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1.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601692

RESUMO

ABL-class fusions other than BCR-ABL1 characterize about 2-3% of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case series indicated that patients suffering from these subtypes have a dismal outcome and may benefit from the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We analyzed clinical characteristics and outcome of 46 ABL-class fusion positive cases other than BCR-ABL1 treated according to AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 and 2009 protocols; 13 of them received a tyrosine kinase inhibitor during different phases of treatment. ABL-class fusion positive cases had a poor early treatment response: minimal residual disease levels of >5x10-4 were observed in 71.4% of patients after induction treatment and in 51.2% after consolidation phase. For the entire cohort of 46 cases the 5-year probability of event-free survival was 49.1+8.9% and that of overall survival 69.6+7.8%; the cumulative incidence of relapse was 25.6+8.2% and treatment-related mortality 20.8+6.8%. One out of 13 cases with tyrosine kinase inhibitor added to chemotherapy relapsed while eight of 33 cases without tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment suffered from relapse, including six in 17 patients who had not received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation seems to be effective in preventing relapses (only three relapses in 25 patients), but was associated with a very high treatment-related mortality (6 patients). These data indicate a major need for an early identification of ABL-class fusion positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and to establish a properly designed, controlled study aimed at investigating the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the appropriate chemotherapy backbone and the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NTC00430118, NCT00613457, NCT01117441).

2.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO1901694, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644328

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Minimal residual disease (MRD) helps to accurately assess when children with late bone marrow relapses of B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). More detailed dissection of MRD response heterogeneity and the specific genetic aberrations could improve current practice. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MRD was assessed after induction treatment and at different times during relapse treatment until allo-HSCT (indicated in poor responders to induction; MRD ≥ 10-3) for patients being treated for late BCP-ALL bone marrow relapses (n = 413; median follow-up, 9.4 years) in the ALL-REZ BFM 2002 trial/registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00114348). RESULTS: Patients with both good (MRD < 10-3) and poor responses to induction treatment reached excellent event-free survival (EFS; 72% v 65%) and overall survival (OS; 82% v 74%). Patients with MRD of 10-2 or greater after induction had reduced EFS (56%), and their MRD persisted until allo-HSCT more frequently than it did in patients with MRD of 10-3 or greater to less than 10-2 (P = .037). Patients with 25% or more leukemic blasts after induction (early nonresponders) had the poorest prognosis (EFS, 22%). Interestingly, patients with MRD of 10-3 or greater before allo-HSCT (late nonresponders) still had an EFS of 50% and OS of 63%, which in principle justifies allo-HSCT in these patients. From a panel of selected candidate genes, TP53 alterations (frequency, 8%) were the only genetic alteration with independent prognostic value in any MRD-based response subgroup. CONCLUSION: After induction treatment, MRD-based treatment stratification resulted in excellent survival in patients with late relapsed BCP-ALL. Prognosis could be further improved in very poor responders by intensifying treatment directly after induction. TP53 alterations can be defined as a novel genetic high-risk marker in all MRD response groups in late relapsed BCP-ALL. Here we identified early and late nonresponders to be considered as events in future trials.

4.
Eur J Cancer ; 122: 61-71, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629941

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) have unfavourable disease features and an inferior outcome when compared with younger children, but it is still unclear if differences in disease biology and prognosis exist between adolescents older or younger than 15 years. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed outcomes of 1094 adolescents with ALL, aged 10-17 years, treated within the AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000 trial, overall and by the age groups 10-14 and 15-17 years. FINDINGS: Compared with younger children (aged 1-9 years, n = 3647), adolescents had a statistically inferior 5-year event-free survival (EFS) [74.6% (1.3) vs. 84.4% (0.6)] and overall survival (OS) [83.4% (1.1) vs. 92.7% (0.4); p < 0.001]. Clinical and biological disease characteristics did not differ between the two subgroups of adolescents, including minimal residual disease (MRD) results during initial therapy, except for ETV6-RUNX1 frequency and gender. With a median follow-up of 8.8 years, the 5-year EFS and OS were 76.2% (1.5) and 84.9% (1.3), respectively, for those aged 10-14 years and 70.0% (2.8) and 78.8% (2.5) for those aged 15-17 years (p = 0.06; 0.05). There was no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapses [17.8% (1.4) and 18.3% (2.4); p = 0.98], while the incidence of treatment-related deaths as a first event was 2.6% (0.6) versus 7.4% (1.6) (p < 0.001) with, in particular, a higher incidence in the high-risk arm. INTERPRETATION: Further prospective studies and biological investigations are required to define optimal treatment for adolescents, in particular for those aged 15-17 years. Newer agents (immunotherapy, targeted therapy) in early treatment phases of patients at higher risk of treatment failure could replace most toxic treatment elements, with the aim of reducing both toxicity and the risk of relapses.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649129

RESUMO

Detection of minimal disseminated disease is a validated prognostic factor in ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. We previously reported that quantification of minimal disease by quantitative real-time PCR in bone marrow applying a cut-off of 10 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies of the reference transcript ABL1 identifies a very high-risk group of patients. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the prognostic value of quantitative minimal disseminated disease evaluation by real-time PCR and to validate digital PCR as alternative method. Among 91 patients analyzed by real-time PCR in bone marrow, the cumulative incidence of relapses of 18 patients with more than 10 normalized copy-numbers of NPM-ALK was 61+/-12% compared to 21+/-5% for the remaining 76 patients (p=.0002). Results in blood correlated with bone marrow (r=0.74) in 70 patients with both materials. Copy numbers tended to be higher in blood compared to bone marrow. Transcripts were quantified in addition by digital PCR in 75 bone marrow and 57 blood samples. Copy number estimation by using digital PCR and real-time PCR correlated in 132 samples (r=.85). Applying a cut-off of 30 copies NPM-ALK/104 copies ABL1 for quantification by digital PCR, almost identical patient groups were separated compared to real-time PCR. In summary, the prognostic impact of quantification of minimal disseminated disease in bone marrow could be confirmed for patients with anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Quantification of minimal disease by digital PCR provides a promising tool to facilitate harmonization of minimal disease measurement between laboratories and for clinical studies.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12950, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506548

RESUMO

Invasive mold disease (IMD) of the central nervous system (CNS) is a severe infectious complication in immunocompromised patients, but early microbiological diagnosis is difficult. As data on the value of biomarkers in the CNS are scarce, in particular in children, we retrospectively analyzed the performance of galactomannan (GM) and PCR assays in CNS samples of 15 children with proven and probable CNS IMD and of 32 immunocompromised children without fungal infection. Galactomannan in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was assessed in nine of the 15 pediatric patients and was positive in five of them. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in eight of the 15 patients and detected nucleic acids from molds in six patients. Galactomannan and PCR in CNS samples were the only positive microbiologic parameter in the CNS in three and two patients, respectively. In four patients, PCR specified the pathogen detected in microscopy. Galactomannan and PCR results remained negative in the CSF of all immunocompromised children without evidence for CNS IMD. Our data suggest that GM and PCR in CNS specimens are valuable additional tools in diagnosing CNS IMD and should be included in the work up of all pediatric patients with suspected mold disease of the CNS.

7.
Cancer Med ; 8(10): 4656-4668, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269329

RESUMO

Therapy of children with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) after hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid organ transplantation (SOT) can be challenging. In this retrospective study, we investigated PD-L1 and PD1 expression in all PTLD categories of childhood and adolescence to see whether checkpoint inhibition with PD-L1/PD1 inhibitors may serve as a therapy option. We included 21 patients aged 19 years or younger (at date of transplant) with PTLD following SOT or HSCT having adequate tumor samples available (n = 29). Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated PD-L1/PD1 expression on both tumor cells and cells of the microenvironment in all samples. Availability of consecutively matched tumor samples during 6 of 21 patients' disease courses also allowed an intra-individual assessment of PD-L1/PD1 expression. We observed lower PD-L1 and higher PD1 expression in non-destructive lesions, and higher PD-L1 and lower PD1 expression in polymorphic and, in particular, in monomorphic PTLD, mostly diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL, n = 10/21). The amount of PD-L1- and PD1-positive cells changed in the opposite way in sequential biopsies of the same individual correlating well with the PTLD category. This is the first comprehensive pediatric study assessing PD-L1 and PD1 expression on tumor cells and in the microenvironment of PTLD including not only monomorphic, but also non-destructive early lesions. PD-L1 expression of the tumor cells inversely correlated with PD1 expression in surrounding tissues, with the highest expression in DLBCL. Since PTLD can be therapeutically challenging, our results indicate a potential efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors if standard immune- and/or chemotherapy fail or are impossible. We therefore recommend routine staining of PD-L1 and PD1 in all PTLD categories.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(25): 2246-2256, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283407

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by KMT2A (MLL) gene rearrangements and coexpression of myeloid markers. The Interfant-06 study, comprising 18 national and international study groups, tested whether myeloid-style consolidation chemotherapy is superior to lymphoid style, the role of stem-cell transplantation (SCT), and which factors had independent prognostic value. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three risk groups were defined: low risk (LR): KMT2A germline; high risk (HR): KMT2A-rearranged and older than 6 months with WBC count 300 × 109/L or more or a poor prednisone response; and medium risk (MR): all other KMT2A-rearranged cases. Patients in the MR and HR groups were randomly assigned to receive the lymphoid course low-dose cytosine arabinoside [araC], 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide (IB) or experimental myeloid courses, namely araC, daunorubicin, etoposide (ADE) and mitoxantrone, araC, etoposide (MAE). RESULTS: A total of 651 infants were included, with 6-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival of 46.1% (SE, 2.1) and 58.2% (SE, 2.0). In West European/North American groups, 6-year EFS and overall survival were 49.4% (SE, 2.5) and 62.1% (SE, 2.4), which were 10% to 12% higher than in other countries. The 6-year probability of disease-free survival was comparable for the randomized arms (ADE+MAE 39.3% [SE 4.0; n = 169] v IB 36.8% [SE, 3.9; n = 161]; log-rank P = .47). The 6-year EFS rate of patients in the HR group was 20.9% (SE, 3.4) with the intention to undergo SCT; only 46% of them received SCT, because many had early events. KMT2A rearrangement was the strongest prognostic factor for EFS, followed by age, WBC count, and prednisone response. CONCLUSION: Early intensification with postinduction myeloid-type chemotherapy courses did not significantly improve outcome for infant ALL compared with the lymphoid-type course IB. Outcome for infant ALL in Interfant-06 did not improve compared with that in Interfant-99.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(8): e27806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31066209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive mold disease (IMD) is a severe infectious complication in immunocompromised patients. The outcome of central nervous system (CNS) IMD is poor, but contemporary data, in particular in the pediatric setting, are lacking. PROCEDURE: For this retrospective multicenter analysis, pediatric patients < 18 years with proven or probable CNS IMD receiving chemotherapy or undergoing allogeneic HSCT were reported by the local investigator. CNS IMD had to be diagnosed between 2007 and 2016. Proven CNS IMD was defined as compatible CNS imaging or macroscopic autopsy findings in conjunction with a positive microscopic or microbiological result in the brain tissue or cerebrospinal fluid. Probable CNS IMD was defined as compatible CNS imaging findings in combination with proven or probable IMD at a site outside the CNS. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 29 patients (median age, 14 years; 14 allogeneic HSCT recipients) were diagnosed with proven (n = 12) or probable (n = 17) CNS IMD. Aspergillus spp. was the most common fungal pathogen. All but one patient had IMD sites outside the CNS and eight patients (27.6%) were neurologically asymptomatic at diagnosis of CNS IMD. Forty-nine percent of the patients survived CNS IMD; however, 46.7% of the survivors suffered from severe long-term neurological sequelae. Our data suggest that (1) outcome of CNS IMD has improved in children as compared with previous series, (2) half of surviving patients suffer from severe neurological sequelae, and (3) imaging of the CNS should be performed in all children with IMD irrespective of neurological symptoms.

10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(7): e27691, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825249

RESUMO

Rothia mucilaginosa is part of the oral and upper respiratory tract flora. Usually, this gram-positive coccus is not pathogenic; however, in the setting of immunosuppressed hosts, it can cause life-threatening infections as an opportunistic pathogen. Among a cohort of 1511 hematologic-oncologic patients at a pediatric tertiary care cancer center, we identified five cancer patients (0.35%) within a period of 10 years having a proven Rothia mucilaginosa bacteremia (1 culture positive: n = 3/5; > 1 culture positive: n = 2/5). With prompt and adequate antibiotic treatment, infection resolved rapidly before recovery of neutrophils and without any sequelae, suggesting that Rothia mucilaginosa bacteremia without organ involvement is not exceptionally problematic in pediatric cancer patients.

11.
Haematologica ; 104(9): 1812-1821, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30705097

RESUMO

Asparagine levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum asparaginase activity were monitored in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with pegylated-asparaginase. The drug was given intravenously at a dose of 2,500 IU/m2 on days 12 and 26. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained on days 33 and 45 were analyzed centrally. Since physiological levels of asparagine in the cerebrospinal fluid of children and adolescents are 4-10 µmol/L, in this study asparagine depletion was considered complete when the concentration of asparagine was ≤0.2 µmol/L, i.e. below the lower limit of quantification of the assay used. Over 24 months 736 patients (AIEOP n=245, BFM n=491) and 903 cerebrospinal fluid samples (n=686 on day 33 and n=217 on day 45) were available for analysis. Data were analyzed separately for the AIEOP and BFM cohorts and yielded superimposable results. Independently of serum asparaginase activity levels, cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were significantly reduced during the investigated study phase but only 28% of analyzed samples showed complete asparagine depletion while relevant levels, ≥1 µmol/L, were still detectable in around 23% of them. Complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was found in around 5-6% and 33-37% of samples at serum asparaginase activity levels <100 and ≥ 1,500 IU/L, respectively. In this study cerebrospinal fluid asparagine levels were reduced during pegylated-asparaginase treatment, but complete depletion was only observed in a minority of patients. No clear threshold of serum pegylated-asparaginase activity level resulting in complete cerebrospinal fluid asparagine depletion was identified. The consistency of the results found in the two independent data sets strengthen the observations of this study. Details of the treatment are available in the European Clinical Trials Database at https://www.clin-icaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2007-004270-43/IT.

13.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(10): 770-779, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657737

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We determined the prognostic factors and utility of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation among children with newly diagnosed hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated in contemporary clinical trials. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective study collected data on 306 patients with hypodiploid ALL who were enrolled in the protocols of 16 cooperative study groups or institutions between 1997 and 2013. The clinical and biologic characteristics, early therapeutic responses as determined by minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment, treatment with or without MRD-stratified protocols, and allogeneic transplantation were analyzed for their impact on outcome. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years, the 5-year event-free survival rate was 55.1% (95% CI, 49.3% to 61.5%), and the 5-year overall survival rate was 61.2% (95% CI, 55.5% to 67.4%) for the 272 evaluable patients. Negative MRD at the end of remission induction, high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes, and treatment in MRD-stratified protocols were associated with a favorable prognosis, with a 5-year event-free survival rate of 75% (95% CI, 66.0% to 85.0%), 74% (95% CI, 61.0% to 89.0%), and 62% (95% CI, 55.0% to 69.0%), respectively. After exclusion of patients with high hypodiploidy with 44 chromosomes and adjustment for waiting time to transplantation and for covariables in a Poisson model, disease-free survival did not differ significantly ( P = .16) between the 42 patients who underwent transplantation and the 186 patients who received chemotherapy only, with an estimated 5-year survival rate of 59% (95% CI, 46.5% to 75.0%) versus 51.5% (95% CI, 44.7% to 59.4%), respectively. Transplantation produced no significant impact on outcome compared with chemotherapy alone, especially among the subgroup of patients who achieved a negative MRD status upon completion of remission induction. CONCLUSION: MRD-stratified treatments improved the outcome for children with hypodiploid ALL. Allogeneic transplantation did not significantly improve outcome overall and, in particular, for patients who achieved MRD-negative status after induction.

14.
Blood Adv ; 3(2): 148-157, 2019 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651283

RESUMO

Genetic abnormalities provide vital diagnostic and prognostic information in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are increasingly used to assign patients to risk groups. We recently proposed a novel classifier based on the copy-number alteration (CNA) profile of the 8 most commonly deleted genes in B-cell precursor ALL. This classifier defined 3 CNA subgroups in consecutive UK trials and was able to discriminate patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. In this study, we sought to validate the United Kingdom ALL (UKALL)-CNA classifier and reevaluate the interaction with cytogenetic risk groups using individual patient data from 3239 cases collected from 12 groups within the International BFM Study Group. The classifier was validated and defined 3 risk groups with distinct event-free survival (EFS) rates: good (88%), intermediate (76%), and poor (68%) (P < .001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity, even within trials that used minimal residual disease to guide therapy. By integrating CNA and cytogenetic data, we replicated our original key observation that patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics can be stratified into 2 prognostic subgroups. Group A had an EFS rate of 86% (similar to patients with good-risk cytogenetics), while group B patients had a significantly inferior rate (73%, P < .001). Finally, we revised the overall genetic classification by defining 4 risk groups with distinct EFS rates: very good (91%), good (81%), intermediate (73%), and poor (54%), P < .001. In conclusion, the UKALL-CNA classifier is a robust prognostic tool that can be deployed in different trial settings and used to refine established cytogenetic risk groups.

15.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(5): e27590, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Flow-cytometric monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in bone marrow (BM) during induction of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is widely used for outcome prognostication and treatment stratification. Utilizing peripheral blood (PB) instead of BM might be favorable, but data on its usefulness are scarce. PROCEDURE: We investigated 1303 PB samples (days 0, 8, 15, 33, and 52) and 285 BMs (day 15) from 288 pediatric ALL patients treated in trial AIEOP-BFM ALL 2000. MRD was assessed by four-color flow cytometry and evaluated as relative, absolute, and kinetic result. RESULTS: In B-ALL only, PB measures from early time points correlated with relapse incidence (CIR). Best separation occurred at threshold <1 blast/µL at day 8 (5-year CIR 0.02 ± 0.02 vs 0.12 ± 0.03; P = 0.044). Patients with highest relapse risk were not distinguishable, but PB-MRD at days 33 and 52 correlated with prednisone response and postinduction BM-MRD by PCR (P < 0.001). Kinetic assessment did not convey any advantage. In multivariate analysis including day 15 BM-MRD, PB-MRD measures lost statistical power. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PB-MRD in pediatric B-ALL correlates with outcome and risk parameters, but its prognostic significance is not strong enough to substitute for BM assessment in AIEOP-BFM trials. It might, however, be valuable in treatment environments not using multifaceted risk stratification with other MRD measures.

16.
Haematologica ; 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467200

RESUMO

Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis is a life-threatening toxicity to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. To elucidate genetic predisposition and asparaginase-associated pancreatitis pathogenesis, ten acute lymphoblastic leukemia trial groups contributed remission samples from patients aged 1.0-17.9 years and treated from 2000-2016. Cases were defined (n=244) by at least two of the following criteria: i) abdominal pain, ii) pancreatic enzymes >3 x upper normal limit, iii) imaging compatible with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. Controls (n=1320) completed intended asparaginase therapy, 78% receiving ≥8 pegylated-asparaginase injections, without developing aparaginase-associated pancreatitis. rs62228256 on 20q13.2 showed the strongest association (OR=3.75; P=5.2x10-8). Moreover, rs13228878 (OR=0.61; P=7.1x10-6) and rs10273639 (OR=0.62; P=1.1x10-5) on 7q34 showed significant association. A Dana Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium cohort consisting of patients treated protocols from 1987-2004 (controls=285, cases=33), and the Children's Oncology Group AALL0232 cohort (controls=2653, cases=76) were available as replication cohorts for the 20q13.2 and 7q34 variants, respectively. While rs62228256 was not validated (P=0.86), both rs13228878 (P=0.03) and rs10273639 (P=0.04) were. rs13228878 and rs10273639 are in high linkage disequilibrium (r2=0.94) and associated with elevated expression of the trypsinogen encoding PRSS1 gene and are known risk variants for alcohol-associated and sporadic pancreatitis in adults. Intra-pancreatic trypsinogen cleavage to proteolytic trypsin induces autodigestion and pancreatitis. Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis and non-asparaginase associated pancreatitis shares genetic predisposition and targeting the trypsinogen activation pathway may enable identification of effective interventions towards asparaginase-associated pancreatitis.

17.
Blood ; 132(21): 2280-2285, 2018 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282799

RESUMO

The WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue notes instances of Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia (BL) with IG-MYC rearrangement displaying a B-cell precursor immunophenotype (termed herein "preBLL"). To characterize the molecular pathogenesis of preBLL, we investigated 13 preBLL cases (including 1 cell line), of which 12 were analyzable using genome, exome, and targeted sequencing, imbalance mapping, and DNA methylation profiling. In 5 patients with reads across the IG-MYC breakpoint junctions, we found evidence that the translocation derived from an aberrant VDJ recombination, as is typical for IG translocations arising in B-cell precursors. Genomic changes like biallelic IGH translocations or VDJ rearrangements combined with translocation into the VDJ region on the second allele, potentially preventing expression of a productive immunoglobulin, were detected in 6 of 13 cases. We did not detect mutations in genes frequently altered in BL, but instead found activating NRAS and/or KRAS mutations in 7 of 12 preBLLs. Gains on 1q, recurrent in BL and preB lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (pB-ALL/LBL), were detected in 7 of 12 preBLLs. DNA methylation profiling showed preBLL to cluster with precursor B cells and pB-ALL/LBL, but apart from BL. We conclude that preBLL genetically and epigenetically resembles pB-ALL/LBL rather than BL. Therefore, we propose that preBLL be considered as a pB-ALL/LBL with recurrent genetic abnormalities.

18.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; : 1-7, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260265

RESUMO

Although the fate of nephrogenic rests varies, they are known to be precursors of Wilms tumour. Thus, nephrogenic rests require adequate treatment to prevent malignant transformation. We added 13-cis retinoic acid to the standard chemotherapy with vincristine and actinomycin-D in two patients with bilateral nephrogenic rests/nephroblastomatosis. Patient 1 also had a history of Wilms tumour. 46 (patient 1) and 81 (patient 2) months after end of treatment, both patients show stable conditions with no signs of relapse or progressive disease. Our observation supports further investigation of retinoic acid in patients with nephrogenic rests and nephroblastomatosis.

20.
Br J Haematol ; 181(4): 523-527, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29676440

RESUMO

This trial explored the efficacy of re-induction chemotherapy including bortezomib in paediatric relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Patients were randomized 1:1 to bortezomib (1.3 mg/m2 /dose) administered early or late to a dexamethasone and vincristine backbone. Both groups did not differ regarding peripheral blast count on day 8, the primary endpoint. After cycle 1, 8 of 25 (32%) patients achieved complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery, 7 (28%) a partial remission and 10 had treatment failure. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities were febrile neutropenia (31%) and pain (17%). Bortezomib was safely combined with vincristine. Bortezomib rarely penetrated the cerebrospinal fluid.

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