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1.
J Pers Med ; 11(3)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806927

RESUMO

This study investigated the potential of salivary bacterial and protein markers for evaluating the disease status in healthy individuals or patients with gingivitis or caries. Saliva samples from caries- and gingivitis-free individuals (n = 18), patients with gingivitis (n = 17), or patients with deep caries lesions (n = 38) were collected and analyzed for 44 candidate biomarkers (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, matrix metalloproteinases, a metallopeptidase inhibitor, proteolytic enzymes, and selected oral bacteria). The resulting data were subjected to principal component analysis and used as a training set for random forest (RF) modeling. This computational analysis revealed four biomarkers (IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11) to be of high importance for the correct depiction of caries in 37 of 38 patients. The RF model was then used to classify 10 subjects (five caries-/gingivitis-free and five with caries), who were followed over a period of six months. The results were compared to the clinical assessments of dental specialists, revealing a high correlation between the RF prediction and the clinical classification. Due to the superior sensitivity of the RF model, there was a divergence in the prediction of two caries and four caries-/gingivitis-free subjects. These findings suggest IL-4, IL-13, IL-2-RA, and eotaxin/CCL11 as potential salivary biomarkers for identifying noninvasive caries. Furthermore, we suggest a potential association between JAK/STAT signaling and dental caries onset and progression.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810094

RESUMO

Periodontitis is a common immune-inflammatory oral disease. Early detection plays an important role in its prevention and progression. Saliva is a reliable medium that mirrors periodontal health and is easily obtainable for identifying periodontal biomarkers in point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of diagnostic salivary tests to determine periodontal status. Whole saliva (stimulated/unstimulated) from twenty healthy and twenty stage III grade B generalized periodontitis patients was tested for lactoferrin, alkaline phosphatase, calcium, density, osmolarity, pH, phosphate, buffer capacity, salivary flow rate and dynamic viscosity. A semi-quantitative urinary strip test was used to evaluate markers of inflammation in saliva (erythrocytes, leukocytes, urobilinogen, nitrite, glucose, bilirubin, and ketones), clinical periodontal parameters and pathogenic bacteria. Concentrations of lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leukocytes were found to be significantly higher in the stimulated and unstimulated saliva in periodontitis patients compared to healthy patients, whereas alkaline phosphatase levels were higher in unstimulated saliva of periodontitis patients (p < 0.05). Periodontal biomarker analysis using test strips may be considered rapid and easy tool for distinguishing between periodontitis and healthy patients. The increase in lactoferrin, hemoglobin, and leucocytes-determined by strip tests-may provide a non-invasive method of periodontal diagnosis.

3.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(7)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810415

RESUMO

This study investigates the effect of defined working distances between the tip of a sandblasting device and a resin composite surface on the composite-composite repair bond strength. Resin composite specimens (Ceram.x Spectra ST (HV); Dentsply Sirona, Konstanz, Germany) were aged by thermal cycling (5000 cycles, 5-55 °C) and one week of water storage. Mechanical surface conditioning of the substrate surfaces was performed by sandblasting with aluminum oxide particles (50 µm, 3 bar, 10 s) from varying working distances of 1, 5, 10, and 15 mm. Specimens were then silanized and restored by application of an adhesive system and repair composite material (Ceram.x Spectra ST (HV)). In the negative control group, no mechanical surface pretreatment or silanization was performed. Directly applied inherent increments served as the positive control group (n = 8). After thermal cycling of all groups, microtensile repair bond strength was assessed, and surfaces were additionally characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The negative control group reached the significantly lowest microtensile bond strength of all groups. No significant differences in repair bond strength were observed within the groups with varying sandblasting distances. Composite surfaces sandblasted from a distance of 1 mm or 5 mm showed no difference in repair bond strength compared to the positive control group, whereas distances of 10 or 15 mm revealed significantly higher repair bond strengths than the inherent incremental bond strength (positive control group). In conclusion, all sandblasted test groups achieved similar or higher repair bond strength than the inherent incremental bond strength, indicating that irrespective of the employed working distance between the sandblasting device and the composite substrate surface, repair restorations can be successfully performed.

4.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare gingival phenotype assessment methods based on soft tissue transparency on different backgrounds and assessor experience levels. METHODS: For this purpose, 24 gingival specimens were retrieved from pig jaws with tissue thicknesses from 0.2 to 1.25 mm. Three methods were assessed: periodontal probe PCP12 (thin/thick), double-ended periodontal probe DBS12 (thin/moderate/thick) and colour-based phenotype probe CBP (thin/moderate/thick/very thick). Each sample was photographed with each probe underneath and categorized whether the probe was visible or not using different coloured backgrounds. To measure experience level influence, dentists, dental undergraduate students and laypersons (n = 10/group) performed the evaluation. RESULTS: PCP12 probe showed a threshold between 0.4 and 0.5 mm. To distinct between thin and moderate thick gingiva, a comparable range for DBS12 was found while moderate thickness was between 0.5 and 0.8 mm and for thick above 0.8 mm. CBP also showed a comparable threshold of 0.5 mm for thin versus moderate as compared with the other methods; above 0.8 mm, predominantly a very thick tissue was measured. In general, the background colour had a minor impact on PCP12 and DBS12, and investigator experience showed no clear influence on GP assessment. CONCLUSION: Based on probe transparency and within the limitation of a preclinical study, we suggest GP differentiation into three entities: thin (< 0.5 mm; high risk), moderate (0.5-0.8 mm; medium risk) and thick (> 0.8 mm; low risk). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: All three GP assessment methods are easy to perform and seem to have a high predictive value with a three entities classification for DBS12 and CBP.

6.
Int J Prosthodont ; 34(1): 79-87, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To measure the effect of simulated aging on stained resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials regarding the durability of color and gloss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Test specimens (n = 15 per material) were prepared out of CAD/CAM ingots from two resin nanoceramics (Lava Ultimate [LVU], Cerasmart [CER]) and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic (ENA, VITA Enamic) stained with the manufacturer's recommended staining kit using photopolymerization. Control specimens were made of feldspathic ceramic (VITA Mark II [VM2]) and stained by means of ceramic firing. Negative control specimens (n = 15) (no staining) were prepared for each group. Color and gloss measurements were performed before and after each aging cycle by means of mechanical abrasion with a toothbrush. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test and paired post hoc Conover test. Changes within a group were calculated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test (α = .05). RESULTS: The color difference (ΔE) was statistically significant for all stained CAD/CAM materials after simulated aging: CER (P < .001, 95% CI: 2.96 to 3.69), LVU (P = .004, 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.46), ENA (P = .004, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.42), and VM2 (P < .001, 95% CI: 0.29 to 1.08). Aging resulted in a statistically significant increase in gloss in the LVU group (P < 0.001, 95% CI: 13.78 to 17.29), whereas in the ENA (P < .001, 95% CI: 7.83 to 12.72), CER (P < .001, 95% CI: 2.69 to 8.44), and VM2 (P = .014, 95% CI: 0.22 to 1.87) groups, a significant decrease in gloss was noted. CONCLUSION: Color and gloss of stained resin-ceramic CAD/CAM materials changed significantly after aging by means of toothbrush abrasion in vitro.


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Desenho Assistido por Computador , Cor , Resinas Compostas , Porcelana Dentária , Teste de Materiais , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 19(1): 51-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A previous clinical study showed that the prevalence of erosive toothwear in vegetarians is statistically significantly higher than in nonvegetarians, due to the consumption of vinegar and other acidic foodstuffs. To adequately inform patients, this study investigated the erosive potential of bottled salad dressings available in Switzerland and compared it with that of orange juice. Materials and Methods: One hundred enamel samples of bovine teeth were divided into ten groups. Samples were placed in 1 of 9 bottled salad dressings or orange juice (Granini) for 2 min. Afterwards, they were rinsed with Zürich tap water for 30 s, followed by abrasion with a toothbrush for 20 brush strokes and a toothpaste-saliva mixture. Erosive/abrasive enamel wear was determined with contact profilometry after 40 cycles. Results: The enamel wear (median/IQR) caused by Tradition Sauce Balsamique (9.5 µm/5.3 µm), M-Classic Dressing Italiano (10.9 µm/12.3 µm), Betty Bossi Balsamico Dressing (9.4 µm/4.5 µm) and Thomy Balsamico Vinaigrette Dressing (14.2 µm/6.5 µm) was statistically significantly higher than that caused by orange juice (2.4 µm/0.8 µm). Enamel wear caused by M-Classic Dressing French Joghurt (0.2 µm/0.2 µm) and Coop Qualité & Prix French Dressing (1.2 µm/1.0 µm) was statistically significantly lower compared to that of orange juice. Conclusions: The pure balsamico vinegar-based dressings (Italian type) showed a statistically significantly higher erosive potential than orange juice, whereas dressings containing calcium-rich products (enriched with milk and/or cream) (French-type) caused lower enamel wear than orange juice. The study shows that some bottled dressings have erosive potential even higher than orange juice and patients should be informed accordingly.


Assuntos
Abrasão Dentária , Erosão Dentária , Animais , Bovinos , Condimentos , Esmalte Dentário , Humanos , Suíça , Erosão Dentária/induzido quimicamente
8.
Swiss Dent J ; 131(1): 45-52, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33427434

RESUMO

Aim of this study was to get an overview of what dentists estimate to be the reason for failure of adhesive composite restorations and to gain knowledge about potential future foci for targeted further education. Therefore, a survey about the fabrication of composite restorations was conducted in the course of seven dental conferences with the main topic tooth-prevention. A total of 577 dentists participated in the survey. The most often called estimated factor for failure of composite restorations was the "dentist" (70.7%), followed by "indication" (32.2%), "material" (8.5%) and "patient" (8.1%). Participants estimated insufficient drying and fluid management (67.9%), incorrect application of the adhesive system (41.8%), insufficient lightpolymerisation (31.2%) and errors in incremental technique (27.6%) to be the main mistakes. The participating dentists claimed to attach great importance to careful drying and fluid management (60.8%), thorough adhesive application (37.3%), adequate incremental technique (32.6%) and sufficient lightpolymerisation (28.8%) while placing their own restorations. According to the survey participants, the treating dentist has the greatest influence on the quality and longevity of composite restorations. Drying and fluid management was the most often called estimated reason for failure but at the same time the step which is given the greatest caution.


Assuntos
Restauração Dentária Permanente , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Resinas Compostas , Cimentos Dentários , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Odontólogos , Humanos
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 25, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the changes of implant surfaces of different roughness after instrumentation with ultrasonic-driven scaler tips of different materials. METHODS: Experiments were performed on two moderately rough surfaces (I-Inicell® and II-SLA®), one surface without pre-treatment (III) and one smooth machined surface (IV). Scaler tips made of steel (A), PEEK (B), titanium (C), carbon (D) and resin (E) were used for instrumentation with a standardized pressure of 100 g for ten seconds and under continuous automatic motion. Each combination of scaler tip and implant surface was performed three times on 8 titanium discs. After instrumentation roughness was assessed by profilometry, morphological changes were assessed by scanning electron microscopy, and element distribution on the utmost surface by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: The surface roughness of discs I and II were significantly reduced by instrumentation with all tips except E. For disc III and IV roughness was enhanced by tip A and C and, only for IV, by tip D. Instrumentation with tips B, D and E left extensive residuals on surface I, II and III. The element analysis of these deposits proved consistent with the elemental composition of the respective tip materials. CONCLUSION: All ultrasonic instruments led to microscopic alterations of all types of implants surfaces assessed in the present study. The least change of implant surfaces might result from resin or carbon tips on machined surfaces.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478112

RESUMO

Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing toothpastes with glucose oxidase and D-glucose with (C+) and without Citrox (C-) Citrox) were investigated in a clinical crossover trial (two slurries: sodium lauryl sulfate-containing (SLS), a toothpaste without SLS (reference), and water). Subjects (n = 20) abstained from toothbrushing for four days and rinsed with a toothpaste slurry. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) were measured. A mixed linear model was used to statistically compare the slurries with respect to BOP and PI change. The in vitro bacterial growth-inhibiting evaluation showed the best results for SLS, followed by C+ and C-. The change in BOP and PI exhibited statistically significant differences to water rinsing (BOP; PI changes in % points (difference of the baseline and post-rinse values: water = 8.8%; 90.0%; C+ = -1.4%; 80.4%; SLS = 1.5%; 72.1%; reference = 0.8%; 77.5%; C- = -1.8%; 75.1%). All slurries exhibited anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque effects, resulting in a prophylactic benefit for limited-access regions during brushing.


Assuntos
Gengivite , Cremes Dentais , Método Duplo-Cego , Gengiva , Humanos , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio , Escovação Dentária
11.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 113: 104125, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068923

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repolishing on the surface microhardness (SMH), color change (ΔE), and translucency parameter (TP) of previously in situ eroded computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) restorative materials and human enamel. Each of 8 volunteers wore an intraoral appliance containing 3 CAD/CAM restorative material specimens (IPS e.max CAD lithium disilicate ceramic, Lava Ultimate hybrid ceramic, and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) block) and 1 human enamel specimen. The specimens were subjected to in situ erosion cycles by rinsing with a cola drink (4 × 5 min/day) for 14 days. After erosion, the specimens were polished with a silicone polishing system (Ceramister, Shofu Inc, Kyoto, Japan). The SMH and color of the specimens were determined at baseline (T1), after erosion (T2), and after repolishing (T3). The ΔE and TP values of the specimens were further calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni's test (α = 0.05). After erosion, a decrease in the SMH of the restorative materials and enamel was observed (all P < 0.001), and a decrease in the TP of the enamel was observed (P = 0.016). The ΔE values of the enamel (ΔE = 7.32) and Lava Ultimate (ΔE = 3.19) exceeded the clinically unacceptable threshold after erosion. After repolishing, the SMH of the restorative materials and enamel at T3 was significantly higher than that at T2 (all P < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the TP and ΔE values of the restorative materials and enamel between T2 and T3. In conclusion, erosion negatively affected the surface properties and appearance of the CAD/CAM restorative materials and human enamel. Repolishing contributed to restoring the compromised SMH of the eroded restorative materials and enamel to a certain extent. However, repolishing did not restore the color of the eroded restorative materials and enamel.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(12)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287394

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of over-etching and prolonged application time of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength. Ninety extracted human molars were ground to dentin and randomly allocated into nine groups (G1-9; n = 10 per group), according to the following acid etching and adhesive application times. In the control group (G1), phosphoric acid etching was performed for 15 s followed by application of the universal adhesive Scotchbond Universal (3M) for 20 s, as per manufacturer's instructions. In groups G2-5, both the etching and adhesive application times were either halved, doubled, quadrupled, or increased eightfold. In groups G6-9, etching times remained the same as in G2-5 (7.5 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s, respectively), but the adhesive application time was set at 20 s as in the control group (G1). Specimens were then restored with a nanofilled composite material and subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. Bond strength data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). The relationship of bond strength with etching and adhesive application time was examined using linear regression analysis. Treatment of dentin with halved phosphoric acid etching and adhesive application times (G2) resulted in a significant bond strength decrease compared to the control group (G1) and all other test groups, including the group with halved acid etching, but 20 s of adhesive application time (G6). No significant differences in bond strength were found for groups with multiplied etching times and an adhesive application time of 20 s or more, when compared to the control group (G1). In conclusion, a universal adhesive application time of at least 20 s is recommended when bonding to over-etched dentin.

13.
Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral nutritional supplements (ONS) administered to malnourished elders and other patients contain high-levels of carbohydrates that could be a potential risk factor for dental caries. This study aimed to evaluate the cariogenic potentials of ONS using intraoral plaque telemetry. METHODS: Ten ONS were tested on five healthy volunteers (mean age: 76.8 ± 9.15 years). Participants were requested to refrain from performing oral hygiene 3-7 days prior to testing. The pH-value below the dental plaque on the tooth was measured while the ONS was being consumed. After neutralizing the participant's saliva, a control solution (10% sucrose) was administered and telemetry measurements were repeated. Mean relative cariogenicity (RC) was calculated for each ONS. ANOVA and post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses (p < 0.05). RESULTS: All ten ONS were potentially cariogenic on enamel with an overall RC of 0.519 ± 0.35 (Range: Min = 0.31 ± 0.16; Max = 1.00 ± 0.34). RC differed significantly between the ONS (p = 0.002). RC was lower in ONS that contained high-protein (p = 0.018). RC was not influenced by other factors such as readily consumable (p = 0.102), flavor (p = 0.869), consistency (p = 0.126), fiber containing (p = 0.134), style (p = 0.112), and age of plaque (p = 0.339). CONCLUSIONS: The ONS administered to elders and malnourished patients are potentially cariogenic. It is imperative that the administration of ONS must be based on individual needs to potentiate a maximum benefit. Wherever possible, an attempt to limit the use of high-carbohydrate containing ONS must be practiced along with the adoption of suitable preventive measures to arrest the development and progression of caries.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244020, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320905

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the distribution and deposition of aerosols during simulated periodontal therapy. METHODS: A manikin with simulated fluorescein salivation was treated by four experienced dentists applying two different periodontal treatment options, i.e. air-polishing with an airflow device or ultrasonic scaling in the upper and lower anterior front for 5 minutes, respectively. Aerosol deposition was quantitatively measured on 21 pre-defined locations with varying distances to the manikins mouth in triplicates using absorbent filter papers. RESULTS: The selected periodontal interventions resulted in different contamination levels around the patient's mouth. The highest contamination could be measured on probes on the patient's chest and forehead but also on the practitioner's glove. With increasing distance to the working site contamination of the probes decreased with both devices. Air-polishing led to greater contamination than ultrasonic. CONCLUSION: Both devices showed contamination of the nearby structures, less contamination was detected when using the ultrasonic. Affirming the value of wearing protective equipment we support the need for universal barrier precautions and effective routine infection control in dental practice.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/química , Polimento Dentário/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Periodontia/instrumentação , Terapia por Ultrassom/instrumentação , Humanos , Manequins , Segurança do Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Saliva/química
15.
J Endod ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129899

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions are similar in that they contain oxidizing agents with a bleaching effect. NaOCl solutions are stable at a high pH, at which they also exert increased cleansing/proteolysis. On the other hand, H2O2 solutions are natively acidic, yet gain bleaching power on organic stains when alkalized. It was investigated whether alkalizing a H2O2 solution would also let it dissolve soft tissue or increase its bleaching power on blood-stained dentin. METHODS: The stability of alkalized H2O2 solutions was assessed by iodometric titration. Soft tissue dissolution was investigated on porcine palatal mucosa. The bleaching effect (ΔL∗) after 60 minutes of exposure was monitored in blood-stained human dentin using a calibrated spectrophotometer. To compare similar molarities, 2.5% H2O2 solutions were used here, and 5.0% NaOCl was used as the positive control, whereas nonbuffered saline solution served as the negative control. RESULTS: Adding alkali (NaOH) to the H2O2 solutions rendered them unstable in a dose-dependent manner. A H2O2 solution of pH 11.1 was chosen for the main experiments (tissue dissolution and bleaching effect) and compared with a native counterpart (pH = 4.7). Alkalizing the H2O2 solution had no discernible effect on its soft tissue dissolution or bleaching power (P = .75 compared with the native H2O2 solution). The NaOCl solution of similar molar concentration had a considerably (P < .001) higher tissue dissolving and bleaching effect under current conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The proteolytic/bleaching effects of NaOCl solutions are unique and cannot be achieved by altering the pH of peroxide solutions.

16.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(20)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050594

RESUMO

Good margin integrity with a tight seal of the adhesive interface is considered one of the key factors for the clinical success of composite restorations. This study investigated the effect of enamel etching with phosphoric acid on the margin integrity of self-etch bonded composite restorations in demineralized enamel. Crowns of bovine incisors were assigned into 14 groups (n = 10 per group) of which ten groups (groups 1-5 and 8-12) were demineralized (21 days, acid buffer, pH 4.95) to create artificial carious lesions. Standardized Class V cavities were prepared in all specimens. Demineralized groups were either etched with phosphoric acid for 10, 30, 60, or 120 s (groups 2-5 and 9-12), or no etching was performed (groups 1 and 8). The non-demineralized (sound) groups were etched for 10 s (groups 7 and 14) or remained non-etched (groups 6 and 13). Resin composite restorations were then placed using either a one-step (iBond Self Etch, groups 1-7) or two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, groups 8-14). Margin integrity of the restorations was assessed after thermocycling (5000×, 5-55 °C) using scanning electron microscopy, and the percentage of continuous margins (%CM) was statistically analyzed (α = 0.05). Phosphoric acid etching significantly increased %CM in both demineralized and sound enamel. For iBond Self Etch, a significant increase in %CM in demineralized enamel was observed with increased etching times. All etched groups treated with Clearfil SE Bond and those etched for 60 or 120 s and treated with iBond Self Etch showed similar %CM in demineralized enamel as in etched sound enamel, and significantly higher %CM than in non-etched sound enamel. In conclusion, enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves margin integrity of composite restorations in demineralized enamel when bonded with the examined adhesives.

17.
Dent J (Basel) ; 8(3)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882808

RESUMO

Electronic and mobile health (eHealth/mHealth) are rapidly growing areas in medicine and digital technologies are gaining importance. In dentistry, digitalization is also an emerging topic, whereby more and more applications are being offered. As an example, using real-time feedback, digital application software (an app) was designed to help users brush their teeth more accurately. However, there is no data on the effectiveness and haptic of such apps. Therefore, a single-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial was designed: twenty volunteers received an electric toothbrush with an associated app to assess whether the app-assisted toothbrushing is better than without. After a short period of familiarization with the electric toothbrush, plaque index (O'Leary et al. 1972) was recorded and subjects were assigned to the test (with app; n = 10) or the control group (no app; n = 10). At the end of the 2-week pilot study period, plaque was again assessed and participants in the test group completed a questionnaire about the app's user-friendliness. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the test and control groups. The plaque index improved on average by 8.5% points in the test and 4.7% points in the control group. Fifty percent of the test group participants were of the opinion that they had achieved better cleaning results and would recommend the app to others, although the app contributed only marginally to increased plaque removal. However, such apps may nevertheless be helpful as motivational tools, especially when tracking and monitoring cleaning data. Therefore, more development and research on this topic is indicated.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933084

RESUMO

Oral health is maintained by a healthy microbiome, which can be monitored by state-of-the art diagnostics. Therefore, this study evaluated the presence and quantity of ten oral disease-associated taxa (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, T. denticola, F. nucleatum, C. rectus, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. mutans, S. sobrinus, oral associated Lactobacilli) in saliva and their clinical status association in 214 individuals. Upon clinical examination, study subjects were grouped into healthy, caries and periodontitis and their saliva was collected. A highly specific point-of-care compatible dual color qPCR assay was developed and used to study the above-mentioned bacteria of interest in the collected saliva. Assay performance was compared to a commercially available microbial reference test. Eight out of ten taxa that were investigated during this study were strong discriminators between the periodontitis and healthy groups: C. rectus, T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, S. mutans, F. nucleatum, T. denticola, P. intermedia and oral Lactobacilli (p < 0.05). Significant differentiation between the periodontitis and caries group microbiome was only shown for S. mutans (p < 0.05). A clear distinction between oral health and disease was enabled by the analysis of quantitative qPCR data of target taxa levels in saliva.

19.
Caries Res ; : 1-7, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate and compare the effect of two different bioactive glasses, a hydroxyapatite-containing, fluoride-free toothpaste (HTP) and a fluoride toothpaste (FTP) on the remineralization behavior of initial caries lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 bovine enamel samples were randomly allocated to five groups of 20 samples each: NC = negative control group (artificial saliva); HTP = HTP group (Karex); FTP = FTP group (Elmex caries protection, 1,400 ppm); FTP + BGnano = FTP followed by Actimins bioactive glass; FTP + BGamorph = FTP followed by Schott bioactive glass. Radiographic documentation (advanced transversal microradiography; aTMR) was applied before and after all samples were exposed to a demineralizing gel for 10 days. Over a period of 28 days, samples were covered twice a day (every 12 h) with a toothpaste slurry of the respective test group or with artificial saliva in NC for 60 s and brushed with 15 brushing strokes. Samples in FTP + BGnano and FTP + BGamorph were additionally treated with the respective bioactive glass slurry for 30 s after brushing with the FTP. In the meantime, all samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 28 days, the structure of all samples was assessed again using aTMR and compared to the values measured after demineralization. The statistical evaluation of the integrated mineral loss was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by a post hoc Conover test. RESULTS: The FTP revealed the significantly highest increase of mineral content while the HTP showed the significantly lowest remineralization. Compared to artificial saliva, the use of the HTP or the combined application of FTP followed by bioactive glasses (FTP + BGnano and FTP + BGamorph) showed no significant remineralization. CONCLUSION: Under remineralizing in vitro conditions, brushing with 1,400 ppm FTP induced significantly more remineralization compared to storage in artificial saliva. The additional administration of both bioactive glasses as well as the substitutional brushing with an HTP resulted in significantly less remineralization compared to brushing with 1,400 ppm FTP.

20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15237, 2020 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943711

RESUMO

Previous work has shown that partial replacement of reinforcing fillers with unsilanized silica particles can diminish polymerization shrinkage stress of dental resin composites. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such an effect can be attained by using unsilanized bioactive glass (BG). Incorporating BG fillers into resin composites is interesting due to their potential for exerting caries-preventive effects. Experimental light-curable composites with a total filler load of 77 wt% were prepared. Reinforcing fillers were partially replaced with 0-60 wt% of BG 45S5 and an experimental low-sodium fluoride-containing BG. The following properties were investigated: linear shrinkage, degree of conversion, shrinkage stress, maximum shrinkage stress rate, and time to achieve maximum shrinkage stress rate. The diminishing effect of BG 45S5 on shrinkage stress was mediated by a decrease in degree of conversion caused by this BG type. In contrast, as the degree of conversion remained unaffected by the experimental BG, the resulting shrinkage behaviour was governed by the effect of varying amounts of silanized and unsilanized fillers on material's viscoelastic properties. The replacement of silanized reinforcing fillers with unsilanized BG did not reduce polymerization shrinkage stress unless the reduction was attained indirectly through a diminished degree of conversion.

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