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1.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 134, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) are related to several acquired demyelinating syndromes in adults, but the therapeutic approach is currently unclear. We aimed to describe the response to different therapeutic strategies in adult patients with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease. METHODS: This is a retrospective study conducted in France and Spain including 125 relapsing MOG-Ab patients aged ≥ 18 years. First, we performed a survival analysis to investigate the relapse risk between treated and non-treated patients, performing a propensity score method based on the inverse probability of treatment weighting. Second, we assessed the annualised relapse rates (ARR), Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and visual acuity pre-treatment and on/end-treatment. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 34.1 years (range 18.0-67.1), the female to male ratio was 1.2:1, and 96% were Caucasian. At 5 years, 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77.1-89.8) patients relapsed. At the last follow-up, 66 (52.8%) received maintenance therapy. Patients initiating immunosuppressants (azathioprine, mycophenolate mophetil [MMF], rituximab) were at lower risk of new relapse in comparison to non-treated patients (HR, 0.41; 95CI%, 0.20-0.82; p = 0.011). Mean ARR (standard deviation) was reduced from 1.05(1.20) to 0.43(0.79) with azathioprine (n = 11; p = 0.041), from 1.20(1.11) to 0.23(0.60) with MMF (n = 11; p = 0.033), and from 1.08(0.98) to 0.43(0.89) with rituximab (n = 26; p = 0.012). Other immunosuppressants (methotrexate/mitoxantrone/cyclophosphamide; n = 5), or multiple sclerosis disease-modifying drugs (MS-DMD; n = 9), were not associated with significantly reduced ARR. Higher rates of freedom of EDSS progression were observed with azathioprine, MMF or rituximab. CONCLUSION: In adults with relapsing MOG-Ab-associated disease, immunosuppressant therapy (azathioprine, MMF and rituximab) is associated with reduced risk of relapse and better disability outcomes. Such an effect was not found in the few patients treated with MS-DMD.

2.
Neurology ; 93(7): e647-e652, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337714

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic analysis and scoring of brain MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in adult-onset Krabbe disease. METHODS: We retrospectively collected basic clinical data and the first available brain MRI from patients with confirmed Krabbe disease with first clinical manifestations beyond 10 years of age. Data were obtained from our reference center for lysosomal diseases (n = 6) and from contacted authors of published articles describing patients with adult-onset Krabbe disease (n = 15). T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of each patient were analyzed and scored using a radiologic score of WMH in a single center. RESULTS: The corticospinal tract was always affected by WMH (100% of patients), however, with some distinctions along the tract: the precentral gyrus (100%), corona radiata (95%), and posterior internal capsule (81%) were highly abnormal, whereas the mesencephalon (57%), pons (52%), and medulla oblongata (5%) were less affected. WMH were also frequently present in the posterior lateral periventricular white matter (95%), optic radiations (86%), postcentral gyrus (71%), medial lemniscus (62%), and corpus callosum, especially in the isthmus (71%), whereas the genu was always normal. A few patients did not have the classical MRI pattern but extensive hyperintensities (n = 3), or patchy distribution of hyperintensities mimicking an acquired etiology (n = 2), or very subtle hyperintensities of the corticospinal tract (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: We specified the main locations of WMH, which were observed in the earliest stages of the disease and were also present in patients with atypical MRI pattern, highlighting the importance of radiologic features to guide the diagnosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155444

RESUMO

Pachymeningitis is rare, either idiopathic or secondary to inflammatory disorders, after tumoral, surgical or infectious causes have been excluded. The fibroinflammatory IgG4-related disease is one of the etiologies of pachymeningitis with only few cases reported yet. From a single referral regional center, we evaluated the frequency of IgG4-related disease as the cause of inflammatory pachymeningitis in 10% of cases. From a National case registry of IgG4-related disease the pachymeningitis frequency was 4.1%. We report eight new cases with cranial, spinal or both involvements and a literature review of 46 pathological proven cases. We observed that IgG4-related pachymeningitis is in most cases not associated to extra-neurological manifestations of the disease. Only 27% of spinal and 40% of cranial IgG4-related pachymeningitis are associated with other disease localizations. First line treatment strategies included surgery and steroids. The use of immunosuppressants or rituximab was necessary in 18% of spinal and 54% of cranial localizations. Some patients remained with sequellae and clinical and/or radiological improvement can be difficult to obtain.

4.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458519849511, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aim to (1) determine the frequency and distinctive features of short myelitis (SM) and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) in a cohort of adults with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-antibody (Ab)-associated myelitis and (2) determine baseline prognostic factors among MOG-Ab-positive patients whose disease started with myelitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical and paraclinical variables from a multicentric French cohort of adults with MOG-Ab-associated myelitis. At last follow-up, patients were classified into two groups according to the severity of the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) as ⩽2.5 or ⩾3.0. RESULTS: Seventy-three patients with at least one episode of myelitis over disease course were included; among them, 28 (38.4%) presented with SM at the time of the first myelitis. Motor and sphincter involvement was less frequently observed in SM (51.9% and 48.2%, respectively) than in LETM patients (83.3% and 78.6%, respectively), p = 0.007 and p = 0.017; 61% of LETM patients displayed brain lesions compared to 28.6% in the SM group, p = 0.008, and the thoracic segment was more frequently involved in the LETM (82.2%) than in the SM group (39.3%), p < 0.001. EDSS at last follow-up was higher in LETM (median 3.0 (interquartile range: 2.0-4.0)) compared to SM patients (2.0, (1.0-3.0)), p = 0.042. Finally, a higher EDSS at onset was identified as the only independent risk factor for EDSS ⩾3.0 (odds ratio, 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.95, p = 0.046). CONCLUSION: SM in MOG-Ab-associated disease is not rare. The severity at onset was the only independent factor related to the final prognosis in MOG-Ab-associated myelitis.

5.
J Biophotonics ; 12(8): e201900045, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31144774

RESUMO

Advances in microscopy with new visualization possibilities often bring dramatic progress to our understanding of the intriguing cellular machinery. Picosecond optoacoustic micro-spectroscopy is an optical technique based on ultrafast pump-probe generation and detection of hypersound on time durations of picoseconds and length scales of nanometers. It is experiencing a renaissance as a versatile imaging tool for cell biology research after a plethora of applications in solid-state physics. In this emerging context, this work reports on a dual-probe architecture to carry out real-time parallel detection of the hypersound propagation inside a cell that is cultured on a metallic substrate, and of the hypersound reflection at the metal/cell adhesion interface. Using this optoacoustic modality, several biophysical properties of the cell can be measured in a noncontact and label-free manner. Its abilities are demonstrated with the multiple imaging of a mitotic macrophage-like cell in a single run experiment.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6409, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015541

RESUMO

Cell morphological analysis has long been used in cell biology and physiology for abnormality identification, early cancer detection, and dynamic change analysis under specific environmental stresses. This work reports on the remote mapping of cell 3D morphology with an in-plane resolution limited by optics and an out-of-plane accuracy down to a tenth of the optical wavelength. For this, GHz coherent acoustic phonons and their resonance harmonics were tracked by means of an ultrafast opto-acoustic technique. After illustrating the measurement accuracy with cell-mimetic polymer films we map the 3D morphology of an entire osteosarcoma cell. The resulting image complies with the image obtained by standard atomic force microscopy, and both reveal very close roughness mean values. In addition, while scanning macrophages and monocytes, we demonstrate an enhanced contrast of thickness mapping by taking advantage of the detection of high-frequency resonance harmonics. Illustrations are given with the remote quantitative imaging of the nucleus thickness gradient of migrating monocyte cells.

8.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 51, 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation and demyelination are the main processes in multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, to date, blood biomarkers of inflammation are lacking. TWEAK, a transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF ligand family, has been previously identified as a potential candidate. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (9 males, 19 females) were prospectively included after a first clinical episode suggestive of multiple sclerosis and clinically followed during 3 years. Fifty-seven healthy controls were also included. TWEAK serum levels and MRI exams including magnetization transfer imaging were performed at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: TWEAK serum levels were significantly increased in the patient group (mean baseline = 1086 ± 493 pg/mL, mean M6 = 624 ± 302 pg/mL and mean M12 = 578 ± 245 pg/mL) compared to healthy controls (mean = 467 ± 177 pg/mL; respectively p < 0.0001, 0.01 and 0.06). Serum levels of soluble TWEAK were significantly increased during relapses, compared to time periods without any relapse (respectively 935 ± 489 pg/mL and 611 ± 292 pg/mL, p = 0.0005). Moreover, patients presenting at least one gadolinium-enhanced CNS lesion at baseline (n = 7) displayed significantly increased serum TWEAK levels in comparison with patients without any gadolinium-enhanced lesion at baseline (n = 21) (respectively 1421 ± 657 pg/mL vs 975 ± 382 pg/mL; p = 0.02). Finally, no correlation was evidenced between TWEAK serum levels and the extent of brain tissue damage assessed by magnetization transfer ratio. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that TWEAK serum levels are increased in MS patients, in relation to the disease activity. This simple and reproducible serum test could be used as a marker of ongoing inflammation, contributing in the follow-up and the care of MS patients. Thus, TWEAK is a promising serum marker of the best window to perform brain MRI, optimizing the disease control in patients.

9.
Brain ; 142(3): 633-646, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715195

RESUMO

Spinal cord lesions detected on MRI hold important diagnostic and prognostic value for multiple sclerosis. Previous attempts to correlate lesion burden with clinical status have had limited success, however, suggesting that lesion location may be a contributor. Our aim was to explore the spatial distribution of multiple sclerosis lesions in the cervical spinal cord, with respect to clinical status. We included 642 suspected or confirmed multiple sclerosis patients (31 clinically isolated syndrome, and 416 relapsing-remitting, 84 secondary progressive, and 73 primary progressive multiple sclerosis) from 13 clinical sites. Cervical spine lesions were manually delineated on T2- and T2*-weighted axial and sagittal MRI scans acquired at 3 or 7 T. With an automatic publicly-available analysis pipeline we produced voxelwise lesion frequency maps to identify predilection sites in various patient groups characterized by clinical subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale score and disease duration. We also measured absolute and normalized lesion volumes in several regions of interest using an atlas-based approach, and evaluated differences within and between groups. The lateral funiculi were more frequently affected by lesions in progressive subtypes than in relapsing in voxelwise analysis (P < 0.001), which was further confirmed by absolute and normalized lesion volumes (P < 0.01). The central cord area was more often affected by lesions in primary progressive than relapse-remitting patients (P < 0.001). Between white and grey matter, the absolute lesion volume in the white matter was greater than in the grey matter in all phenotypes (P < 0.001); however when normalizing by each region, normalized lesion volumes were comparable between white and grey matter in primary progressive patients. Lesions appearing in the lateral funiculi and central cord area were significantly correlated with Expanded Disability Status Scale score (P < 0.001). High lesion frequencies were observed in patients with a more aggressive disease course, rather than long disease duration. Lesions located in the lateral funiculi and central cord area of the cervical spine may influence clinical status in multiple sclerosis. This work shows the added value of cervical spine lesions, and provides an avenue for evaluating the distribution of spinal cord lesions in various patient groups.

10.
J Neurol ; 266(4): 806-815, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) titres at onset of the disease were different according to the clinical phenotype at presentation, and to investigate whether the titres were associated with risk of further relapses or predicted clinical outcome in adult patients. Finally, we assessed an alternative method to the classical measurement of MOG-Ab levels by serial dilutions. METHODS: This is a retrospective study including 79 MOG-Ab-positive adult patients, whose samples were obtained at first episode. MOG-Ab were tested by cell-based assay. HEK293 cells were transfected (tHEK293) with human-MOG plasmid. Non-tHEK293 cells were used as negative controls. Assessment of antibody titres was performed by serial dilution, and delta mean fluorescence intensity ratio signal (MOG-ratio ΔMFI) by flow cytometry. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated as follows: (MFI tHEK293cells- MFI non-tHEK293cells)/MFI non-tHEK293cells. MOG-ratio ΔMFI was calculated from the first serum dilution at 1:320. The association between MOG-Ab titres and risk of relapse was analyzed by Cox regression. The association between MOG-Ab titres and visual or motor disability at last follow-up was performed by binary logistic regression. Poor visual outcome was defined when patients displayed some degree of visual disability (visual acuity [VA] < 20/20) and poor motor outcome when patients displayed some degree of motor disability (Disability Status Scale [DSS] > 1). We also investigated correlations between MOG-Ab titres and MOG-ratio ΔMFI. RESULTS: MOG-Ab titres were higher in Caucasians than in those with other ethnicities, and in patients with a more severe VA (VA ≤ 20/100) or motor disability (DSS ≥ 3.0) at onset (p = 0.006, 0.034, and 0.058, respectively). MOG-Ab titres were not associated with risk of relapses or with the final clinical outcome. MOG-ratio ΔMFI correlated with MOG-Ab titres in the whole cohort (ρ = 0.90; p < 0.001), and when stratified by initial clinical phenotype. CONCLUSION: High MOG-Ab titres at onset are associated with a more severe presentation, but do not predict the future disease course. MOG-ratio ΔMFI is an alternative and straightforward method to determine MOG-Ab levels.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/imunologia , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito/imunologia , Mielite/imunologia , Neurite Óptica/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bioensaio , Doenças Desmielinizantes/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/terapia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mielite/sangue , Mielite/terapia , Neurite Óptica/sangue , Neurite Óptica/terapia , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neuroimage ; 184: 901-915, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30300751

RESUMO

The spinal cord is frequently affected by atrophy and/or lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Segmentation of the spinal cord and lesions from MRI data provides measures of damage, which are key criteria for the diagnosis, prognosis, and longitudinal monitoring in MS. Automating this operation eliminates inter-rater variability and increases the efficiency of large-throughput analysis pipelines. Robust and reliable segmentation across multi-site spinal cord data is challenging because of the large variability related to acquisition parameters and image artifacts. In particular, a precise delineation of lesions is hindered by a broad heterogeneity of lesion contrast, size, location, and shape. The goal of this study was to develop a fully-automatic framework - robust to variability in both image parameters and clinical condition - for segmentation of the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions from conventional MRI data of MS and non-MS cases. Scans of 1042 subjects (459 healthy controls, 471 MS patients, and 112 with other spinal pathologies) were included in this multi-site study (n = 30). Data spanned three contrasts (T1-, T2-, and T2∗-weighted) for a total of 1943 vol and featured large heterogeneity in terms of resolution, orientation, coverage, and clinical conditions. The proposed cord and lesion automatic segmentation approach is based on a sequence of two Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). To deal with the very small proportion of spinal cord and/or lesion voxels compared to the rest of the volume, a first CNN with 2D dilated convolutions detects the spinal cord centerline, followed by a second CNN with 3D convolutions that segments the spinal cord and/or lesions. CNNs were trained independently with the Dice loss. When compared against manual segmentation, our CNN-based approach showed a median Dice of 95% vs. 88% for PropSeg (p ≤ 0.05), a state-of-the-art spinal cord segmentation method. Regarding lesion segmentation on MS data, our framework provided a Dice of 60%, a relative volume difference of -15%, and a lesion-wise detection sensitivity and precision of 83% and 77%, respectively. In this study, we introduce a robust method to segment the spinal cord and intramedullary MS lesions on a variety of MRI contrasts. The proposed framework is open-source and readily available in the Spinal Cord Toolbox.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Redes Neurais (Computação) , Medula Espinal/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
12.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518813108, 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: There is a lack of longitudinal studies exploring the topological organization of functional brain networks at the early stages of multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE:: This study aims to assess potential brain functional reorganization at rest in patients with CIS (PwCIS) after 1 year of evolution and to characterize the dynamics of functional brain networks at the early stage of the disease. METHODS:: We prospectively included 41 PwCIS and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs). They were scanned at baseline and after 1 year. Using graph theory, topological metrics were calculated for each region. Hub disruption index was computed for each metric. RESULTS:: Hub disruption indexes of degree and betweenness centrality were negative at baseline in patients ( p < 0.05), suggesting brain reorganization. After 1 year, hub disruption indexes for degree and betweenness centrality were still negative ( p < 0.00001), but such reorganization appeared more pronounced than at baseline. Different brain regions were driving these alterations. No global efficiency differences were observed between PwCIS and HCs either at baseline or at 1 year. CONCLUSION:: Dynamic changes in functional brain networks appear at the early stages of MS and are associated with the maintenance of normal global efficiency in the brain, suggesting a compensatory effect.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 175, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal lipid storage disease caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical presentation and evolution of NP-C and the effect of miglustat treatment are described in the largest cohort of patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C studied to date. METHODS: Observational study based on clinical chart data from adult patients with NP-C (> 18 year old) diagnosed in France between 1990 and 2015. Retrospective data from patients at diagnosis, onset of miglustat therapy (if applicable), and last follow up were analysed. RESULTS: In France, patients with an adolescent-adult neurological form constituted approximately 25% of all NP-C cases diagnosed during the study period. Forty-seven patients (46 with NP-C1 and one with NP-C2; 53% female) were included. Mean ± SD (range) ages at neurological onset and diagnosis were 23.9 ± 12.5 (8-56) years and 34 ± 13.5 (15-65) years, respectively. At presentation, patients mainly had 1) impaired gait due to cerebellar ataxia and/or dystonia, 2) and/or cognitive/behavioural manifestations, 3) and/or psychotic signs. Initially, almost half of patients had only one of the above three neuro-psychiatric manifestations. Vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, usually occurring without patient complaint, was only detected on careful clinical examination and was recorded in most patients (93%) at the time of diagnosis, several years after neurological onset. Thirty-seven patients (79%) received miglustat, among whom seventeen (46%) continued beyond 2 years (at last follow up) to a maximum of 9.8 years. Eight patients (22%) discontinued treatment early due to side effects (n = 3) or perceived lack of efficacy (n = 5).Miglustat treatment duration correlated significantly with reduced neurological worsening (p < 0.001). Treatment for≥2 years was associated with improved patient survival (p = 0.029). Good responses to miglustat were associated with less severe neurological disability at the start of miglustat treatment (p = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The proportion of adolescent/adult-onset NP-C cases diagnosed in France increased 2.5-fold since 2009 compared with the 2000-2008 period due to improved awareness. Adolescent/adult-onset NP-C frequently presented initially with a non-specific isolated neuro-psychiatric manifestation (motor, cognitive or psychotic). Patients with less severe neurological disability responded better to miglustat therapy.

14.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458518772748, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29722639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of rituximab as rescue therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent disease activity confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapy (DMT). METHODS: In this observational nationwide retrospective multicenter study, we first identified 351 off-label rituximab-treated patients through a cohort of 15,984 RRMS patients. In this group, we identified patients with disease activity prior to rituximab confirmed by MRI (one or more new T2 lesion and/or gadolinium-enhancing lesion) despite immunosuppressive DMT (fingolimod, natalizumab, or mitoxantrone) with a follow-up after rituximab initiation longer than 6 months. Outcome data were collected from the French Observatory of Multiple Sclerosis (OFSEP) register and medical charts. RESULTS: A total of 50 patients were identified. Median rituximab treatment duration was 1.1 (0.5-6.4) year. Mean annualized relapse rate significantly decreased from 0.8 during last immunosuppressive DMT to 0.18 after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). While 72% of patients showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the last MRI performed during last immunosuppressive DMT, 8% of them showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the first MRI performed 6.1 (range 1.4-18.4) months after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study provides level IV evidence that rituximab reduces clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with active RRMS despite immunosuppressive DMT.

15.
Neurology ; 90(21): e1858-e1869, 2018 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695592

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical and radiologic features associated with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) in a large French nationwide adult cohort, to assess baseline prognostic features of MOG-Ab-associated diseases after a first acute demyelinating syndrome, and to evaluate the clinical value of MOG-Ab longitudinal analysis. METHODS: Clinical data were obtained from 197 MOG-Ab-positive patients ≥18 years of age. Complete imaging data were available in 108, and 54 serum samples were eligible for longitudinal evaluation. For survival analysis comparison, 169 aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab)-positive patients from the NOMADMUS database were included. RESULTS: Median age at onset was 36.46 (range 18.0-76.8) years, and patients were predominantly white (92.9%) with male:female ratio, 1.1. Clinical phenotype at onset included optic neuritis or myelitis in 90.86%, isolated brainstem or encephalopathy syndromes in 6.6%, and a combination of syndromes in 2.5%. Distinctive brain MRI findings in MOG-Ab-positive patients were thalamic and pontine lesions. Cortical and leptomeningeal lesions were found in 16.3% and 6.1%, respectively. The probability of reaching a first relapse after 2 and 5 years was 44.8% and 61.8%, respectively. MOG-Ab-positive patients were at lower risk at presentation of further clinical relapse (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.79) compared to AQP4-Ab-positive individuals. MOG-Ab-positive individuals had a lower risk of reaching Disability Status Scale score of 3.0 (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22-0.94) and visual acuity of 20/100 (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.72). Finally, MOG-Ab titers were higher at relapse than in remission (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: In adults, MOG-Ab-associated disease extends beyond clinical and radiologic abnormalities in the optic nerve and spinal cord. Despite the relapsing course, the overall visual and motor outcome is better compared with AQP4-Ab-positive patients.

16.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 89(1): 014901, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29390675

RESUMO

Laser-generated GHz-ultrasonic-based technologies have shown the ability to image single cell adhesion and stiffness simultaneously. Using this new modality, we here demonstrate quantitative indicators to investigate contact mechanics and adhesion processes of the cell. We cultured human cells on a rigid substrate, and we used an inverted pulsed opto-acoustic microscope to generate acoustic pulses containing frequencies up to 100 GHz in the substrate. We map the reflection of the acoustic pulses at the cell-substrate interface to obtain images of the acoustic impedance of the cell, Zc, as well as of the stiffness of the interface, K, with 1 µm lateral resolution. Our results show that the standard deviation ΔZc reveals differences between different cell types arising from the multiplicity of local conformations within the nucleus. From the distribution of K-values within the nuclear region, we extract a mean interfacial stiffness, Km, that quantifies the average contact force in areas of the cell displaying weak bonding. By analogy with classical contact mechanics, we also define the ratio of the real to nominal contact areas, Sr/St. We show that Km can be interpreted as a quantitative indicator of passive contact at metal-cell interfaces, while Sr/St is sensitive to active adhesive processes in the nuclear region. The ability to separate the contributions of passive and active adhesion processes should allow gaining insight into cell-substrate interactions, with important applications in tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Adesão Celular , Microscopia Acústica , Humanos , Engenharia Tecidual , Ultrassom
17.
Mult Scler ; : 1352458517736146, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increase of brain total sodium concentrations (TSC) is present in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its pathological involvement has not been assessed yet. OBJECTIVE: To determine in vivo the metabolic counterpart of brain sodium accumulation. MATERIALS/METHODS: Whole brain 23Na-MR imaging and 3D-1H-EPSI data were collected in 21 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 20 volunteers. Metabolites and sodium levels were extracted from several regions of grey matter (GM), normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) and white matter (WM) T2 lesions. Metabolic and ionic levels expressed as Z-scores have been averaged over the different compartments and used to explain sodium accumulations through stepwise regression models. RESULTS: MS patients showed significant 23Na accumulations with lower choline and glutamate-glutamine (Glx) levels in GM; 23Na accumulations with lower N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), Glx levels and higher Myo-Inositol (m-Ins) in NAWM; and higher 23Na, m-Ins levels with lower NAA in WM T2 lesions. Regression models showed associations of TSC increase with reduced NAA in GM, NAWM and T2 lesions, as well as higher total-creatine, and smaller decrease of m-Ins in T2 lesions. GM Glx levels were associated with clinical scores. CONCLUSION: Increase of TSC in RRMS is mainly related to neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction while dysfunction of neuro-glial interactions within GM is linked to clinical scores.

18.
J Neuropsychol ; 2017 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28544439

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment (CI) affects 40-65% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). CI can have a negative impact on a patient's everyday activities, such as engaging in conversations. Speech production planning ability is crucial for successful verbal interactions and thus for preserving social and occupational skills. This study investigates the effect of cognitive-linguistic demand and CI on speech production planning in MS, as reflected in speech prosody. A secondary aim is to explore the clinical potential of prosodic features for the prediction of an individual's cognitive status in MS. A total of 45 subjects, that is 22 healthy controls (HC) and 23 patients in early stages of relapsing-remitting MS, underwent neuropsychological tests probing specific cognitive processes involved in speech production planning. All subjects also performed a read speech task, in which they had to read isolated sentences manipulated as for phonological length. Results show that the speech of MS patients with CI is mainly affected at the temporal level (articulation and speech rate, pause duration). Regression analyses further indicate that rate measures are correlated with working memory scores. In addition, linear discriminant analysis shows the ROC AUC of identifying MS patients with CI is 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.73). Our findings indicate that prosodic planning is deficient in patients with MS-CI and that the scope of planning depends on patients' cognitive abilities. We discuss how speech-based approaches could be used as an ecological method for the assessment and monitoring of CI in MS.

19.
Mult Scler ; 23(6): 855-863, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27481208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of the primary motor cortex improves transiently lower limbs spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the cerebral mechanisms underlying this effect have never been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether modulation of spasticity induced by iTBS is underlined by functional reorganization of the primary motor cortices. METHODS: A total of 17 patients with MS suffering from lower limbs spasticity were randomized to receive real iTBS or sham iTBS during the first half of a 5-week indoor rehabilitation programme. Spasticity was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Visual Analogue Scale at baseline, after the stimulation session and at the end of the rehabilitation programme. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed at the three time points, and brain functional networks topology was analysed using graph-theoretical approach. RESULTS: At the end of stimulation, improvement of spasticity was greater in real iTBS group than in sham iTBS group ( p = 0.026). iTBS had a significant effect on the balance of the connectivity degree between the stimulated and the homologous primary motor cortex ( p = 0.005). Changes in inter-hemispheric balance were correlated with improvement of spasticity (rho = 0.56, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: This longitudinal resting-state fMRI study evidences that functional reorganization of the primary motor cortices may underlie the effect of iTBS on spasticity in MS.


Assuntos
Conectoma/métodos , Córtex Motor , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Espasticidade Muscular/terapia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Ritmo Teta/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Espasticidade Muscular/etiologia
20.
J Neuroradiol ; 44(2): 158-164, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27865557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While gray matter (GM) perfusion abnormalities have been evidenced in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, the relationships with disability still remain unclear. Considering that atrophy is known to impact on perfusion, we aimed to assess perfusion abnormalities in GM of MS patients, outside atrophic regions and investigate relationships with disability. METHODS: Brain perfusion of 23 relapsing remitting MS patients and 16 matched healthy subjects were assessed at 3T using the pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging technique. In order to locate potential GM perfusion abnormalities in regions spared by atrophy, we combined voxelwise comparisons of GM cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps (cortex and deep GM) (P<0.005, FWE-corrected) and voxel-based-morphometry analysis (P<0.005, FDR-corrected) to exclude atrophic regions. Disability was assessed using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite score (MSFC). RESULTS: In patients, significant GM hypoperfusion outside atrophic regions was depicted only in bilateral thalami. No other cluster was found to be hypoperfused compared to controls. Perfusion of thalami was correlated to MSFC (P=0.011, rho=0.523). A trend of correlation was found between perfusion of thalami and EDSS (P=0.061, rho=-0.396). CONCLUSION: In relapsing remitting MS, perfusion abnormalities in thalamic regions contribute to disability. These findings suggest that functional impairments of thalami, representing a major brain hub, may disturb various cerebral functions even before structural damage.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Tálamo/irrigação sanguínea , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/patologia , Adulto , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/patologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Marcadores de Spin
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