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1.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(5): 1312-1326, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761503

RESUMO

In standard multiple object tracking (MOT) tasks the relative importance of the targets being tracked is equal. This is atypical of everyday situations in which an individual may need to prioritize one target relative to another and so allocate attention unequally. We report three experiments that examined whether participants could unequally split attention using a modified MOT task in which target priority was manipulated. Specifically, we examined the effect of priority on participants' magnitude of error and used a distribution mixture analysis to investigate how priority affected both participants' probability of losing an item and tracking precision. Experiment 1 (trajectory tracking) revealed a higher magnitude of error and higher proportion of guessing for low- compared with high-priority targets. Experiments 2 (trajectory tracking) and 3 (position tracking) examined how fine-grained this ability is by manipulating target priority at finer increments. In line with Experiment 1, results from both these experiments indicated that participants could split attention unequally. There was some evidence that participants could allocate attention unequally at fine increments, but this was less conclusive. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate participants' ability to distribute attention unequally across multiple moving objects but suggest some limitation with the flexibility of attention allocation.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção de Movimento , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Multitarefa , Probabilidade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Psychopharmacol ; 33(3): 326-334, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Research suggests that acute alcohol consumption alters recognition of emotional expressions. Extending this work, we investigated the effects of alcohol on recognition of six primary expressions of emotion. METHODS:: We conducted two studies using a 2 × 6 experimental design with a between-subjects factor of drink (alcohol, placebo) and a within-subjects factor of emotion (anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, happiness, fear). Study one ( n = 110) was followed by a direct replication study ( n = 192). Participants completed a six alternative forced choice emotion recognition task following consumption of 0.4 g/kg alcohol or placebo. Dependent variables were recognition accuracy (i.e. hits) and false alarms. RESULTS:: There was no clear evidence of differences in recognition accuracy between groups ( ps > .58). In study one, there were more false alarms for anger in the alcohol compared to placebo group ( n = 52 and 56, respectively; t(94.6) = 2.26, p = .024, d = .44) and fewer false alarms for happiness ( t(106) = -2.42, p = .017, d = -.47). However, no clear evidence for these effects was found in study two (alcohol group n = 96, placebo group n = 93, ps > .22). When the data were combined we observed weak evidence of an effect of alcohol on false alarms of anger ( t(295) = 2.25, p = .025, d = .26). CONCLUSIONS:: These studies find weak support for biased anger perception following acute alcohol consumption in social consumers, which could have implications for alcohol-related aggression. Future research should investigate the robustness of this effect, particularly in individuals high in trait aggression.

3.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 1403, 2018 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether enhancing self-affirmation among a population of drinkers, prior to viewing threatening alcohol pictorial health warning labels, would reduce defensive reactions and promote reactions related to behaviour change. We also examined how health warning severity influences these reactions and whether there is an interaction between self-affirmation and severity. METHODS: In this experimental human laboratory study, participants (n = 128) were randomised to a self-affirmation or control group. After the self-affirmation manipulation was administered, we tracked participants' eye movements while they viewed images of six moderately-severe and six highly-severe pictorial health warning labels presented on large beer cans. Self-reported responses to the pictorial health warning labels were then measured, including avoidance, reactance, effectiveness, susceptibility and motivation to drink less. Finally, participants reported their self-efficacy to drink less and their alcohol use. RESULTS: There was no clear evidence that enhancing self-affirmation influenced any outcome. In comparison to moderately-severe health warnings, highly-severe health warnings increased avoidance and reactance and were perceived as more effective and increased motivation to drink less. CONCLUSIONS: These findings call into question the validity of the self-affirmation manipulation, which is purported to reduce defensive reactions to threatening warnings. We discuss possible explanations for this null effect, including the impact of participants' low perceived susceptibility to the risks shown on these pictorial health warning labels. Our finding that highly-severe health warnings increase avoidance and reactance but are also perceived as being more effective and more likely to motivate people to drink less will inform future health warning design and have implications for health warning label theory.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204562, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The shape of glassware may exacerbate or counteract biases in perceived volume, which may lead people to misjudge the pouring of alcoholic drinks. The aim of these studies was to investigate the effect of glass shape on the pouring accuracy of liquid volume. METHODS: In Study 1, using an online computerised task, participants (n = 211) were asked to pour liquid in glasses in a within-subjects design with factors of glass shape (straight, curved) and requested percentage fullness (10, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75, 80, 90%). Curve estimations were carried out to determine if errors followed a linear or non-linear relationship. In Study 2, in a real world experimental study, participants (n = 96) were asked to pour water to the midpoint of pint glasses in a within-subjects design with one factor of glass shape (straight, curved, tulip, inverted). Differences between poured amounts were analysed using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: In Study 1, participants under-poured in curved glasses compared to straight glasses at all requested amounts. In Study 2, participants under-poured in curved (p < 0.001, dz = 1.51) and tulip (p < 0.001, dz = 0.59) glasses compared to straight glasses. Findings were inconclusive as to whether or not a difference was present between pourings in inverted and straight glasses. Participants displayed a tendency to under-pour in all glasses relative to requested amounts in both studies. CONCLUSIONS: The shape of glassware appears to influence the pouring accuracy of liquid. Pouring in tulip and curved glasses was more inaccurate compared to straight glasses, possibly due to the height of liquid within the glass and volume changing in a non-linear relationship.

5.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 192: 163-170, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30265999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol labeling provides a relatively low-cost, population-level approach to providing information about alcohol's content and harms. METHOD: We conducted an online between-subjects experiment with two tasks to examine the impact of alcohol labels (n = 1884). In one task, participants were randomized to view one of four different unit labels (including labels currently used by the alcohol industry and novel labels which provide more information about how the number of units relates to recommended drinking guidelines). We assessed participants' accuracy of estimating weekly serving limits of alcohol. In a second task, participants were randomized to view one of eight health warnings (which varied according to message content, specificity, and framing). We assessed the motivation to quit after viewing the health warning. RESULTS: Accuracy of estimating weekly serving limits of alcohol was greater for participants who viewed novel unit labels compared to the industry standard labels. Motivation to drink less was higher amongst participants who had viewed both cancer and negatively framed messages, compared to mental health and positively framed messages. CONCLUSION: Existing unit labels used by the alcohol industry can be improved; the inclusion of unit information per serving and how these relate to low-risk drinking guidelines may be important for facilitating consumer understanding. Health warning labels should be included alongside units to provide consumers with information about the harms associated with alcohol and discourage riskier drinking behavior.

6.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(41): 1-84, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine preloading means using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit date while smoking normally. The aim is to reduce the drive to smoke, thereby reducing cravings for smoking after quit day, which are the main cause of early relapse. A prior systematic review showed inconclusive and heterogeneous evidence that preloading was effective and little evidence of the mechanism of action, with no cost-effectiveness data. OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of nicotine preloading in a routine NHS setting relative to usual care, (2) the mechanisms of the action of preloading and (3) the cost-effectiveness of preloading. DESIGN: Open-label randomised controlled trial with examination of mediation and a cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: NHS smoking cessation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: People seeking help to stop smoking. INTERVENTIONS: Nicotine preloading comprised wearing a 21 mg/24 hour nicotine patch for 4 weeks prior to quit date. In addition, minimal behavioural support was provided to explain the intervention rationale and to support adherence. In the comparator group, participants received equivalent behavioural support. Randomisation was stratified by centre and concealed from investigators. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was 6-month prolonged abstinence assessed using the Russell Standard. The secondary outcomes were 4-week and 12-month abstinence. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed from baseline to 1 week after quit day. In a planned analysis, we adjusted for the use of varenicline (Champix®; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) as post-cessation medication. Cost-effectiveness analysis took a health-service perspective. The within-trial analysis assessed health-service costs during the 13 months of trial enrolment relative to the previous 6 months comparing trial arms. The base case was based on multiple imputation for missing cost data. We modelled long-term health outcomes of smoking-related diseases using the European-study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco (EQUIPT) model. RESULTS: In total, 1792 people were eligible and were enrolled in the study, with 893 randomised to the control group and 899 randomised to the intervention group. In the intervention group, 49 (5.5%) people discontinued preloading prematurely and most others used it daily. The primary outcome, biochemically validated 6-month abstinence, was achieved by 157 (17.5%) people in the intervention group and 129 (14.4%) people in the control group, a difference of 3.02 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 6.41 percentage points; odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.62; p = 0.081]. Adjusted for use of post-quit day varenicline, the OR was 1.34 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.73; p = 0.028). Secondary abstinence outcomes were similar. The OR for the occurrence of serious AEs was 1.12 (95% CI 0.42 to 3.03). Moderate-severity nausea occurred in an additional 4% of the preloading group compared with the control group. There was evidence that reduced urges to smoke and reduced smoke inhalation mediated the effect of preloading on abstinence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at the 6-month follow-up for preloading relative to control was £710 (95% CI -£13,674 to £23,205), but preloading was dominant at 12 months and in the long term, with an 80% probability that it is cost saving. LIMITATIONS: The open-label design could partially account for the mediation results. Outcome assessment could not be blinded but was biochemically verified. CONCLUSIONS: Use of nicotine-patch preloading for 4 weeks prior to attempting to stop smoking can increase the proportion of people who stop successfully, but its benefit is undermined because it reduces the use of varenicline after preloading. If this latter effect could be overcome, then nicotine preloading appears to improve health and reduce health-service costs in the long term. Future work should determine how to ensure that people using nicotine preloading opt to use varenicline as cessation medication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

7.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 25(2): 732-738, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392633

RESUMO

We used the 7.5% carbon dioxide model of anxiety induction to investigate the effects of state anxiety on simple information processing. In both high- and low-anxious states, participants (n = 36) completed an auditory-visual matching task and a visual binary categorization task. The stimuli were either degraded or clear, so as to investigate whether the effects of anxiety are greater when signal clarity is compromised. Accuracy in the matching task was lower during CO2 inhalation and for degraded stimuli. In the categorization task, response times and indecision (measured using mouse trajectories) were greater during CO2 inhalation and for degraded stimuli. For most measures, we found no evidence of Gas × Clarity interactions. These data indicate that state anxiety negatively impacts simple information processing and do not support claims that anxiety may benefit performance in low-cognitively-demanding tasks. These findings have important implications for understanding the impact of state anxiety in real-world situations.

8.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 53(1): 12-19, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016721

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the impact of unit and calorie information on drinking behaviour in an ad libitum taste test paradigm. Methods: In this experimental human laboratory study, participants were randomized to one of four conditions, balanced by gender, using a 2 (unit information: present vs. absent) × 2 (calorie information: present vs. absent) between-subjects design. The percentage of beer consumed during the taste test was the primary outcome measure. Results: Among this largely undergraduate student population, we found no evidence that either unit or calorie information impacted alcohol consumption in an ad libitum taste test. A manipulation check indicated that few of the participants receiving either unit and/or calorie information could accurately recall the number of units and/or calories in the beverages provided to them, indicating low levels of engagement with this information. Analysis of qualitative reactions to calorie and unit labelling indicated possible negative unintended consequences of calorie and unit information, including using unit information to facilitate consumption of higher strength beverages, and calorie information to reduce food consumption prior to a drinking episode. Conclusion: We find no evidence to support an effect of unit or calorie information, a public-health initiative supported by the alcohol industry, on drinking behaviour. It is possible that compulsory unit and calorie labelling, at least in the numeric format used here, would have no effect on alcohol intake and may even have some negative unintended consequences among certain populations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Ingestão de Energia , Rotulagem de Produtos , Afeto , Intoxicação Alcoólica , Cerveja , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Paladar , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
R Soc Open Sci ; 4(8): 170045, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878967

RESUMO

Impaired response inhibition is an important factor in tobacco dependence. We examined the effects of inhibitory control training (ICT) on inhibition, smoking resistance and cigarette use. Smokers (n = 55) abstained from smoking for 12 h prior to testing. On the test day, participants recorded cigarette use and completed pre-training measures of global and cue-specific (smoking-related) response inhibition. Participants were randomized to either an active or a control ICT group. The active group was required to repeatedly inhibit a response towards smoking cues (100%), while the control group was required to inhibit a response towards smoking and neutral cues with equal frequency (50%). Participants performed post-training measures of response inhibition, smoking resistance and cigarette use. Inhibition data did not indicate time (pre-training, post-training) × group (active training, control training) or time × group × cue (smoking, neutral) interactions. There was weak evidence that smokers in the active group were more likely to resist smoking than those in the control group. Cigarette use data did not indicate a time × group interaction. Our data suggest that ICT may enhance the ability to resist smoking, indicating that training may be a promising adjunct to smoking pharmacotherapy.

10.
Hum Psychopharmacol ; 32(5)2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28791734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the following: (a) the effects of acute alcohol on delay discounting; (b) the effects of drinking status on delayed discounting; and (c) whether these effects differ according to reward type (alcohol vs. money). METHODS: Heavy and light social alcohol users (n = 96) were randomized to receive either an acute dose of alcohol at 0.4 or 0.6 g/kg or placebo in a between-subjects, double-blind design. Delay discounting of alcohol and monetary rewards was measured using a hyperbolic model, with higher scores indicative of greater delay discounting. RESULTS: ANOVA of discount scores indicated a main effect of reward type, where all participants had higher discount scores for alcohol versus money rewards. A main effect of drinking status was also observed, where heavier drinkers had higher discount scores compared with lighter drinkers. We did not observe a main effect of acute alcohol use on delay discounting or the hypothesized interactions between acute alcohol use and drinking status with reward type. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that heavier drinkers discount the value of delayed rewards more steeply than lighter drinkers. Delay discounting may therefore be a promising marker of heavy alcohol consumption in social drinkers.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Recompensa , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Depressores do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
R Soc Open Sci ; 4(5): 160855, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572987

RESUMO

High trait anxiety has been associated with detriments in emotional face processing. By contrast, relatively little is known about the effects of state anxiety on emotional face processing. We investigated the effects of state anxiety on recognition of emotional expressions (anger, sadness, surprise, disgust, fear and happiness) experimentally, using the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) model to induce state anxiety, and in a large observational study. The experimental studies indicated reduced global (rather than emotion-specific) emotion recognition accuracy and increased interpretation bias (a tendency to perceive anger over happiness) when state anxiety was heightened. The observational study confirmed that higher state anxiety is associated with poorer emotion recognition, and indicated that negative effects of trait anxiety are negated when controlling for state anxiety, suggesting a mediating effect of state anxiety. These findings may have implications for anxiety disorders, which are characterized by increased frequency, intensity or duration of state anxious episodes.

13.
Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 352-356, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28339526

RESUMO

Background: The main aim of these studies was to explore the influence of volume information on glassware on the time taken to consume an alcoholic beverage. Methods: In Study 1, male and female social alcohol consumers ( n = 159) were randomised to drink 12 fl oz of either low or standard strength lager, from either a curved glass marked with yellow tape at the midpoint or an unmarked curved glass, in a between-subjects design. In Study 2, male and female social alcohol consumers ( n = 160) were randomised to drink 12 fl oz of standard strength lager from either a curved glass marked with », ½ and ¾ volume points or an unmarked curved glass, in a between-subjects design. The primary outcome measure for both studies was total drinking time of an alcoholic beverage. Results: In Study 1, after removing outliers, total drinking time was slower from the glass with midpoint volume marking [mean drinking times (min): 9.98 (marked) vs. 9.55 (unmarked), mean difference = 0.42, 95% CI: -0.90, 1.44]. In Study 2, after removing outliers, total drinking time was slower from the glass with multiple volume marks [mean drinking times: 10.34 (marked) vs. 9.11 (unmarked), mean difference = 1.24, 95% CI: -0.11, 2.59]. However, in both studies confidence intervals were wide and also consistent with faster consumption from marked glasses. Conclusion: Consumption of an alcoholic beverage may be slower when served in glasses with volume information. Replication in larger studies is warranted.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Cerveja , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Psychopharmacol ; 30(10): 1036-46, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27380750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive self-bias is thought to be protective for mental health. We previously found that the degree of positive bias when learning self-referential social evaluation decreases with increasing social anxiety. It is unclear whether this reduction is driven by differences in state or trait anxiety, as both are elevated in social anxiety; therefore, we examined the effects on the state of anxiety induced by the 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) on social evaluation learning. METHODS: For our study, 48 (24 of female gender) healthy volunteers took two inhalations (medical air and 7.5% CO2, counterbalanced) whilst learning social rules (self-like, self-dislike, other-like and other-dislike) in an instrumental social evaluation learning task. We analysed the outcomes (number of positive responses and errors to criterion) using the random effects Poisson regression. RESULTS: Participants made fewer and more positive responses when breathing 7.5% CO2 in the other-like and other-dislike rules, respectively (gas × condition × rule interaction p = 0.03). Individuals made fewer errors learning self-like than self-dislike, and this positive self-bias was unaffected by CO2. Breathing 7.5% CO2 increased errors, but only in the other-referential rules (gas × condition × rule interaction p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Positive self-bias (i.e. fewer errors learning self-like than self-dislike) seemed robust to changes in state anxiety. In contrast, learning other-referential evaluation was impaired as state anxiety increased. This suggested that the previously observed variations in self-bias arise due to trait, rather than state, characteristics.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Dióxido de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155162, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27196098

RESUMO

Static high contrast ('dazzle') patterns, such as zigzags, have been shown to reduce the perceived speed of an object. It has not escaped our notice that this effect has possible military applications and here we report a series of experiments on humans, designed to establish whether dynamic dazzle patterns can cause distortions of perceived speed sufficient to provide effective defence in the field, and the extent to which these effects are robust to a battery of manipulations. Dynamic stripe patterns moving in the same direction as the target are found to increase the perceived speed of that target, whilst dynamic stripes moving in the opposite direction to the target reduce the perceived speed. We establish the optimum position for such dazzle patches; confirm that reduced contrast and the addition of colour do not affect the performance of the dynamic dazzle, and finally, using the CO2 challenge, show that the effect is robust to stressful conditions.


Assuntos
Percepção de Movimento , Estimulação Luminosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Estresse Psicológico , Fatores de Tempo , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Psychopharmacol ; 30(2): 182-7, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26561530

RESUMO

The 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO2) inhalation model is used to provoke acute anxiety, for example to investigate the effects of anxiety on cognitive processes, or the efficacy of novel anxiolytic agents. However, little is known about the relationship of baseline anxiety sensitivity or trait anxiety (i.e., anxiety proneness), with an individual's response to the 7.5% CO2 challenge. We examined data from a number of 7.5% CO2 challenge studies to determine whether anxiety proneness was related to subjective or physiological response. Our findings indicate anxiety proneness is associated with greater subjective and physiological responses. However, anxiety-prone individuals also have a greater subjective response to the placebo (medical air) condition. This suggests that anxiety-prone individuals not only respond more strongly to the 7.5% CO2 challenge, but also to medical air. Implications for the design and conduct of 7.5% CO2 challenge studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Dióxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 70: 264-6, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26163125
18.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 51(2): 142-7, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26282686

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the relationship between objectively-assessed alcohol consumption and perception of attractiveness in naturalistic drinking environments, and to determine the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a large-scale study in these environments. METHODS: Observational study conducted simultaneously across three public houses in Bristol, UK. Participants were required to rate the attractiveness of male and female face stimuli and landscape stimuli administered via an Android tablet computer application, after which their expired breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured. RESULTS: Linear regression revealed no clear evidence for relationships between alcohol consumption and either overall perception of attractiveness for stimuli, for faces specifically, or for opposite-sex faces. The naturalistic research methodology was feasible, with high levels of participant engagement and enjoyment. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for a relationship between alcohol consumption and perception of attractiveness in our large-scale naturalistic study. Our study is important given the large sample size, the successful translation of an experimental, laboratory-based paradigm to a naturalistic drinking environment and the high level of public engagement with the study. Future studies should use similarly ecologically-valid methodologies to further explore the conditions under which this effect may be observed and identify the mechanisms underlying any relationships.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Beleza , Percepção , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Meio Social , Adulto , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144536, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26698577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Judgements of volume may influence the rate of consumption of alcohol and, in turn, the amount consumed. The aim of the current study was to examine the impact of the size and shape of wine glasses on perceptions of wine volume. METHODS: Online experiment: Participants (n = 360; recruited via Mechanical Turk) were asked to match the volume of wine in two wine glasses, specifically: 1. the Reference glass holding a fixed reference volume, and 2. the Comparison glass, for which the volume could be altered until participants perceived it matched the reference volume. One of three comparison glasses was shown in each trial: 'wider' (20% wider but same capacity); 'larger' (same width but 25% greater capacity); or 'wider-and-larger' (20% wider and 25% greater capacity). Reference volumes were 125 ml, 175 ml and 250 ml, in a fully factorial within-subjects design: 3 (comparison glass) x 3 (reference volume). Non-zero differences between the volumes with which participants filled comparison glasses and the corresponding reference volumes were identified using sign-rank tests. RESULTS: Participants under-filled the wider glass relative to the reference glass for larger reference volumes, and over-filled the larger glass relative to the reference glass for all reference volumes. Results for the wider-and-larger glass showed a mixed pattern across reference volume. For all comparison glasses, in trials with larger reference volumes participants tended to fill the comparison glass less, relative to trials with smaller reference volumes for the same comparison glass. CONCLUSIONS: These results are broadly consistent with people using the relative fullness of glasses to judge volume, and suggest both the shape and capacity of wine glasses may influence perceived volume. Perceptions that smaller glasses contain more than larger ones (despite containing the same volume), could slow drinking speed and overall consumption by serving standard portions in smaller glasses. This hypothesis awaits testing.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Vidro , Julgamento , Percepção/fisiologia , Vinho , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Public Health ; 15: 240, 2015 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25880278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plain packaging requires tobacco products to be sold in packs with a standard shape, method of opening and colour, leaving the brand name in a standard font and location. We ran a randomised controlled trial to investigate the impact of plain packaging on smoking behaviour and attitudes. METHODS: In a parallel group randomised trial design, 128 daily smokers smoked cigarettes from their usual UK brand, or a plain Australian brand that was closely matched to their usual UK brand for 24 hours. Primary outcomes were number of cigarettes smoked and volume of smoke inhaled per cigarette. Secondary outcomes were self-reported ratings of motivation to quit, cigarette taste, experience of using the pack, experience of smoking, attributes of the pack, perceptions of the health warning, changes in smoking behaviour, and views on plain packaging. RESULTS: There was no evidence that pack type had an effect on either of the primary measures (ps > 0.279). However, smokers using plain cigarette packs rated the experience of using the pack more negatively (-0.52, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.22, p = 0.001), rated the pack attributes more negatively (-1.59, 95% CI -1.80 to -1.39, p < 0.001), and rated the health warning as more impactful (+0.51, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.78, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Plain cigarette packs reduce ratings of the experience of using the cigarette pack, and ratings of the pack attributes, and increase the self-perceived impact of the health warning, but do not change smoking behaviour, at least in the short term. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52982308. Registered 27 June 2013.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Embalagem de Produtos/métodos , Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Embalagem de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Percepção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autorrelato , Tabagismo , Adulto Jovem
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