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1.
Retina ; 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To document the rod-cone dystrophy phenotype of patients with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) harboring MYO7A mutations. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 53 patients (42 families) with biallelic MYO7A mutations who underwent comprehensive examination, including functional visual tests and multimodal retinal imaging. Genetic analysis was performed either using a multiplex amplicon panel or through direct sequencing. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics software v. 21.0. RESULTS: Fifty different genetic variations including 4 novel were identified. Most patients showed a typical rod-cone dystrophy phenotype, with best-corrected visual acuity and central visual field deteriorating linearly with age. At age 29, binocular visual field demonstrated an average preservation of 50 central degrees, constricting by 50% within 5 years. Structural changes based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography, short wavelength autofluorescence, and near-infrared autofluorescence measurements did not however correlate with age. Our study revealed a higher percentage of epiretinal membranes and cystoid macular edema in patients with MYO7A mutations compared with rod-cone dystrophy patients with other mutations. Subgroup analyses did not reveal substantial genotype-phenotype correlations. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest French cohort of patients with MYO7A mutations reported to date. Functional visual characteristics of this subset of patients followed a linear decline as in other typical rod-cone dystrophy, but structural changes were variable indicating the need for a case-by-case evaluation for prognostic prediction and choice of potential therapies.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12047, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427709

RESUMO

Precise genetic and phenotypic characterization of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) patients is needed for future therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of CSNB in our populations and to study clinical and genetic aspects of the autosomal recessive (AR) form of CSNB. This is a retrospective cohort study of Palestinian and Israeli CSNB patients harboring mutations in TRPM1 underwent comprehensive ocular examination. Genetic analysis was performed using homozygosity mapping and sequencing. 161 patients (from 76 families) were recruited for this study, leading to a prevalence of 1:6210 in the vicinity of Jerusalem, much higher than the worldwide prevalence. 61% of the families were consanguineous with AR inheritance pattern. Biallelic pathogenic TRPM1 mutations were identified in 36 families (72 patients). Two founder mutations explain the vast majority of cases: a nonsense mutation c.880A>T (p.Lys294*) identified in 22 Palestinian families and a large genomic deletion (36,445 bp) encompassing exons 2-7 of TRPM1 present in 13 Ashkenazi Jewish families. Most patients were myopic (with mean BCVA of 0.40 LogMAR) and all had absent rod responses in full field electroretinography. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest report of a clinical and genetic analysis of patients affected with CSNB due to TRPM1 mutations.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465755

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe outer retinal structure in Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) patients using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and correlate these RESULTS with best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and patient age. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with molecularly confirmed BVMD were compared to normal control subjects (NC). Complete clinical evaluation was performed including BCVA, fundus photography, SD-OCT and fundus auto-fluorescence. SD-OCT images were analyzed to determine the stage of the lesion, the central macular thickness (CMT), the foveal outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness, and tomographic structural changes. RESULTS: Forty-two BVMD patients (42 eyes) with a molecular diagnosis and 42 NC (42 eyes) were included. Clinical stages (Gass clinical classification) were distributed as follow: 4.8% for stage 1, 23.8% for stage 2, 16.6% for stage 3, 45.2% for stage 4 and 9.5% for stage 5. The presence of subretinal fluid and vitelliform material was noted in 76% and 79% of the BVMD eyes examined, and was not associated with BCVA modification (P=0.758 and P=0.968, respectively). The median ONL thickness was significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.001). BCVA was significantly correlated with stage (R=0.710; P<0.01), age (R=0.448; P<0.01), CMT (R=-0.411; P<0.01) and ONL thickness (R=-0.620; P<0.01). The disruption of the external limiting membrane and the ellipsoid zone was associated with a decreased BCVA (P<0.001 for both). Among the 32 eyes with subretinal detachment, the photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length was significantly correlated with BCVA (R=-0.467; P<0.01) and ONL thickness (R=0.444; P= P<0.01). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the correlation between BCVA, age and SD-OCT features in BVMD patients. The ONL thickness as well as PROS length are relevant functional correlates and outcome measures to follow photoreceptor impairments and disease progression.

4.
Mol Vis ; 25: 373-381, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367175

RESUMO

Purpose: Intraocular pressure leading to glaucoma is a major cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. In this study, we sought to identify gene variants potentially associated with primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) in the Mauritanian population. Methods: Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), a panel of PCG candidate genes was screened in a search for DNA mutations in four families with multiple occurrences of PCG. Results: Targeted exome sequencing analysis revealed predicted pathogenic mutations in four genes: CYP1B1 (c.217_218delTC, p.Ser73Valfs*150), MYOC (878C>A, p.T293K), NTF4 (c.601T>G, p.Cys201Gly), and WDR36 (c.2078A>G, p.Asn693Ser), each carried by a different family. Conclusions: Genetic variation associated with PCG in this study reflects the ethnic heterogeneity of the Mauritanian population. However, a larger cohort is needed to identify additional families carrying these mutations and confirm their biologic role.

5.
Doc Ophthalmol ; 139(2): 151-160, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267413

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Usher syndrome (USH) is a multisensory deficiency involving vision, hearing and the vestibular system. The purpose of this study is to report on the functional data (i.e. electroretinography, visual fields, visual acuity) of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) due to Usher syndrome that were collected in a multicentre European study (TREATRUSH). METHODS: A total of 268 genetically confirmed USH patients underwent electrophysiological examinations in the context of multimodal ophthalmological examination in the study (75 USH1, 189 USH2 and four USH3). Full-field electroretinography (ERG) was performed according to ISCEV standards, visual field determination was carried out with either the Octopus or Goldmann perimeters and visual acuity was examined with either ETDRS or Snellen charts. The data were compared between USH subtypes (USH1/USH2/USH3) and correlated with age. RESULTS: Visual acuity decreases significantly with age for both USH1 and USH2 (p < 0.001), without a difference between the two cohorts. When corrected for age, the preserved kinetic visual field was significantly larger in USH2 than in USH1 (p = 0.04). Furthermore, the preserved kinetic visual field area showed a significant decrease with age (based on an exponential fit) in both USH1 and USH2 (p < 0.001). In USH1 patients, however, the visual field was already vastly reduced at an early age. The ERG results were abnormal in all patients. Detectable data for scotopic ERG were obtained from nine patients, and data of photopic ERG were obtained from 24 patients, without a difference between USH1 and USH2 subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the phenotypes of RP in USH subtypes, most visible in the progression of visual fields between USH1 and USH2. The perimetric reduction occurs earlier in USH1 than in USH2. In both subtypes, visual acuity decreases significantly with age and the ERG is not detectable already at early ages.

6.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 72: 100761, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091471

RESUMO

Masquerade syndromes represent a large set of ophthalmological entities that mimic inflammatory conditions. Any delay in their diagnosis may be correlated with systemic dissemination or worsening of the causal disease and, therefore, with poor prognosis. One of the disadvantages of the new potent treatments of uveitis is the delay that they can induce in the diagnosis of neoplastic intraocular infiltrations. Thorough and careful clinical examination of all patients referred for uveitis, especially when they are Caucasian, over 50 years of age, and with posterior segment involvement, is of paramount importance in this context. Ancillary investigations and often-invasive histo-pathologic evaluation of tissue specimens or ocular fluids are regularly required in these situations. The most common masquerade syndrome is primary vitreoretinal lymphoma (PVRL). New molecular diagnostic tools may be helpful in challenging cases lacking cytological confirmation. Therapeutic strategies targeting tumoral cells in the eye and also in the central nervous system can improve the life expectancy of affected patients. In this review, we discuss diagnostic strategies and current therapies in PVRL and provide an overview of other conditions that can mimic primary ocular inflammation, especially in the field of oncology and its new therapeutic armamentarium.

8.
Hum Mutat ; 40(8): 1145-1155, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058429

RESUMO

Achromatopsia (ACHM) is a hereditary cone photoreceptor disorder characterized by the inability to discriminate colors, nystagmus, photophobia, and low-visual acuity. Six genes have been associated with this rare autosomal recessively inherited disease, including the GNAT2 gene encoding the catalytic α-subunit of the G-protein transducin which is expressed in the cone photoreceptor outer segment. Out of a cohort of 1,116 independent families diagnosed with a primary clinical diagnosis of ACHM, we identified 23 patients with ACHM from 19 independent families with likely causative mutations in GNAT2, representing 1.7% of our large ACHM cohort. In total 22 different potentially disease-causing variants, of which 12 are novel, were identified. The mutation spectrum also includes a novel copy number variation, a heterozygous duplication of exon 4, of which the breakpoint matches exactly that of the previously reported exon 4 deletion. Two patients carry just a single heterozygous variant. In addition to our previous study on GNAT2-ACHM, we also present detailed clinical data of these patients.

9.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 137(6): 669-679, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998820

RESUMO

Importance: A precise phenotypic characterization of retinal dystrophies is needed for disease modeling as a basis for future therapeutic interventions. Objective: To compare genotype, phenotype, and structural changes in patients with rod-cone dystrophy (RCD) associated with mutations in PDE6A or PDE6B. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a retrospective cohort study conducted in Paris, France, from January 2007 to September 2017, 54 patients from a cohort of 1095 index patients with RCD underwent clinical examination, including personal and familial history, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), color vision, slitlamp examination, full-field electroretinography, kinetic visual fields (VFs), retinophotography, optical coherence tomography, near-infrared fundus autofluorescence, and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence imaging. Genotyping was performed using microarray analysis, targeted next-generation sequencing, and Sanger sequencing validation with familial segregation when possible. Data were analyzed from September 1, 2017, to February 1, 2018. Clinical variables were subsequently analyzed in 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Phenotype and genotype comparison of patients carrying mutations in PDE6A or PDE6B. Results: Of the 54 patients included in the study, 19 patients of 17 families (11 women [58%]; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 14.83 [10.63] years) carried pathogenic mutations in PDE6A, and 35 patients of 26 families (17 women [49%]; mean [SD] age at diagnosis, 21.10 [11.56] years) had mutations in PDE6B, accounting for prevalences of 1.6% and 2.4%, respectively. Among 49 identified genetic variants, 14 in PDE6A and 15 in PDE6B were novel. Overall, phenotypic analysis revealed no substantial differences between the 2 groups except for night blindness as a presenting symptom that was noted to be more prevalent in the PDE6A than PDE6B group (80% vs 37%, respectively; P = .005). The mean binocular BCVA and VF decrease over time (measured as mean individual slopes coefficients) was comparable between patients with PDE6A and PDE6B mutations: 0.04 (0.12) vs 0.02 (0.05) for BCVA (P = .89) and 14.33 (7.12) vs 13.27 (6.77) for VF (P = .48). Conclusions and Relevance: Mutations in PDE6A and PDE6B accounted for 1.6% and 2.4%, respectively, in a cohort of French patients with RCD. The functional and structural findings reported may constitute the basis of disease modeling that might be used for better prognostic estimation and candidate selection for photoreceptor therapeutic rescue.

10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(2)2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781664

RESUMO

To identify Bestrophin 1 (BEST1) causative mutations in six Lebanese patients from three families, of whom four had a presumed clinical diagnosis of autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (ARB) and two showed a phenotype with a single vitelliform lesion, patients were subjected to standard ophthalmic examinations. In addition, BEST1 exons and their flanking regions were amplified and sequenced by Sanger sequencing. Co-segregation and detailed bio-informatic analyses were performed. Clinical examination results were consistent with ARB diagnosis for all index patients showing multifocal vitelliform lesions and a markedly reduced light peak in the electrooculogram, including the two patients with a single vitelliform lesion. In all cases, most likely disease-causing BEST1 mutations co-segregated with the phenotype. The ARB cases showed homozygous missense variants (M1, c.209A>G, p.(Asp70Gly) in exon 3, M2, c.1403C>T; p.(Pro468Leu) in exon 10 and M3, c.830C>T, p.(Thr277Met) in exon 7), while the two patients with a single vitelliform lesion were compound heterozygous for M1 and M2. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing mutations in Lebanese patients with bestrophinopathy, where novel biallelic BEST1 mutations associated with two phenotypes were identified. Homozygous mutations were associated with multifocal lesions, subretinal fluid, and intraretinal cysts, whereas compound heterozygous ones were responsible for a single macular vitelliform lesion.

11.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; : 1120672118804757, 2018 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY:: Inborn lens opacity is the most frequent cause of childhood blindness. In this study, we aimed to define the presumed genetic cause of a congenital cataract present in a Mauritanian family over the last nine generations. METHODS:: A family history of the disease and eye examination were carried out for the family members. Next-generation sequencing using a panel of 116 cataract underlying genes was selectively conducted on the proband's DNA. Nucleotide and amino acid changes and their impact on the phenotype were evaluated using various data analyzing software. RESULTS:: Congenital nuclear cataract, with autosomal dominant mode, was observed in the family. All patients had consequences on their vision in the first 2 years of life. Genetic screening revealed a new mutation c.166A>C (p.Thr56Pro) in GJA8, encoding the Cx50 α-connexin protein. This mutation co-segregated in all patients and was not observed in the unaffected family members and controls. The predicted secondary structure impacted by p.Thr56Pro revealed a localized disruption, in the first extra membrane loop of the wild-type sheet, which is replaced in the mutant protein by a turn then a coil. This conformational change was functionally predicted as probably damaging. CONCLUSION:: A new mutation (c.166A>C) in GJA8 underlying a nuclear congenital cataract was identified in this study. Its segregation with the phenotype might be useful as a predicting marker of the disease.

12.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267408

RESUMO

Genetic investigations were performed in three brothers from a consanguineous union, the two oldest diagnosed with rod-cone dystrophy (RCD), the youngest with early-onset cone-rod dystrophy and the two youngest with nephrotic-range proteinuria. Targeted next-generation sequencing did not identify homozygous pathogenic variant in the oldest brother. Whole exome sequencing (WES) applied to the family identified compound heterozygous variants in CC2D2A (c.2774G>C p.(Arg925Pro); c.4730_4731delinsTGTATA p.(Ala1577Valfs*5)) in the three brothers with a homozygous deletion in CNGA3 (c.1235_1236del p.(Glu412Valfs*6)) in the youngest correcting his diagnosis to achromatopsia plus RCD. None of the three subjects had cerebral abnormalities or learning disabilities inconsistent with Meckel-Gruber and Joubert syndromes, usually associated with CC2D2A mutations. Interestingly, an African woman with RCD shared the CC2D2A missense variant (c.2774G>C p.(Arg925Pro); with c.3182+355_3825del p.(?)). The two youngest also carried compound heterozygous variants in CUBN (c.7906C>T rs137998687 p.(Arg2636*); c.10344C>G p.(Cys3448Trp)) that may explain their nephrotic-range proteinuria. Our study identifies for the first time CC2D2A mutations in isolated RCD and underlines the power of WES to decipher complex phenotypes.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1366-1371, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080950

RESUMO

Biallelic PDE6C mutations are a known cause for rod monochromacy, better known as autosomal recessive achromatopsia (ACHM), and early-onset cone photoreceptor dysfunction. PDE6C encodes the catalytic α'-subunit of the cone photoreceptor phosphodiesterase, thereby constituting an essential part of the phototransduction cascade. Here, we present the results of a study comprising 176 genetically preselected patients who remained unsolved after Sanger sequencing of the most frequent genes accounting for ACHM, and were subsequently screened for exonic and splice site variants in PDE6C applying a targeted next generation sequencing approach. We were able to identify potentially pathogenic biallelic variants in 15 index cases. The mutation spectrum comprises 18 different alleles, 15 of which are novel. Our study significantly contributes to the mutation spectrum of PDE6C and allows for a realistic estimate of the prevalence of PDE6C mutations in ACHM since our entire ACHM cohort comprises 1,074 independent families.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30060493

RESUMO

Here we report novel mutations in ABCA4 with the underlying phenotype in a large French cohort with autosomal recessive Stargardt disease. The DNA samples of 397 index subjects were analyzed in exons and flanking intronic regions of ABCA4 (NM_000350.2) by microarray analysis and direct Sanger sequencing. At the end of the screening, at least two likely pathogenic mutations were found in 302 patients (76.1%) while 95 remained unsolved: 40 (10.1%) with no variants identified, 52 (13.1%) with one heterozygous mutation, and 3 (0.7%) with at least one variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Sixty-three novel variants were identified in the cohort. Three of them were variants of uncertain significance. The other 60 mutations were classified as likely pathogenic or pathogenic, and were identified in 61 patients (15.4%). The majority of those were missense (55%) followed by frameshift and nonsense (30%), intronic (11.7%) variants, and in-frame deletions (3.3%). Only patients with variants never reported in literature were further analyzed herein. Recruited subjects underwent complete ophthalmic examination including best corrected visual acuity, kinetic and static perimetry, color vision test, full-field and multifocal electroretinography, color fundus photography, short-wavelength and near-infrared fundus autofluorescence imaging, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Clinical evaluation of each subject confirms the tendency that truncating mutations lead to a more severe phenotype with electroretinogram (ERG) impairment (p = 0.002) and an earlier age of onset (p = 0.037). Our study further expands the mutation spectrum in the exonic and flanking regions of ABCA4 underlying Stargardt disease.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Degeneração Macular/congênito , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Eletrorretinografia , Éxons , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Degeneração Macular/sangue , Degeneração Macular/epidemiologia , Degeneração Macular/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
15.
Curr Eye Res ; 43(10): 1295-1301, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012035

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to report on the results of color vision testing in a European cohort of patients with Usher syndrome (USH). We describe the results in relation to Usher type (USH1 and USH2), age and visual acuity. METHODS AND METHODS: The color vision of 220 genetically confirmed adult USH patients, aged 18-70 years, was analyzed with one of three methods: the Farnsworth D-15 Dichotomous test (D-15) along with the Lanthony desaturated 15 Hue tests (D-15d), the Roth 28-Hue test, or the Ishihara 14-plate test. Visual acuity was measured with either the ETDRS or the SNELLEN charts. The Confusion index, the Selectivity index and the Confusion angle were calculated for the panel tests and used for analysis. The numbers of plates that could not be read were analyzed for the Ishihara test. RESULTS: For the panel tests, the degree of color loss (Confusion index) is similar in both subtypes of USH, but the polarization of error scores (Selectivity index) is significantly lower in USH1 than USH2, showing more diffuse errors than those found in USH2. There is no significant correlation between logMAR visual acuity and the Confusion or the Selectivity indices. Additionally, we find a significant correlation between patient age and the degree and the polarity of the loss only in USH2. There was no difference between USH1 and USH2 in the results of the Ishihara test. CONCLUSIONS: The examination of color vision in patients with USH shows a significant difference in the pattern of color vision loss in USH1 and USH2 patients, but not in the severity of the loss. In USH2, we find a correlation between patient age and the degree and the polarity of the loss. These results may be due to differences in the pathogenesis of retinal dystrophy in USH1 and USH2.

16.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To describe the genetic characteristics of the cohort enrolled in the international multicentre progression of Stargardt disease 1 (STGD1) studies (ProgStar) and to determine geographic differences based on the allele frequency. METHODS: 345 participants with a clinical diagnosis of STGD1 and harbouring at least one disease-causing ABCA4 variant were enrolled from 9 centres in the USA and Europe. All variants were reviewed and in silico analysis was performed including allele frequency in public databases and pathogenicity predictions. Participants with multiple likely pathogenic variants were classified into four national subgroups (USA, UK, France, Germany), with subsequent comparison analysis of the allele frequency for each prevalent allele. RESULTS: 211 likely pathogenic variants were identified in the total cohort, including missense (63%), splice site alteration (18%), stop (9%) and others. 50 variants were novel. Exclusively missense variants were detected in 139 (50%) of 279 patients with multiple pathogenic variants. The three most prevalent variants of these patients with multiple pathogenic variants were p.G1961E (15%), p.G863A (7%) and c.5461-10 T>C (5%). Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the four recruiting nations in the allele frequency of nine variants. CONCLUSIONS: There is a large spectrum of ABCA4 sequence variants, including 50 novel variants, in a well-characterised cohort thereby further adding to the unique allelic heterogeneity in STGD1. Approximately half of the cohort harbours missense variants only, indicating a relatively mild phenotype of the ProgStar cohort. There are significant differences in allele frequencies between nations, although the three most prevalent variants are shared as frequent variants.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 7694801, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29850563

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness (adCSNB) is rare and results from altered phototransduction giving a Riggs type of electroretinogram (ERG) with loss of the rod a-wave and small b-waves. These patients usually have normal vision in light. Only few mutations in genes coding for proteins of the phototransduction cascade lead to this condition; most of these gene defects cause progressive rod-cone dystrophy. Mutation analysis of an adCSNB family with a Riggs-type ERG revealed a novel variant (c.155T>A p.Ile52Asn) in GNAT1 coding for the α-subunit of transducin, cosegregating with the phenotype. Domain predictions and 3D-modelling suggest that the variant does not affect the GTP-binding site as other GNAT1 adCSNB mutations do. It affects a predicted nuclear localization signal and a part of the first α-helix, which is distant from the GTP-binding site. The subcellular protein localization of this and other mutant GNAT1 proteins implicated in CSNB are unaltered in mammalian GNAT1 overexpressing cells. Our findings add a third GNAT1 mutation causing adCSNB and suggest that different pathogenic mechanisms may cause this condition.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Miopia/genética , Cegueira Noturna/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Proteínas Heterotriméricas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6840, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717154

RESUMO

EMAP (Extensive Macular Atrophy with Pseudodrusen) is a maculopathy we recently described that shares pseudodrusen and geographic atrophy with Age-related Macular Disease (AMD). EMAP differs from AMD by an earlier age of onset (50-55 years) and a characteristic natural history comprising a night blindness followed by a severe visual loss. In a prospective case-control study, ten referral centers included 115 EMAP (70 women, 45 men) patients and 345 matched controls to appraise dietary, environmental, and genetic risk factors. The incidence of EMAP (mean 2.95/1.106) was lower in Provence-Côte d'Azur with a Mediterranean diet (1.9/1.106), and higher in regions with intensive farming or industrialized activities (5 to 20/1.106). EMAP patients reported toxic exposure during professional activities (OR 2.29). The frequencies of common AMD complement factor risk alleles were comparable in EMAP. By contrast, only one EMAP patient had a rare AMD variant. This study suggests that EMAP could be a neurodegenerative disorder caused by lifelong toxic exposure and that it is associated with a chronic inflammation and abnormal complement pathway regulation. This leads to diffuse subretinal deposits with rod dysfunction and cone apoptosis around the age of 50 with characteristic extensive macular atrophy and paving stones in the far peripheral retina.

19.
Ophthalmology ; 125(10): 1587-1596, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the retinal structure in patients with X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) using spectral-domain OCT and to correlate the morphologic findings with visual acuity, electroretinographic results, and patient age. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Data from 52 consecutive male patients with molecularly confirmed XLRS were collected retrospectively. METHODS: Complete clinical evaluation included best-corrected visual acuity, full-field electroretinography, fundus photography, spectral-domain OCT, and fundus autofluorescence. Spectral-domain OCT images were analyzed to determine full thickness of the retina and tomographic structural changes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relationships between age, OCT, and visual acuity were assessed. RESULTS: One hundred four eyes of 52 patients were included. The mean age at inclusion was 24±15 years (range, 3-57 years). The best-corrected visual acuity ranged from no light perception to 0.1 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (mean, 0.6±0.38 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution). Macular schisis was found in 88% of eyes and macular atrophy was found in 11% of eyes, whereas peripheral schisis was present in 30% of eyes. A spoke-wheel pattern of high and low intensity was the most frequently observed fundus autofluorescence abnormality (51/94 eyes [54%]). The b-to-a amplitude ratio on bright-flash dark-adapted electroretinography was reduced significantly in 45 of 64 eyes (70%). Spectral-domain OCT was available for 97 eyes and showed foveoschisis in 76 of 97 eyes (78%), parafoveal schisis in 10 of 97 eyes (10%), and foveal atrophy in 11 of 97 eyes (11%). Mean central macular thickness (CMT) was of 373.6±140 µm. Cystoid changes were localized mainly in the inner nuclear layer (85/97 eyes [88%]). Qualitative defects in photoreceptor structures were found in most eyes (79/97 eyes [81%]), and the most frequent abnormality was an interruption of the photoreceptor cell outer segment tips (79/79 eyes [100%]). Older age correlated well with lower CMT (correlation coefficient [CC], -0.44; P < 0.001) and with lower photoreceptor outer segment (PROS) length (CC, -0.42; P < 0.001). Lower visual acuity correlated strongly with lower PROS length (CC, -0.53; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study underlined the wide variety of clinical features of XLRS. It highlighted the correlation between visual acuity, patient age, and OCT features, emphasizing the relevance of the latter as potential outcome measure in clinical trials.

20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 5665, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618791

RESUMO

Multimodal imaging provides insights into phenotype and disease progression in inherited retinal disorders. Congenital achromatopsia (ACHM), a cone dysfunction syndrome, has been long considered a stable condition, but recent evidence suggests structural progression. With gene replacement strategies under development for ACHM, there is a critical need for imaging biomarkers to define progression patterns and follow therapy. Using semiquantitative plots, near-infrared (NIR-AF) and short-wavelength autofluorescence (SW-AF) were explored and correlated with clinical characteristics and retinal structure on optical coherence tomography (OCT). In sixteen ACHM patients with genetic confirmation (CNGA3, n = 8; CNGB3, n = 7; PDE6C, n = 1), semiquantitative plots allowed the detailed analysis of autofluorescence patterns, even in poorly fixating eyes. Twelve eyes showed perifoveal hyperautofluorescent rings on SW-AF, and 7 eyes had central hypoautofluorescent areas on NIR-AF, without association between these alterations (P = 0.57). Patients with central NIR-AF hypoautofluorescence were older (P = 0.004) and showed more advanced retinal alterations on OCT than those with normal NIR-AF (P = 0.051). NIR-AF hypoautofluorescence diameter was correlated to patient age (r = 0.63, P = 0.009), size of ellipsoid zone defect on OCT (r = 0.67, P = 0.005), but not to the size of SW-AF hyperautofluorescence (P = 0.27). These results demonstrate the interest of NIR-AF as imaging biomarker in ACHM, suggesting a relationship with age and disease progression.

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