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1.
Diabetes ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597639

RESUMO

Within the human pancreas, exocrine and endocrine cells control secretion of digestive enzymes and production of hormones to maintain metabolic homeostasis, respectively. While the vast majority of type 1 diabetes research efforts have focused on endocrine function and autoimmunity, recent studies identified a series of unique features (e.g., reduced weight and volume, increased density of leukocytes) within the exocrine pancreas in this disease, but the mechanisms underlying these aberrancies are unknown. Therefore, we histologically assessed amylase, insulin, glucagon, lipase and/or trypsinogen in 78 organ donor pancreata, from birth through adulthood in controls and those at various stages of type 1 diabetes. While amylase-positive acinar cells were detectable in pancreata from all study groups, tissues from individuals over two years of age contained clusters of acinar cells devoid of amylase. A majority of these amylase-negative (AMY-) cell clusters localized proximal to islets (i.e., peri-islet). Additionally, most AMY- clusters were positive for the exocrine enzymes lipase and trypsinogen. Interestingly, type 1 diabetes pancreata displayed significant reductions in the frequency of these AMY- cell clusters. These results support a contribution of the islet-acinar axis in pancreatic development and underscore a potential role for the exocrine pancreas in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

2.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To better understand potential facilitators of individual engagement in type 1 diabetes natural history and prevention studies through analysis of enrollment data in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used multivariable logistic regression models to examine continued engagement of eligible participants at two time points: 1) the return visit after screening to confirm an initial autoantibody-positive (Ab+) test result and 2) the initial oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) for enrollment into the monitoring protocol. RESULTS: Of 5,387 subjects who screened positive for a single Ab, 4,204 (78%) returned for confirmatory Ab testing. Younger age was associated with increased odds of returning for Ab confirmation (age <12 years vs. >18 years: odds ratio [OR] 2.12, P < 0.0001). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to return for confirmation, particularly nonwhite non-Hispanic (OR 0.50, P < 0.0001) and Hispanic (OR 0.69, P = 0.0001) relative to non-Hispanic white subjects. Of 8,234 subjects, 5,442 (66%) were identified as eligible to be enrolled in PTP OGTT monitoring. Here, younger age and identification as multiple Ab+ were associated with increased odds of returning for OGTT monitoring (age <12 years vs. >18 years: OR 1.43, P < 0.0001; multiple Ab+: OR 1.36, P < 0.0001). Parents were less likely to enroll into monitoring than other relatives (OR 0.78, P = 0.004). Site-specific factors, including site volume and U.S. site versus international site, were also associated with differences in rates of return for Ab+ confirmation and enrollment into monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm clear differences between successfully enrolled populations and those lost to follow-up, which can serve to identify strategies to increase ongoing participation.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3621, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399563

RESUMO

Susceptibility to many human autoimmune diseases is under strong genetic control by class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele combinations. These genes remain by far the greatest risk factors in the development of type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. Despite this, little is known about HLA influences on the composition of the human gut microbiome, a potential source of environmental influence on disease. Here, using a general population cohort from the All Babies in Southeast Sweden study, we report that genetic risk for developing type 1 diabetes autoimmunity is associated with distinct changes in the gut microbiome. Both the core microbiome and beta diversity differ with HLA risk group and genotype. In addition, protective HLA haplotypes are associated with bacterial genera Intestinibacter and Romboutsia. Thus, general population cohorts are valuable in identifying potential environmental triggers or protective factors for autoimmune diseases that may otherwise be masked by strong genetic control.

5.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Cogn Sci ; : e1516, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441239

RESUMO

In the current literature, there are few experimental tests of capacities for cumulative cultural evolution in nonhuman species. There are even fewer examples of such tests in young children. This limited evidence is noteworthy given widespread interest in the apparent distinctiveness of human cumulative culture, and the potentially significant theoretical implications of identifying related capacities in nonhumans or very young children. We evaluate experimental methods upon which claims of capacities for cumulative culture, or lack thereof, have been based. Although some of the established methods (those simulating generational succession) have the potential to identify positive evidence that fulfills widely accepted definitions of cumulative culture, the implementation of these methods entails significant logistical challenges. This is particularly true for testing populations that are difficult to access in large numbers, or those not amenable to experimental control. This presents problems for generating evidence that would be sufficient to support claims of capacities for cumulative culture, and these problems are magnified for establishing convincing negative evidence. We discuss alternative approaches to assessing capacities for cumulative culture, which circumvent logistical problems associated with experimental designs involving chains of learners. By inferring the outcome of repeated transmission from the input-output response patterns of individual subjects, sample size requirements can be massively reduced. Such methods could facilitate comparisons between populations, for example, different species, or children of a range of ages. We also detail limitations and challenges of this alternative approach, and discuss potential avenues for future research. This article is categorized under: Cognitive Biology > Evolutionary Roots of Cognition Cognitive Biology > Cognitive Development Psychology > Comparative Psychology.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 42(8): 1357-1364, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167894

RESUMO

Current efforts to prevent progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes largely focus on immunomodulatory approaches. However, emerging data suggest that the development of diabetes in islet autoantibody-positive individuals may also involve factors such as obesity and genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes, and the influence of these factors increases with age at diagnosis. Although these factors have been linked with metabolic outcomes, particularly through their impact on ß-cell function and insulin sensitivity, growing evidence suggests that they might also interact with the immune system to amplify the autoimmune response. The presence of factors shared by both forms of diabetes contributes to disease heterogeneity and thus has important implications. Characteristics that are typically considered to be nonimmune should be incorporated into predictive algorithms that seek to identify at-risk individuals and into the designs of trials for disease prevention. The heterogeneity of diabetes also poses a challenge in diagnostic classification. Finally, after clinically diagnosing type 1 diabetes, addressing nonimmune elements may help to prevent further deterioration of ß-cell function and thus improve clinical outcomes. This Perspectives in Care article highlights the role of type 2 diabetes-associated genetic factors (e.g., gene variants at transcription factor 7-like 2 [TCF7L2]) and obesity (via insulin resistance, inflammation, ß-cell stress, or all three) in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and their impacts on age at diagnosis. Recognizing that type 1 diabetes might result from the sum of effects from islet autoimmunity and type 2 diabetes-associated factors, their interactions, or both affects disease prediction, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

7.
Islets ; 11(2): 44-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084520

RESUMO

Histopathology based studies of the pancreas obtained from organ donors are increasing our awareness of islet phenotypic heterogeneity during development and aging, as well as in settings of type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, monogenic diabetes or other forms of this metabolic disease. Islet amyloidosis represents a histopathological feature classically ascribed to patients with type 2 diabetes. Herein, the occurrence of islet amyloidosis and its severity are reported in a child with type 1 diabetes along with histological comparisons of islet amyloidosis in two young adults with recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Islet amyloidosis was infrequent yet widely distributed throughout the pancreas in the child with type 1 diabetes and both adults with type 1 diabetes, with no such pathology seen in matched control donors. Analysis of these cases add to the increasing appreciation of islet heterogeneity in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes. Such knowledge also supports a notion that multiple pathophysiological mechanisms underlie the loss of functional ß-cell mass in the spectrum of clinical phenotypes in patients with type 1 diabetes.

8.
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes ; 26(4): 188-194, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145130

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review studies demonstrating lowered levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in patients with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) and discuss their potential roles in the disorder's pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: IGFs have long been recognized as a class of hormones that promote growth, development, and cellular metabolism throughout the human body. More recently, studies have noted an association between reduced pancreatic weight/volume and T1D. Thus, we believe it is important to understand pancreatic regulation of IGF expression and bioavailability, as well as the impact of IGFs on pancreatic growth and islet health. Additional studies of IGFs have been extended to their influence on the inflammatory/regulatory balance of monocytes, B cells, and T cells; features which have been previously established to show dysregulation in settings of T1D. SUMMARY: These data suggest that IGFs may prevent known impairments in the pancreas and immune system in T1D and underscore the need to extend these studies, some of which were performed in health or other autoimmune diseases, toward T1D specifically. Collectively, the work emphasized here support the potential therapeutic use of IGFs in T1D prevention efforts as pancreatic growth factors and/or immunoregulatory agents.

9.
Diabetes ; 68(7): 1394-1402, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127054

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes risk can reliably be predicted by markers of autoimmunity, but approaches to prevent or modify the underlying disease process are needed. We posit this void fundamentally results from a limited understanding of immune-islet cell interactions within the pancreas and relevant immune organs, contributions of ß-cells to their own demise, and epigenetic predispositions affecting both immune and islet cells. Because biopsy of the human pancreas and pancreatic lymph nodes carries risk and the pancreas begins to autodigest soon after death, detailed cellular and molecular phenotyping of the human type 1 diabetes pancreas is lacking, limiting our understanding of the mechanisms of ß-cell loss. To address these challenges, the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases established the Human Pancreas Analysis Program (HPAP) to procure human type 1 diabetes pancreata for an extensive array of tissue-based, cellular, and epigenetic assays aimed at critical knowledge gaps in our understanding of the local immune attack and loss of ß-cells. In this Methodology Review, we describe how HPAP is performing detailed islet and immune cell phenotyping and creating publicly available data sets with the goals of an improved understanding of type 1 diabetes and the development of more effective treatments to prevent or reverse the disease.

11.
Diabetes ; 68(6): 1267-1276, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967424

RESUMO

A three-arm, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled phase 2b trial performed by the Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Study Group previously demonstrated that low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) (2.5 mg/kg) preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c for 1 year in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Subjects (N = 89) were randomized to 1) ATG and pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), 2) ATG alone, or 3) placebo. Herein, we report 2-year area under the curve (AUC) C-peptide and HbA1c, prespecified secondary end points, and potential immunologic correlates. The 2-year mean mixed-meal tolerance test-stimulated AUC C-peptide, analyzed by ANCOVA adjusting for baseline C-peptide, age, and sex (n = 82) with significance defined as one-sided P < 0.025, was significantly higher in subjects treated with ATG versus placebo (P = 0.00005) but not ATG/GCSF versus placebo (P = 0.032). HbA1c was significantly reduced at 2 years in subjects treated with ATG (P = 0.011) and ATG/GCSF (P = 0.022) versus placebo. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated reduced circulating CD4:CD8 ratio, increased regulatory T-cell:conventional CD4 T-cell ratios, and increased PD-1+CD4+ T cells following low-dose ATG and ATG/GCSF. Low-dose ATG partially preserved ß-cell function and reduced HbA1c 2 years after therapy in new-onset type 1 diabetes. Future studies should determine whether low-dose ATG might prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4269, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862859

RESUMO

There has been considerable debate as to whether obesity can act as an accelerator of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We assessed this possibility using transgenic mice (MIP-TF mice) whose ß-cells express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Infecting these mice with EGFP-expressing murine herpes virus-68 (MHV68-EGFP) caused occasional transient elevation in their blood glucose, peri-insulitis, and Th1 responses to EGFP which did not spread to other ß-cell antigens. We hypothesized that obesity-related systemic inflammation and ß-cell stress could exacerbate the MHV68-EGFP-induced ß-cell autoreactivity. We crossed MIP-TF mice with Avy mice which develop obesity and provide models of metabolic disease alongside early stage T2D. Unlike their MIP-TF littermates, MHV68-EGFP-infected Avy/MIP-TF mice developed moderate intra-insulitis and transient hyperglycemia. MHV68-EGFP infection induced a more pronounced intra-insulitis in older, more obese, Avy/MIP-TF mice. Moreover, in MHV68-EGFP-infected Avy/MIP-TF mice, Th1 reactivity spread from EGFP to other ß-cell antigens. Thus, the spreading of autoreactivity among ß-cell antigens corresponded with the transition from peri-insulitis to intra-insulitis and occurred in obese Avy/MIP-TF mice but not lean MIP-TF mice. These observations are consistent with the notion that obesity-associated systemic inflammation and ß-cell stress lowers the threshold necessary for T cell autoreactivity to spread from EGFP to other ß-cell autoantigens.

13.
Anal Chem ; 91(9): 5794-5801, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843680

RESUMO

Comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of small populations of cells remains a daunting task due primarily to the insufficient MS signal intensity from low concentrations of enriched phosphopeptides. Isobaric labeling has a unique multiplexing feature where the "total" peptide signal from all channels (or samples) triggers MS/MS fragmentation for peptide identification, while the reporter ions provide quantitative information. In light of this feature, we tested the concept of using a "boosting" sample (e.g., a biological sample mimicking the study samples but available in a much larger quantity) in multiplexed analysis to enable sensitive and comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomic measurements with <100 000 cells. This simple boosting to amplify signal with isobaric labeling (BASIL) strategy increased the overall number of quantifiable phosphorylation sites more than 4-fold. Good reproducibility in quantification was demonstrated with a median CV of 15.3% and Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.95 from biological replicates. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated the ability of BASIL to distinguish acute myeloid leukemia cells based on the phosphoproteome data. Moreover, in a pilot application, this strategy enabled quantitative analysis of over 20 000 phosphorylation sites from human pancreatic islets treated with interleukin-1ß and interferon-γ. Together, this signal boosting strategy provides an attractive solution for comprehensive and quantitative phosphoproteome profiling of relatively small populations of cells where traditional phosphoproteomic workflows lack sufficient sensitivity.

14.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 755-768.e5, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713109

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing ß cells. A comprehensive picture of the changes during T1D development is lacking due to limited sample availability, inability to sample longitudinally, and the paucity of technologies enabling comprehensive tissue profiling. Here, we analyzed 1,581 islets from 12 human donors, including eight with T1D, using imaging mass cytometry (IMC). IMC enabled simultaneous measurement of 35 biomarkers with single-cell and spatial resolution. We performed pseudotime analysis of islets through T1D progression from snapshot data to reconstruct the evolution of ß cell loss and insulitis. Our analyses revealed that ß cell destruction is preceded by a ß cell marker loss and by recruitment of cytotoxic and helper T cells. The approaches described herein demonstrate the value of IMC for improving our understanding of T1D pathogenesis, and our data lay the foundation for hypothesis generation and follow-on experiments.

15.
Cell Metab ; 29(5): 1045-1060.e10, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799288

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by hyperglycemia due to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. Immune-mediated beta cell destruction drives the disease, but whether beta cells actively participate in the pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that during the natural history of T1D in humans and the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, a subset of beta cells acquires a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Senescent beta cells upregulated pro-survival mediator Bcl-2, and treatment of NOD mice with Bcl-2 inhibitors selectively eliminated these cells without altering the abundance of the immune cell types involved in the disease. Significantly, elimination of senescent beta cells halted immune-mediated beta cell destruction and was sufficient to prevent diabetes. Our findings demonstrate that beta cell senescence is a significant component of the pathogenesis of T1D and indicate that clearance of senescent beta cells could be a new therapeutic approach for T1D.

16.
Cell Metab ; 29(3): 769-783.e4, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30713110

RESUMO

The interaction between the immune system and endocrine cells in the pancreas is crucial for the initiation and progression of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Imaging mass cytometry (IMC) enables multiplexed assessment of the abundance and localization of more than 30 proteins on the same tissue section at 1-µm resolution. Herein, we have developed a panel of 33 antibodies that allows for the quantification of key cell types including pancreatic exocrine cells, islet cells, immune cells, and stromal components. We employed this panel to analyze 12 pancreata obtained from donors with clinically diagnosed T1D and 6 pancreata from non-diabetic controls. In the pancreata from donors with T1D, we simultaneously visualized significant alterations in islet architecture, endocrine cell composition, and immune cell presentation. Indeed, we demonstrate the utility of IMC to investigate complex events on the cellular level that will provide new insights on the pathophysiology of T1D.

17.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 149: 9-17, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30710658

RESUMO

Published information on diabetes in Pakistani youth is limited. We aimed to investigate the demographic, clinical, and biochemical features, and HLA-DRB1 alleles in new cases of diabetes affecting children and adolescents <22 years of age. The study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology in Karachi from June 2013-December 2015. One hundred subjects aged <22 years at diagnosis were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, clinical information, biochemical parameters (blood glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide, glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and islet antigen 2 (IA-2) autoantibodies) were measured. DNA from 100 subjects and 200 controls was extracted and genotyped for HLA-DRB1 using high-resolution genotyping technology. Ninety-nine subjects were clinically diagnosed as type 1 diabetes (T1D) and one as type 2 diabetes (T2D). Of the 99 with T1D, 57 (57.6%) were males and 42 (42.4%) females, with mean age at diagnosis 11.0 ±â€¯5.2 years (range 1.6-21.7 years) and peaks at six and fifteen years. Fifty-seven subjects were assessed within one month of diagnosis and all within eleven months. For the subjects diagnosed as T1D, mean C-peptide was 0.63 ±â€¯0.51 nmol/L (1.91 ±â€¯1.53 ng/mL), with 16 (16.2%) IA2 positive, 53 (53.5%) GAD-65 positive, and 10 (10.1%) positive for both autoantibodies. In T1D patients, the allele DRB1*03:01 demonstrated highly significant T1D association (p < 10-16), with no apparent risk conferred by DRB1*04:xx alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Heterogeneous forms of T1D appear more common in children and youth in Pakistan than in European populations. Individual understanding of such cases could enable improved management strategies and healthier outcomes.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Peptídeo C/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/genética , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/patologia , Feminino , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetologia ; 62(5): 744-753, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30675626

RESUMO

In type 1 diabetes, pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by chronic autoimmune responses. The disease develops in genetically susceptible individuals, but a role for environmental factors has been postulated. Viral infections have long been considered as candidates for environmental triggers but, given the lack of evidence for an acute, widespread, cytopathic effect in the pancreas in type 1 diabetes or for a closely related temporal association of diabetes onset with such infections, a role for viruses in type 1 diabetes remains unproven. Moreover, viruses have rarely been isolated from the pancreas of individuals with type 1 diabetes, mainly (but not solely) due to the inaccessibility of the organ. Here, we review past and recent literature to evaluate the proposals that chronic, recurrent and, possibly, persistent enteroviral infections occur in pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes. We also explore whether these infections may be sustained by different virus strains over time and whether multiple viral hits can occur during the natural history of type 1 diabetes. We emphasise that only a minority of beta cells appear to be infected at any given time and that enteroviruses may become replication defective, which could explain why they have been isolated from the pancreas only rarely. We argue that enteroviral infection of beta cells largely depends on the host innate and adaptive immune responses, including innate responses mounted by beta cells. Thus, we propose that viruses could play a role in type 1 diabetes on multiple levels, including in the triggering and chronic stimulation of autoimmunity and in the generation of inflammation and the promotion of beta cell dysfunction and stress, each of which might then contribute to autoimmunity, as part of a vicious circle. We conclude that studies into the effects of vaccinations and/or antiviral drugs (some of which are currently on-going) is the only means by which the role of viruses in type 1 diabetes can be finally proven or disproven.

19.
Diabetes Care ; 42(3): 406-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic risk scores (GRS) have been developed that differentiate individuals with type 1 diabetes from those with other forms of diabetes and are starting to be used for population screening; however, most studies were conducted in European-ancestry populations. This study identifies novel genetic variants associated with type 1 diabetes risk in African-ancestry participants and develops an African-specific GRS. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We generated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data with the ImmunoChip on 1,021 African-ancestry participants with type 1 diabetes and 2,928 control participants. HLA class I and class II alleles were imputed using SNP2HLA. Logistic regression models were used to identify genome-wide significant (P < 5.0 × 10-8) SNPs associated with type 1 diabetes in the African-ancestry samples and validate SNPs associated with risk in known European-ancestry loci (P < 2.79 × 10-5). RESULTS: African-specific (HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01) and known European-ancestry HLA haplotypes (HLA-DRB1*03:01-HLA-DQA1*05:01-HLA-DQB1*02:01, HLA-DRB1*04:01-HLA-DQA1*03:01-HLA-DQB1*03:02) were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes risk. Among European-ancestry defined non-HLA risk loci, six risk loci were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes in subjects of African ancestry. An African-specific GRS provided strong prediction of type 1 diabetes risk (area under the curve 0.871), performing significantly better than a European-based GRS and two polygenic risk scores in independent discovery and validation cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk of type 1 diabetes includes ancestry-specific, disease-associated variants. The GRS developed here provides improved prediction of type 1 diabetes in African-ancestry subjects and a means to identify groups of individuals who would benefit from immune monitoring for early detection of islet autoimmunity.

20.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(1): 52-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528099

RESUMO

With the conceptual advance about four decades ago that type 1 diabetes represents an autoimmune disease, hope arose that immune-based therapies would soon emerge to prevent and reverse the disorder. However, despite dozens of clinical trials seeking to achieve these goals, the promise remains unfulfilled, at least in a pragmatic form. With the benefit of hindsight, several important reasons are likely to account for this disappointing outcome, including failure to appreciate disease heterogeneity, inappropriate use of rodent models of disease, inadequacies in addressing the immunological and metabolic contributions to the disease, suboptimal trial designs, and lack of a clear understanding of the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In this Series paper, we convey how recent knowledge gains in these areas, combined with efforts related to disease staging and emerging mechanistic data from clinical trials, provide cautious optimism that immune-based approaches to prevent the loss of ß cells in type 1 diabetes will emerge into clinical practice.

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