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1.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817665

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in more than 2 million deaths globally. Two interconnected stages of disease are generally recognised; an initial viral stage and a subsequent immune response phase with the clinical characteristics of hyperinflammation associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, many immune modulators and immunosuppressive drugs, which are widely used in rheumatological practice, have been proposed as treatments for patients with moderate or severe COVID-19. In this Review, we provide an overview of what is currently known about the efficacy and safety of antirheumatic therapies for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Dexamethasone has been shown to reduce COVID-19 related mortality, interleukin-6 inhibitors to reduce risk of cardiovascular or respiratory organ support, and baricitinib to reduce time to recovery in hospitalised patients requiring oxygen support. Further studies are needed to identify whether there is any role for glucocorticoids in patients with less severe COVID-19. Although evidence on the use of other antirheumatic drugs has suggested some benefits, results from adequately powered clinical trials are urgently needed. The heterogeneity in dosing and the absence of uniform inclusion criteria and defined stage of disease studied in many clinical trials have affected the conclusions and comparability of trial results. However, after the success of dexamethasone in proving the anti-inflammatory hypothesis, the next 12 months will undoubtedly bring further clarity about the clinical utility and optimal dose and timing of other anti-rheumatic drugs in the management of COVID-19.

2.
J Bone Miner Metab ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821301

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is caused by mutations in the ALPL gene encoding tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) and inherited in either an autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant manner. It is characterized clinically by defective mineralization of bone, dental problems, and low serum ALP levels. In the current report, we demonstrate a novel mutation in the ALPL gene (c.244G > A p.Gly82Arg) in a Japanese family with low serum ALP levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ALPL gene analysis using hybridization capture-based next-generation sequencing was performed. The expression plasmids of the wild type and mutated TNSALP were introduced into COS-7 cells. The enzymatic activity of ALP in the cell lysates was measured using p-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate. RESULTS: TNSALP with the novel ALPL mutation (c.244G > A p.Gly82Arg) completely lost its enzymatic activity and suppressed that of wild-type TNSALP, corroborating its dominant negative effect. The diagnosis of autosomal dominant HPP was confirmed in three members of the family. CONCLUSION: Our approach would help to avoid the inappropriate use of bone resorption inhibitors for currently mis- or under-diagnosed HPP, given that the presence of further, yet undetected mutations of the ALPL gene are plausible.

3.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 84, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906651

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical Cushing's disease (SCD) is defined by corticotroph adenoma-induced mild hypercortisolism without typical physical features of Cushing's disease. Infection is an important complication associated with mortality in Cushing's disease, while no reports on infection in SCD are available. To make clinicians aware of the risk of infection in SCD, we report a case of SCD with disseminated herpes zoster (DHZ) with the mortal outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old Japanese woman was diagnosed with SCD, treated with cabergoline in the outpatient. She was hospitalized for acute pyelonephritis, and her fever gradually resolved with antibiotics. However, herpes zoster appeared on her chest, and the eruptions rapidly spread over the body. She suddenly went into cardiopulmonary arrest and died. Autopsy demonstrated adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive pituitary adenoma, renal abscess, and DHZ. CONCLUSIONS: As immunosuppression caused by SCD may be one of the triggers of severe infection, the patients with SCD should be assessed not only for the metabolic but also for the immunodeficient status.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9057, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907279

RESUMO

The contribution of endogenous insulin secretion to glycemic variability (GV) may differ between patients with impaired insulin secretion and those with preserved secretion. Our objective was to determine the linearity of the relationship between fasting C-peptide (CPR) as a marker of endogenous insulin secretion and GV in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), regardless of the type of antidiabetic treatment. We conducted a prospective observational study using continuous glucose monitoring obtained from 284 Japanese outpatients with T2DM with various HbA1c values and antidiabetic treatment. We constructed a prediction curve of base-line CPR versus coefficient of variation (CV) and identified the clinical factors associated with CV using multiple regression analysis. Fasting CPR showed a significant negative log-linear relationship with CV (P < 0.0001), and the latter being strikingly high in the low-CPR group. The multiple regression analysis showed that low CPR was an independent predictor of high CV (P < 0.0001). The significant correlations were sustained in both patients with/without insulin treatment. The contribution of endogenous insulin secretion to GV depends on the extent of insulin secretion impairment. Fasting CPR may represent a useful indicator of GV instability in T2DM.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5223, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664381

RESUMO

A novel patient cluster in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) may be identified in Japan. We performed multiple correspondence and cluster analysis regarding 427 clinically diagnosed AAV patients excluding eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Model 1 included the ANCA phenotype, items of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score, and interstitial lung disease; model 2 included serum creatinine (s-Cr) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels with model 1 components. In seven clusters determined in model 1, the ANCA-negative (n = 8) and proteinase 3-ANCA-positive (n = 41) groups emerged as two distinct clusters. The other five myeloperoxidase-ANCA-positive clusters were characterized by ear, nose, and throat (ENT) (n = 47); cutaneous (n = 36); renal (n = 256), non-renal (n = 33); and both ENT and cutaneous symptoms (n = 6). Four clusters in model 2 were characterized by myeloperoxidase-ANCA negativity (n = 42), without s-Cr elevation (< 1.3 mg/dL) (n = 157), s-Cr elevation (≥ 1.3 mg/dL) with high CRP (> 10 mg/dL) (n = 71), or s-Cr elevation (≥ 1.3 mg/dL) without high CRP (≤ 10 mg/dL) (n = 157). Overall, renal, and relapse-free survival rates were significantly different across the four clusters in model 2. ENT, cutaneous, and renal symptoms may be useful in characterization of Japanese AAV patients with myeloperoxidase-ANCA. The combination of s-Cr and CRP levels may be predictive of prognosis.

6.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune sialadenitis with unknown aetiology. Although extensive research implicated an abnormal immune response associated with lymphocytes, an initiating event mediated by salivary gland epithelial cell (SGEC) abnormalities causing activation is poorly characterised. Transcriptome studies have suggested alternations in lysosomal function are associated with SS, but a cause and effect linkage has not been established. In this study, we demonstrated that altered lysosome activity in SGECs by expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) can initiate an autoimmune response with autoantibody production and salivary dysfunction similar to SS. METHODS: Retroductal cannulation of the submandibular salivary glands with an adeno-associated virus serotype 2 vector encoding LAMP3 was used to establish a model system. Pilocarpine-stimulated salivary flow and the presence of autoantibodies were assessed at several time points post-cannulation. Salivary glands from the mice were evaluated using RNAseq and histologically. RESULTS: Following LAMP3 expression, saliva flow was significantly decreased and serum anti-Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies could be detected in the treated mice. Mechanistically, LAMP3 expression increased apoptosis in SGECs and decreased protein expression related to saliva secretion. Analysis of RNAseq data suggested altered lysosomal function in the transduced SGECs, and that the cellular changes can chemoattract immune cells into the salivary glands. Immune cells were activated via toll-like receptors by damage-associated molecular patterns released from LAMP3-expressing SGECs. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a critical role for lysosomal trafficking in the development of SS and establish a causal relationship between LAMP3 misexpression and the development of SS.

7.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 37: 100376, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561739

RESUMO

Solute carrier (SLC) 16A11 has been reported as a risk gene for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the physiological function of SLC16A11 has not yet been clarified, and the relationship between SLC16A11 and T2D condition remains unclear. Therefore, we performed an association analysis between the SLC16A11 genotype and T2D pathology. The SLC16A11 genotype was determined by direct sequencing in 85 Japanese patients with T2D. The genotypes were analyzed by Mann-Whitney's U test and Chi-square test. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the SLC16A11 gene, and five of them formed a haplotype (5SNP haplotype). The 5SNP haplotype carriers had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (T-CHO), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than the noncarriers. The SLC16A11 genotype affected the values of laboratory parameters for T2D, particularly of blood lipids. The function of SLC16A11 may be related to lipid metabolism.

8.
Diabetes ; 70(4): 917-931, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608422

RESUMO

Efficacy of glucokinase activation on glycemic control is limited to a short-term period. One reason might be related to excess glucose signaling by glucokinase activation toward ß-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of glucokinase haploinsufficiency on glucose tolerance as well as ß-cell function and mass using a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Our results showed that in db/db mice with glucokinase haploinsufficiency, glucose tolerance was ameliorated by augmented insulin secretion associated with the increase in ß-cell mass when compared with db/db mice. Gene expression profiling and immunohistochemical and metabolomic analyses revealed that glucokinase haploinsufficiency in the islets of db/db mice was associated with lower expression of stress-related genes, greater expression of transcription factors involved in the maintenance and maturation of ß-cell function, less mitochondrial damage, and a superior metabolic pattern. These effects of glucokinase haploinsufficiency could preserve ß-cell mass under diabetic conditions. These findings verified our hypothesis that optimizing excess glucose signaling in ß-cells by inhibiting glucokinase could prevent ß-cell insufficiency, leading to improving glucose tolerance in diabetes status by preserving ß-cell mass. Therefore, glucokinase inactivation in ß-cells, paradoxically, could be a potential strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

9.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638884

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We aimed to determine whether glucokinase is required for ß-cell mass expansion induced by high-starch diet (HSTD)-feeding, as has been shown in its high-fat diet-induced expansion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight-week-old male wild-type (Gck+/+ ) or glucokinase haploinsufficient (Gck+/- ) mice were fed either a normal chow (NC) or an HSTD for 15 weeks. The bodyweight, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and ß-cell mass were assessed. RESULTS: Both HSTD-fed Gck+/+ and Gck+/- mice had significantly higher bodyweight than NC-fed mice. Insulin and oral glucose tolerance tests revealed that HSTD feeding did not affect insulin sensitivity nor glucose tolerance in either the Gck+/+ or Gck+/- mice. However, during the oral glucose tolerance test, the 15-min plasma insulin concentration after glucose loading was significantly higher in the HSTD group than that in the NC group for Gck+/+ , but not for Gck+/- mice. ß-Cell mass was significantly larger in HSTD-fed Gck+/+ mice than that in NC-fed Gck+/+ mice. In contrast, the ß-cell mass of the HSTD-fed Gck+/- mice was not different from that of the NC-fed Gck+/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that HSTD feeding would increase pancreatic ß-cell mass and insulin secretion in Gck+/+ , but not Gck+/- mice. This observation implies that glucokinase in ß-cells would be required for the increase in ß-cell mass induced by HSTD feeding.

10.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421309

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: We recently reported the beneficial effect of the combination of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor on daily glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Additional favorable effects of combination therapy were explored in this secondary analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The CALMER study was a multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized, parallel-group comparison trial for type 2 diabetes mellitus involving continuous glucose monitoring under meal tolerance tests. Patients were randomly assigned to switch from teneligliptin to canagliflozin (SWITCH group) or to add canagliflozin to teneligliptin (COMB group). The continuous glucose monitoring metrics, including time in target range, were investigated. RESULTS: All 99 participants (mean age 62.3 years; mean glycated hemoglobin 7.4%) completed the trial. The time in target range was increased in the COMB group (71.2-82.7%, P < 0.001). The extent of the reduction in time above target range was significantly larger in the COMB group compared with the SWITCH group (-14.8% vs -7.5%, P < 0.01). Area under the curve values for glucose at 120 min after all meal tolerance tests were significantly decreased in the COMB group compared with the SWITCH group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor combined with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor improved the quality of glycemic variability and reduced postprandial hyperglycemia compared with each monotherapy.

11.
J Diabetes Investig ; 12(4): 651-657, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448697

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Alcohol consumption has been reported to cause hypoglycemia. However, the mechanism involved has not been unequivocally established. This study comprised healthy volunteers. We carried out a prospective trial to compare the effects of glucose and alcohol consumption, alone or in combination, on glucose and lipid metabolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a combined 75-g glucose plus 20-g alcohol tolerance test (OGATT) and a 20-g alcohol tolerance test (OATT) were carried out in the participants. Plasma glucose, insulin, triglyceride and ethanol concentrations during each test were compared. RESULTS: We studied 10 participants. Their plasma glucose concentrations 15 and 30 min after the intake of 75 g of glucose were significantly higher during the OGATT than the OGTT. Hypoglycemia occurred in five participants after the OGATT, which was significantly more frequently than after the OGTT (P = 0.046). Hypoglycemia did not occur after the OATT, and the ethanol concentration was significantly lower after the OGATT than the OATT. The changes in triglyceride concentration from 30 min after the consumption of 75 g of glucose were significantly greater during the OGATT than the OGTT. The plasma insulin concentrations peaked after 60 min during both the OGTT and OGATT, and were significantly higher during the OGATT (P = 0.047). There were no differences between the two interventions in the Matsuda or disposition indexes. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently after the simultaneous consumption of alcohol plus glucose than after the consumption of glucose alone, suggesting that alcohol in the combination of glucose induces reactive hypoglycemia.

12.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and safety of the Janus kinase-1 inhibitor filgotinib in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with limited or no prior methotrexate (MTX) exposure. METHODS: This 52-week, phase 3, multicentre, double-blind clinical trial (NCT02886728) evaluated once-daily oral filgotinib in 1252 patients with RA randomised 2:1:1:2 to filgotinib 200 mg with MTX (FIL200 +MTX), filgotinib 100 mg with MTX (FIL100 +MTX), filgotinib 200 mg monotherapy (FIL200), or MTX. The primary endpoint was proportion achieving 20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 24. RESULTS: The primary endpoint was achieved by 81% of patients receiving FIL200+ MTX versus 71% receiving MTX (p<0.001). A significantly greater proportion treated with FIL100+ MTX compared with MTX achieved an ACR20 response (80%, p=0.017) at week 24. Significant improvement in Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index was seen at week 24; least-squares mean change from baseline was -1.0 and -0.94 with FIL200+MTX and FIL100+MTX, respectively, versus -0.81 with MTX (p<0.001, p=0.008, respectively). Significantly higher proportions receiving FIL200+MTX (54%) and FIL100+MTX (43%) achieved DAS28(CRP) <2.6 versus MTX (29%) (p<0.001 for both) at week 24. Hierarchical testing stopped for comparison of ACR20 for FIL200 monotherapy (78%) versus MTX (71%) at week 24 (p=0.058). Adverse event rates through week 52 were comparable between all treatments. CONCLUSIONS: FIL200+MTX and FIL100+MTX both significantly improved signs and symptoms and physical function in patients with active RA and limited or no prior MTX exposure; FIL200 monotherapy did not have a superior ACR20 response rate versus MTX. Filgotinib was well tolerated, with acceptable safety compared with MTX.

13.
Diabetes Ther ; 2021 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491111

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonists exert potent hypoglycemic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a blood glucose concentration-dependent manner. Once-weekly subcutaneous administration of the GLP-1 receptor agonist semaglutide has beneficial effects on glycemic and body weight control, but it is currently unclear if semaglutide provides superior glycemic control compared to conventional GLP-1 receptor agonists in the Japanese population. We aim to compare the effects of once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide with those of liraglutide or dulaglutide administration in Japanese patients with T2D. METHODS: This study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint, parallel-group trial. In total, 100 participants with T2D who have been treated with liraglutide (0.9-1.8 mg/day in plan A) or dulaglutide (0.75 mg/week in plan B) for more than 12 weeks and have a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 6.0-9.9% and a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 22 kg/m2 will be randomized to either continue using their existing GLP-1 receptor agonist or switch to subcutaneous semaglutide once weekly for 24 weeks. Biochemical analysis, physical assessment, and a quality-of-life questionnaire (DTSQ) will be completed at baseline and at the end of the study. The primary endpoint is the effect of semaglutide on the change in HbA1c. The secondary endpoints are the mean changes in total DTSQ score, body mass, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, factors associated with improvement in HbA1c and secondary endpoints, side effects, and other laboratory parameters. PLANNED OUTCOMES: The results of the study will provide useful information regarding the effects of switching to semaglutide from other GLP-1 receptor agonists on glycemic control in patients with T2D. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Hokkaido University Certified Review Board (CRB no. 1180001) has approved the protocol (no. 018-005). The results will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and at scientific conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN000042369 in the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN); jRCT1011200008 in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT); pre-results.

14.
Endocr J ; 68(4): 477-484, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361650

RESUMO

We provide the details of the successful management of a patient with active Cushing's disease complicated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. The patient was a 27-year-old Japanese female healthcare worker who was scheduled to undergo pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease. She had been in close contact with an undiagnosed patient infected with COVID-19 and then developed COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite a lack of known risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 infection, the patient's dyspnea worsened and her respiratory condition deteriorated, as indicated by the need for 7 L/min oxygen supply by mask to maintain her oxygen saturation at >90%. Medical treatment was initiated to control hypercortisolism by the 'block and replace' regimen using steroidogenesis inhibitors and hydrocortisone. The COVID-19 pneumonia improved with multi-modal treatment including antiviral therapy. One month later, after a negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) test result and with appropriate protection against virus transmission to medical staff in the operating room and daily medical care nurses, trans-sphenoidal surgery was performed by our highly experienced pituitary surgeon. One month after the surgery, the patient's basal ACTH and cortisol levels and urinary free cortisol were all under the detection limit. Surgical remission was expected. Since hypercortisolism due to active Cushing's disease may worsen a COVID-19 infection, multi-disciplinary management that includes appropriate and prompt treatment strategies is mandatory in such cases.


Assuntos
Amidas/administração & dosagem , Benzamidinas/administração & dosagem , Guanidinas/administração & dosagem , Metirapona/administração & dosagem , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/terapia , Pregnenodionas/administração & dosagem , Pirazinas/administração & dosagem , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/complicações , Adenoma Hipofisário Secretor de ACT/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , /patologia , Terapia Combinada , Di-Hidrotestosterona/administração & dosagem , Di-Hidrotestosterona/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Heparina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Japão , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/sangue , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/complicações , Hipersecreção Hipofisária de ACTH/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/administração & dosagem
15.
J Rheumatol ; 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259328

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: APS ACTION Registry studies long-term outcomes in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Our primary objective was to determine whether clinically meaningful aPL profiles at baseline remain stable over time. Our secondary objectives were to determine a) whether baseline characteristics differ between patients with stable and unstable aPL profiles, and b) predictors of unstable aPL profiles over time. METHODS: Clinically meaningful aPL profile was defined as positive lupus anticoagulant (LA) test and/or anticardiolipin (aCL)/anti-ß2 glycoprotein-I (aß2GPI) IgG/M ≥40 U. Stable aPL profile was defined as a clinically meaningful aPL profile in at least two-thirds of follow-up measurements. Generalized linear mixed models with logit link were used for primary objective analysis. RESULTS: Of 472 patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline (median follow up: 5.1 years), 366/472 (78%) patients had stable aPL profiles over time, 54 (11%) unstable; and 52 (11%) inconclusive. Time did not significantly affect odds of maintaining a clinically meaningful aPL profile at follow-up in univariate (p=0.906) and multivariable analysis (p=0.790). Baseline triple aPL positivity decreased (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.10-0.64, p=0.004) and isolated LA test positivity increased (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.53-7.13, p=0.002) the odds of an unstable aPL profile over time. CONCLUSION: Approximately 80% of our international cohort patients with clinically meaningful aPL profile at baseline maintain such at a median follow-up of five years; triple aPL-positivity increase the odds of a stable aPL profile. These results will guide future validation studies of stored blood samples through APS ACTION Core Laboratories.

16.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-21, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate efficacy and safety of filgotinib in Japanese RA patients who have failed or were intolerant to one or more biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARD) from the global FINCH 2 study (NCT02873936). METHODS: This subgroup analysis was performed using the predefined statistical analyses. The FINCH 2 study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 study in adult RA patients with inadequate response to bDMARDs. The randomized patients were treated with once-daily filgotinib 200 mg, filgotinib 100 mg or placebo on a background of csDMARDs for 24 weeks. RESULTS: Of 449 patients enrolled in the overall population, 40 patients were enrolled from Japan. In the Japanese population, the American College of Rheumatology 20% response rates at week 12 (primary endpoint) were 83.3% and 53.3% for filgotinib, 200 mg and 100 mg, respectively, vs 30.8% for placebo. Filgotinib was well tolerated, similar to the overall population. CONCLUSIONS: Both doses of once-daily filgotinib 200 mg and filgotinib 100 mg were effective, and generally well-tolerated in Japanese patients with active refractory RA.

17.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33325645

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: To identify the effect of combination therapy with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor compared with switching from a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor to a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor on improving the glucose variability in patients with or without impaired endogenous insulin secretion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A secondary analysis regarding the relationship between endogenous insulin secretion and the change in mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (ΔMAGE) was carried out in a multicenter, prospective, randomized, parallel-group comparison trial that enrolled patients with type 2 diabetes who had been taking teneligliptin and were treated by switching to canagliflozin (SWITCH) or adding canagliflozin (COMB). Participants were categorized into the following four subgroups: SWITCH or COMB and high or low fasting C-peptide (CPR) divided at baseline by the median. RESULTS: ΔMAGE in the COMB group was greatly improved independent of a high or low CPR (-29.2 ± 28.3 vs -20.0 ± 24.6, respectively; P = 0.60). However, ΔMAGE was not ameliorated in the low CPR SWITCH group, and the ΔMAGE was significantly smaller than that in the high CPR COMB group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COMB would be a better protocol rather than switching teneligliptin to canagliflozin to improve daily glucose variability in patients with impaired endogenous insulin secretion.

18.
Mod Rheumatol ; : 1-22, 2020 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess upadacitinib monotherapy versus methotrexate (MTX) in MTX-naïve Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the Phase 3 SELECT-EARLY study. METHODS: Japanese patients were randomized 2:1:1:1 to upadacitinib 7.5, 15, or 30 mg daily or MTX 7.5 mg/week (titrated to ≤15 mg/week). Efficacy endpoints included the proportion of patients reporting 20% improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR20) at week 12 and change from baseline in modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS) at week 24. Other efficacy outcomes were also assessed at weeks 12 and/or 24. Safety was assessed over 24 weeks. RESULTS: Of 138 Japanese patients enrolled, significantly more patients treated with upadacitinib 7.5 and 15 mg, but not 30 mg, reported ACR20 responses versus MTX at week 12. Significantly smaller changes from baseline in mTSS were observed with upadacitinib 15 and 30 mg, but not 7.5 mg, versus MTX at week 24. Upadacitinib demonstrated an acceptable safety profile; herpes zoster occurred in 3.6%, 7.4%, and 7.1% of patients treated with upadacitinib 7.5, 15, and 30 mg, respectively. CONCLUSION: Similar to the global study population, upadacitinib demonstrated clinical efficacy superior to placebo in the Japanese subpopulation. Among upadacitinib-treated patients, herpes zoster was least common with 7.5 mg.

19.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131199

RESUMO

AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors, as well as thiazolidines, suppress nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, few comparative studies have been reported. Dapagliflozin has shown non-inferiority compared with pioglitazone for glycemic control, and superiority regarding weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes. We carried out a secondary analysis for the favorable effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter inhibitors for NAFLD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, prospective, randomized, parallel-group comparison trial, patients taking pioglitazone for ≥12 weeks were randomly switched to dapagliflozin or continued pioglitazone for a further 24 weeks. The fatty liver index (FLI), consisting of body mass index, triglycerides, waist circumference and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, was used for the evaluation of NAFLD. RESULTS: A total of 53 participants with NAFLD (27 dapagliflozin; 26 pioglitazone) were included in this analysis. FLI decreased significantly in the dapagliflozin group (48.7 ± 23.4 to 42.1 ± 23.9) compared with the pioglitazone group (49.0 ± 26.1 to 51.1 ± 25.8; P < 0.01). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the changes in FLI had a significantly positive correlation with changes in glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.03) and insulin level (P < 0.01) in the dapagliflozin group. CONCLUSION: Dapagliflozin might be more beneficial than pioglitazone in patients with NAFLD. Improvements in FLI would be closely related to glycemic control.

20.
Rheumatol Int ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205224

RESUMO

The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19), is a global emergency. The first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Japan in January 2020, a second outbreak of infection occurred in mid-March and a third peak at the beginning of August. The COVID-19 phenotype was milder in Japan than in other countries, although the restrictive measures applied in the country have not been as strict as in other places. Factors related to a possible reduced susceptibility to the pulmonary manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 may have contributed to better outcomes and lower mortality in Japan.

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