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1.
Am J Nephrol ; 50(4): 281-290, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tolvaptan can slow down renal function decline in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (-ADPKD). While there is consensus across international recommendations that the drug should only be used in patients with high risk of rapid progression, identification criteria for rapid progression vary. Here, we investigated different assessment strategies using a real-life ADPKD cohort. METHODS: Observational retrospective cohort analysis. The study included 131 ADPKD patients aged 19-78 years who were referred to the Hannover Medical School outpatient clinic for evaluation of tolvaptan treatment. Six different assessment strategies for tolvaptan eligibility were tested for each patient. Comparative analysis for different assessments was performed in the total study population, the subpopulation with available computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging data, and the genotyped subpopulation. RESULTS: Comparing 6 assessment strategies revealed strong variations in the individual selection processes resulting in treatment recommendations for 14.5-64.9% of patients. The highest patient number was selected by the Scottish and the lowest by the Japanese approach. Few patients had positive recommendations by all 6 systems, but strong congruency was observed between the Scottish, U.K. and Canadian patient selection. The lowest number of overlapping patients was found between the Japanese and the ERA-EDTA selection. Important discrepancies were also found between the ERA-EDTA and the U.S. system due to different emphases on parameters of kidney function versus kidney volume. Limitations of the study included the restricted sample size, heterogeneity in parameter availability and lack of outcome data. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to important discrepancies between different decision algorithms for tolvaptan eligibility in ADPKD patients.

2.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 787, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inherited pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the most common causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). The risk of developing breast cancer by age 80 in women carrying a BRCA1 pathogenic variant is 72%. The lifetime risk varies between families and even within affected individuals of the same family. The cause of this variability is largely unknown, but it is hypothesized that additional genetic factors contribute to differences in age at onset (AAO). Here we investigated whether truncating and rare missense variants in genes of different DNA-repair pathways contribute to this phenomenon. METHODS: We used extreme phenotype sampling to recruit 133 BRCA1-positive patients with either early breast cancer onset, below 35 (early AAO cohort) or cancer-free by age 60 (controls). Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) was used to screen for variants in 311 genes involved in different DNA-repair pathways. RESULTS: Patients with an early AAO (73 women) had developed breast cancer at a median age of 27 years (interquartile range (IQR); 25.00-27.00 years). A total of 3703 variants were detected in all patients and 43 of those (1.2%) were truncating variants. The truncating variants were found in 26 women of the early AAO group (35.6%; 95%-CI 24.7 - 47.7%) compared to 16 women of controls (26.7%; 95%-CI 16.1 to 39.7%). When adjusted for environmental factors and family history, the odds ratio indicated an increased breast cancer risk for those carrying an additional truncating DNA-repair variant to BRCA1 mutation (OR: 3.1; 95%-CI 0.92 to 11.5; p-value = 0.07), although it did not reach the conventionally acceptable significance level of 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first time that the combined effect of truncating variants in DNA-repair genes on AAO in patients with hereditary breast cancer is investigated. Our results indicate that co-occurring truncating variants might be associated with an earlier onset of breast cancer in BRCA1-positive patients. Larger cohorts are needed to confirm these results.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

4.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1383-1389, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062505

RESUMO

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is caused by heterozygous germline variants in PTEN. Here, we report two unrelated patients with juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and hyperpigmented skin macules. Both patients were clinically suspected for the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), a PHTS subentity. By array-CGH analysis, we identified an interstitial 10q23.1q23.3 deletion in a buccal mucosa sample of Patient 1 that encompassed PTEN, BMPR1A, and KLLN, among others. In contrast, neither sequencing nor array-CGH analysis identified a pathogenic variant in PTEN or BMPR1A in a blood sample of Patient 2. However, in a surgical specimen of the thyroid gland high-level mosaicism for a 10q23.2q23.3 deletion was observed. Additionally, the pathogenic PTEN variant c.956_959delCTTT p.(Thr319LysfsTer24) was detected in his thyroid tissue. The frame shift variant was neither detected in the patient's blood nor in his buccal mucosa sample. Low-level mosaicism for the microdeletion was identified in a buccal swap sample, and reanalysis of the blood sample suggested marginal-level mosaicism for deletion. The 10q23.2q23.3 deletion mosaicism was also identified in a subsequently resected colonic polyp. Thus, in both cases, the diagnosis of a 10q23 deletion syndrome, which clinically presented as BRRS, was established. Overall, the study expands the BRRS spectrum and highlights the relevance of considering mosaicism in PHTS. We conclude that in all patients with a clear clinical suspicion of PHTS, in which genetic analyses of DNA from blood and buccal swap samples fail to identify causative genetic variants, genetic analyses of additional tissues are recommended.

5.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 879-887, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723317

RESUMO

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disease of copper excess due to pathogenic variants in the ATP7B gene coding for a copper-transporting ATPase. We present a 5-year-old girl with the homozygous frame shift variant NM_000053.3: c.19_20del in exon 1 of ATP7B (consecutive exon numbering with c.1 as first nucleotide of exon 1), detected by whole-exome sequencing as a secondary finding. The variant leads to a premature termination codon in exon 2. The girl exhibited no WD symptoms and no abnormalities in liver biopsy. ATP7B liver mRNA expression was comparable to healthy controls suggesting that nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) could be bypassed by the mechanism of translation reinitiation. To verify this hypothesis, a CMV-driven ATP7B minigene (pcDNA3) was equipped with the authentic ATP7B 5' untranslated region  and a truncated intron 2. We introduced c.19_20del by site-directed mutagenesis and overexpressed the constructs in HEK293T cells. We analyzed ATP7B expression by qRT-PCR, northern and western blot, and examined protein function by copper export capacity assays. Northern blot, qRT-PCR, and western blot revealed that c.19_20del ATP7B mRNA and protein is expressed in size and amount comparable to wild-type. Copper export capacity was also comparable to wild-type. Our results indicate that c.19_20del in ATP7B is able to bypass NMD by translation reinitiation, demonstrating that the classification of truncating variants as pathogenic without additional investigations should be done carefully.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426508

RESUMO

NGS-based multiple gene panel resequencing in combination with a high resolution CGH-array was used to identify genetic risk factors for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer in 237 high risk patients who were previously tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. All patients were screened for pathogenic variants in 94 different cancer predisposing genes. We identified 32 pathogenic variants in 14 different genes (ATM, BLM, BRCA1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCG, FANCM, FH, HRAS, PALB2, PMS2, PTEN, RAD51C and NBN) in 30 patients (12.7%). Two pathogenic BRCA1 variants that were previously undetected due to less comprehensive and sensitive methods were found. Five pathogenic variants are novel, three of which occur in genes yet unrelated to hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (FANCG, FH and HRAS). In our cohort we discovered a remarkably high frequency of truncating variants in FANCM (2.1%), which has recently been suggested as a susceptibility gene for hereditary breast cancer. Two patients of our cohort carried two different pathogenic variants each and ten other patients in whom a pathogenic variant was confirmed also harbored a variant of unknown significance in a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. We were able to identify pathogenic variants predisposing for tumor formation in 12.3% of BRCA1/2 negative breast and/or ovarian cancer patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 172(3): 561-569, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191368

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize a novel structural variant, a large duplication involving exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene in four independent families, and to provide diagnostically valuable information including the position of the breakpoints as well as clues to its clinical significance. METHODS: The duplication of exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene was initially detected by routine laboratory testing including MLPA analysis and next generation sequencing. For detailed characterization we performed array-comparative genome hybridization analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization, next generation mapping, and long-distance PCR for break-point sequencing. RESULTS: Our data revealed a tandem duplication on chromosome 17 that encompassed 357 kb and included exons 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene and the genes NBR2, NBR1, TMEM106A, LOC100130581, ARL4D, MIR2117 up to parts of the DHX8 gene. This structural variant appeared as a tandem duplication with breakpoints in intron 19 of the BRCA1 gene and in intron 3 of the DHX8 gene (HGVS:chr17(hg19):g.41210776_41568516dup). Segregation analysis indicated that this structural rearrangement is phased in trans with a known pathogenic exon deletion of the BRCA1 gene in one family. CONCLUSIONS: The copy number variation initially recognized as duplication of exon 1-19 of the BRCA1 gene by MLPA analysis is a structural variation with breakpoints in the BRCA1 and DHX8 genes. Although currently to be classified as a variant of unknown significance, our family data indicates that this duplication may be a benign variation or at least of markedly reduced penetrance since it occurs in trans with another known fully pathogenic variant in the BRCA1 gene.

8.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 87, 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS: To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS: We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1449-1454, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696793

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.

11.
Cancer Med ; 7(4): 1349-1358, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522266

RESUMO

The prevalence of germ line mutations in non-BRCA1/2 genes associated with hereditary breast cancer (BC) is low, and the role of some of these genes in BC predisposition and pathogenesis is conflicting. In this study, 5589 consecutive BC index patients negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations and 2189 female controls were screened for germ line mutations in eight cancer predisposition genes (ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, PALB2, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53). All patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germ line testing. The highest mutation prevalence was observed in the CHEK2 gene (2.5%), followed by ATM (1.5%) and PALB2 (1.2%). The mutation prevalence in each of the remaining genes was 0.3% or lower. Using Exome Aggregation Consortium control data, we confirm significant associations of heterozygous germ line mutations with BC for ATM (OR: 3.63, 95%CI: 2.67-4.94), CDH1 (OR: 17.04, 95%CI: 3.54-82), CHEK2 (OR: 2.93, 95%CI: 2.29-3.75), PALB2 (OR: 9.53, 95%CI: 6.25-14.51), and TP53 (OR: 7.30, 95%CI: 1.22-43.68). NBN germ line mutations were not significantly associated with BC risk (OR:1.39, 95%CI: 0.73-2.64). Due to their low mutation prevalence, the RAD51C and RAD51D genes require further investigation. Compared with control datasets, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in CHEK2 and TP53 in BC index patients. Compared with the overall sample, only TP53 mutation carriers show a significantly younger age at first BC diagnosis. We demonstrate a significant association of deleterious variants in the CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 genes with bilateral BC. Both, ATM and CHEK2, were negatively associated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumor phenotypes. A particularly high CHEK2 mutation prevalence (5.2%) was observed in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 7, 2018 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in the BRIP1 gene have been described as conferring a moderate risk for ovarian cancer (OC), while the role of BRIP1 in breast cancer (BC) pathogenesis remains controversial. METHODS: To assess the role of deleterious BRIP1 germline mutations in BC/OC predisposition, 6341 well-characterized index patients with BC, 706 index patients with OC, and 2189 geographically matched female controls were screened for loss-of-function (LoF) mutations and potentially damaging missense variants. All index patients met the inclusion criteria of the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer for germline testing and tested negative for pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. RESULTS: BRIP1 LoF mutations confer a high OC risk in familial index patients (odds ratio (OR) = 20.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 12.02-36.57, P < 0.0001) and in the subgroup of index patients with late-onset OC (OR = 29.91, 95% CI = 14.99-59.66, P < 0.0001). No significant association of BRIP1 LoF mutations with familial BC was observed (OR = 1.81 95% CI = 1.00-3.30, P = 0.0623). In the subgroup of familial BC index patients without a family history of OC there was also no apparent association (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 0.70-2.90, P = 0.3030). In 1027 familial BC index patients with a family history of OC, the BRIP1 mutation prevalence was significantly higher than that observed in controls (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.43-9.01; P = 0.0168). Based on the negative association between BRIP1 LoF mutations and familial BC in the absence of an OC family history, we conclude that the elevated mutation prevalence in the latter cohort was driven by the occurrence of OC in these families. Compared with controls, predicted damaging rare missense variants were significantly more prevalent in OC (P = 0.0014) but not in BC (P = 0.0693) patients. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid ambiguous results, studies aimed at assessing the impact of candidate predisposition gene mutations on BC risk might differentiate between BC index patients with an OC family history and those without. In familial cases, we suggest that BRIP1 is a high-risk gene for late-onset OC but not a BC predisposition gene, though minor effects cannot be excluded.

14.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1767-1778, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058716

RESUMO

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
15.
Genes Cancer ; 8(1-2): 472-483, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435519

RESUMO

GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants. We identified 7 novel or rare GT198 variants in 8 out of 166 index patients: c.-115G>A (rs191843707); c.-70T>A (rs752276800); c.-37A>T (rs199620968); c.-24C>G (rs200359709); c.519G>A p.(Trp173*); c.537+51G>C (rs375509656); c.*24G>A. Three out of 7 identified variants (c.-115G>A, c.519G>A and c.*24G>A) with putative pathogenic impact were found in HBOC patients with breast cancer onset at ≤ 36 years. The nonsense mutation c.519G>A p.(Trp173*) was located within the DNA binding domain of GT198 and is predicted to induce nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Functional analyses of c.-115G>A, and c.*24A>G indicated an influence of these variants on gene expression. This is the second study that gives evidence for an association between pathogenic GT198 germline variants and early-onset breast cancer in HBOC.

16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(3): 324-331, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28051077

RESUMO

We aimed to identify the genetic cause of the devastating neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a German family with two affected individuals, and to assess the prevalence of variants in the identified risk gene, FIG4, in a central European ALS cohort. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and an overlapping data analysis strategy were performed in an ALS family with autosomal dominant inheritance and incomplete penetrance. Additionally, 200 central European ALS patients were analyzed using whole-exome or targeted sequencing. All patients were subjected to clinical, electrophysiological, and neuroradiological characterization to explore genotype-phenotype relationships. WES analysis of the ALS family identified the rare heterozygous frameshift variant FIG4:c.759delG, p.(F254Sfs*8) predicted to delete the catalytic domain and active center from the encoded phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase with a key role in endosomal vesicle trafficking. Additionally, novel or rare heterozygous FIG4 missense variants predicted to be deleterious were detected in five sporadic ALS patients revealing an overall FIG4 variant frequency of 3% in our cohort. Four of six variants identified were previously associated with ALS or the motor and sensory neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4J (CMT4J), whereas two variants were novel. In FIG4 variant carriers, disease duration was longer and upper motor neuron predominance was significantly more frequent compared with ALS patients without FIG4 variants. Our study provides evidence for FIG4 as an ALS risk gene in a central European cohort, adds new variants to the mutational spectrum, links ALS to CMT4J on a genetic level, and describes a distinctive ALS phenotype for FIG4 variant carriers.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Exoma , Flavoproteínas/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Domínio Catalítico , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Flavoproteínas/química , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/química
17.
J Med Genet ; 53(7): 465-71, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26928436

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterise the prevalence of pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in families with breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data from 21 401 families were gathered between 1996 and 2014 in a clinical setting in the German Consortium for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer, comprising full pedigrees with cancer status of all individual members at the time of first counselling, and BRCA1/2 mutation status of the index patient. RESULTS: The overall BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 24.0% (95% CI 23.4% to 24.6%). Highest mutation frequencies were observed in families with at least two OCs (41.9%, 95% CI 36.1% to 48.0%) and families with at least one breast and one OC (41.6%, 95% CI 40.3% to 43.0%), followed by male BC with at least one female BC or OC (35.8%; 95% CI 32.2% to 39.6%). In families with a single case of early BC (<36 years), mutations were found in 13.7% (95% CI 11.9% to 15.7%). Postmenopausal unilateral or bilateral BC did not increase the probability of mutation detection. Occurrence of premenopausal BC and OC in the same woman led to higher mutation frequencies compared with the occurrence of these two cancers in different individuals (49.0%; 95% CI 41.0% to 57.0% vs 31.5%; 95% CI 28.0% to 35.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide guidance for healthcare professionals and decision-makers to identify individuals who should undergo genetic testing for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. Moreover, it supports informed decision-making of counselees on the uptake of genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 158A(1): 229-35, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22140031

RESUMO

Interstitial deletions of the proximal chromosome 16q are rare. To date, only six cases with molecularly well-characterized microdeletions within this chromosomal region have been described. We report on a patient with severe psychomotor delay, dysmorphic features, microcephaly and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, epilepsy, a heart defect, and pronounced muscular hypotonia. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) revealed that the patient's features were likely caused by a 4.7 Mb de novo deletion on chromosome 16q12.1q12.2, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The psychomotor delay and craniofacial dysmorphism are more severe in our patient than previously reported patients. Unmasked recessive mutations in the ZNF423 and FTO genes on the remaining allele were excluded as the putative cause for this severe phenotype. In conclusion, the phenotypic spectrum of microdeletions in 16q12 is broad and comprises variable degrees of psychomotor delay and intellectual disability, craniofacial anomalies, and additional features, including heart defects, brain malformations, and limb anomalies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anormalidades , Deleção Cromossômica , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Microcefalia/genética , Hipotonia Muscular/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 155A(8): 2003-7, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21739600

RESUMO

Alterations of the Fragile Mental Retardation 2 gene (FMR2, synonym AFF2) can result in non-specific, mild to borderline X-linked intellectual disability (XLID), and behavioral problems. The well-known molecular pathomechanism of this condition, also referred to as FRAXE, is a (CCG)(n) trinucleotide repeat expansion which leads to silencing of the FMR2 gene. However, deletions within the FMR2 gene may also be causative of the disorder. Here, we report on two brothers diagnosed with FRAXE in whom a small deletion in the FMR2 gene was detected by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The deletion was also present in their clinically healthy mother and maternal uncle who was similarly affected, but not in a healthy older brother of the two patients. Our observation demonstrates that FMR2 gene deletions may contribute to the FRAXE phenotype. Therefore, we suggest that screening for FMR2 gene deletions using array CGH should be considered in patients with non-specific XLID and absent trinucleotide expansion.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/genética , Deleção de Genes , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Criança , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Síndrome do Cromossomo X Frágil/diagnóstico , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Masculino
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