-of-function P2X7R mutations that are protective against type 1 diabetes (T1D) and thus hypothesized that eATP/P2X7R signaling may represent an early step in T1D onset. Specifically, we observed that in patients with newly diagnosed T1D, P2X7R is upregulated on CD8+ effector T cells in comparison with healthy control subjects. eATP is released at high levels by human/murine islets in vitro in high-glucose/inflammatory conditions, thus upregulating P2X7R on CD8+ T cells in vitro. P2X7R blockade with oxidized ATP reduces the CD8+ T cell-mediated autoimmune response in vitro and delays diabetes onset in NOD mice. Autoreactive CD8+ T-cell activation is highly dependent upon eATP/P2X7R-mediated priming, while a novel sP2X7R recombinant protein abrogates changes in metabolism and the autoimmune response associated with CD8+ T cells. eATP/P2X7R signaling facilitates the onset of autoimmune T1D by fueling autoreactive CD8+ cells and therefore represents a novel targeted therapeutic for the disorder.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Trifosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Animais , Autoimunidade/genética , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Mutação/genética , Receptores Purinérgicos P2X7/genética
19.
Diabetes Care ; 41(9): 1917-1925, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A pilot study suggested that combination therapy with low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) preserves C-peptide in established type 1 diabetes (T1D) (duration 4 months to 2 years). We hypothesized that 1) low-dose ATG/GCSF or 2) low-dose ATG alone would slow the decline of ß-cell function in patients with new-onset T1D (duration <100 days). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A three-arm, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial was performed by the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group in 89 subjects: 29 subjects randomized to ATG (2.5 mg/kg intravenously) followed by pegylated GCSF (6 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 doses), 29 to ATG alone (2.5 mg/kg), and 31 to placebo. The primary end point was mean area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide during a 2-h mixed-meal tolerance test 1 year after initiation of therapy. Significance was defined as one-sided P value < 0.025. RESULTS: The 1-year mean AUC C-peptide was significantly higher in subjects treated with ATG (0.646 nmol/L) versus placebo (0.406 nmol/L) (P = 0.0003) but not in those treated with ATG/GCSF (0.528 nmol/L) versus placebo (P = 0.031). HbA1c was significantly reduced at 1 year in subjects treated with ATG and ATG/GCSF, P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose ATG slowed decline of C-peptide and reduced HbA1c in new-onset T1D. Addition of GCSF did not enhance C-peptide preservation afforded by low-dose ATG. Future studies should be considered to determine whether low-dose ATG alone or in combination with other agents may prevent or delay the onset of the disease.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/administração & dosagem , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Hemoglobina A Glicada/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Soro Antilinfocitário/efeitos adversos , Peptídeo C/sangue , Criança , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Polietilenoglicóis/administração & dosagem , Polietilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 80(8): 1892-1903, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014316

RESUMO

A number of studies have shown that the motor actions of one individual can affect the attention of an observer. In one notable example, "social inhibition of return," observers are relatively slow to initiate a response to a location where another individual has just responded. In the present article we examine the degree to which this phenomenon can be considered a social effect. We find that unlike the related social, or "joint," Simon effect, social inhibition of return is not influenced by competitive versus cooperative interaction, nor by live versus recorded interaction. We do find however that co-actors need to turn-take in order for the effect to occur. Thus, so-called "social" inhibition of return only reaches a minimal threshold to be considered a social phenomenon.

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