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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(10): e1282-e1294, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, smoking tobacco causes 7 million deaths annually, and this toll is expected to increase, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. In Latin America, smoking is a leading risk factor for death and disability, contributes to poverty, and imposes an economic burden on health systems. Despite being one of the most effective measures to reduce smoking, tobacco taxation is underused and cigarettes are more affordable in Latin America than in other regions. Our aim was to estimate the tobacco-attributable burden on mortality, disease incidence, quality of life lost, and medical costs in 12 Latin American countries, and the expected health and economic effects of increasing tobacco taxes. METHODS: In this modelling study, we developed a Markov probabilistic microsimulation economic model of the natural history, medical costs, and quality-of-life losses associated with the most common tobacco-related diseases in 12 countries in Latin America. Data inputs were obtained through a literature review, vital statistics, and hospital databases from each country: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay. The main outcomes of the model are life-years, quality-adjusted life-years, disease events, hospitalisations, disease incidence, disease cost, and healthy years of life lost. We estimated direct medical costs for each tobacco-related disease included in the model using a common costing methodology for each country. The disease burden was estimated as the difference in disease events, deaths, and associated costs between the results predicted by the model for current smoking prevalence and a hypothetical cohort of people in each country who had never smoked. The model estimates the health and financial effects of a price increase of cigarettes through taxes, in terms of disease and health-care costs averted, and increased tax revenues. FINDINGS: In the 12 Latin American countries analysed, we estimated that smoking is responsible for approximately 345 000 (12%) of the total 2 860 921 adult deaths, 2·21 million disease events, 8·77 million healthy years of life lost, and $26·9 billion in direct medical costs annually. Health-care costs attributable to smoking were estimated to represent 6·9% of the health budgets of these countries, equivalent to 0·6% of their gross domestic product. Tax revenues from cigarette sales cover 36·0% of the estimated health expenditures caused by smoking. We estimated that a 50% increase in cigarette price through taxation would avert more than 300 000 deaths, 1·3 million disease events, gain 9 million healthy life-years, and save $26·7 billion in health-care costs in the next 10 years, with a total economic benefit of $43·7 billion. INTERPRETATION: Smoking represents a substantial health and economic burden in these 12 countries of Latin America. Tobacco tax increases could successfully avert deaths and disability, reduce health-care spending, and increase tax revenues, resulting in large net economic benefits. FUNDING: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/economia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Modelos Econômicos , Impostos/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Value Health ; 23(7): 880-888, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: (1) To produce Peruvian general population EQ-5D-5L value sets on a quality-adjusted life-year scale, (2) to investigate the feasibility of a "Lite" protocol less reliant on the composite time trade-off (cTTO), and (3) to compare cTTO and discrete choice experiment (DCE) value sets. METHODS: A random sample of adults (N = 1000) in Lima, Arequipa, and Iquitos did a home interview; 300 were randomly selected to complete 11 cTTOs first. All respondents completed a DCE, including 10 latent-scale pairs (A/B) with 5 EQ-5D-5L attributes, and 12 matched pairs (A/B and B/C) with 5 EQ-5D-5L and one lifespan attributes. We estimated a cTTO heteroscedastic tobit (N = 300) model and 3 DCE Zermelo-Bradley-Terry models (N = 300, 700, and 1000). RESULTS: Each model produced a consistent value set (20 positive incremental parameters). Nevertheless, their lowest quality-adjusted life-year values differed greatly (cTTO: -1.076 [N = 300]; DCE: -0.984 [300], 0.048 [700], -0.213 [1000]). Compared with the cTTO, the DCE (N = 300) produced different parameters (Pearson's correlation = 0.541), fewer insignificant parameters (0 vs 8), and fewer values less than 0 (26% vs 44%). Compared with the DCE (N = 300), the DCE (N = 700) produced higher values but similar parameters (Pearson's correlation = 0.800). CONCLUSIONS: Besides producing EQ-5D-5L value sets for Peru, the results casts doubt about the feasibility of a Lite protocol like the one in this study. Additionally, fundamental differences between cTTO and DCE-without the existence of a gold standard-need further clarification. The choice between the two rational value sets produced in the current study is a matter of judgment and may have substantial policy implications.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Escolha , Modelos Teóricos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peru , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(11): 2032-2040, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531063

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The burden of disease attributable to tobacco use in Latin America is very high. Our objective was to evaluate the 10-year potential impact of current legislation related to cigarette packaging and warnings and expected effects of moving to a higher level of strategies implementing cigarette plain packaging on health and cost outcomes in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru, using a microsimulation model. AIMS AND METHODS: We used a probabilistic state-transition microsimulation model, considering natural history, costs, and quality of life losses associated with main tobacco-related diseases. We followed up individuals in hypothetical cohorts and calculated health outcomes annually to obtain aggregated long-term population health outcomes and costs. We performed a literature review to estimate effects and analyzed studies and information from ministries, relevant organizations, and national surveys. We calibrated the model comparing the predicted disease-specific mortality rates with local statistics. RESULTS: Current graphic warnings already in place in each country could avert, during 10 years, 69 369 deaths and 638 295 disease events, adding 1.2 million years of healthy life and saving USD 5.3 billion in the seven countries. If these countries implemented plain packaging strategies, additional 155 857 premature deaths and 4 133 858 events could be averted, adding 4.1 million healthy years of life and saving USD 13.6 billion in direct health care expenses of diseases attributable to smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Latin American countries should not delay the implementation of this strategy that will alleviate part of the enormous health and financial burden that tobacco poses on their economies and health care systems. IMPLICATIONS: Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable and premature mortality cause in the world. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported by the World Health Organization, introduced a package of evidence-based measures for tobacco control. This study adds evidence on the potential health effects and savings of implementing cigarette plain packaging in countries representing almost 80% of the Latin American population; findings are valuable resources for policy makers in the region.

4.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 36(2): 173-178, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: One of the good practice principles for health technology assessment (HTA) is having a clear link between the assessment and decision making. The objective of the 2019 Latin American Policy Forum (LatamPF) of Health Technology Assessment International was to explore different models of connection between HTA and decision making and to discuss the potential applicability of such models in Latin America. METHODS: This paper is based on a background document and the deliberations of the members of the LatamPF (fifty-four participants from twelve countries) where a design-thinking methodology was used. RESULTS: The participants agreed that insufficient links between HTA and decision making undermine the legitimacy of decisions, expose the HTA process to excessive political and judicial influence, and promote the exclusion of some stakeholders from participating in the assessment process and decision making. High priority aspects of the HTA process that could feasibly be improved and which hold the greatest potential to generate positive changes in the health systems in the region were identified. The majority of these aspects were associated with the appropriate institutionalization of HTA, a greater degree of participation by different stakeholders, and improved transparency in the HTA process. CONCLUSIONS: The LatamPF identified barriers and recommended actions to strengthen the link between HTA and decision making. Participants emphasized that there is now a window of opportunity in the region as many societal actors see this as a priority. For this reason, health system stakeholders must take this opportunity to increase efforts toward strengthening the link between HTA and decision making.

5.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 36(2): 179-185, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317032

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Un vínculo claro entre la evaluación y la toma de decisión constituye un principio de buena práctica en evaluación de tecnologías sanitarias (ETESA) reconocido a nivel internacional. El objetivo del Foro de Políticas en Latino-América (LatamPF) 2019 de Health Technology Assessment International fue explorar los diferentes modelos que vinculan la ETESA y la toma de decisión y discutir su potencial aplicabilidad en Latino-América. MÉTODOS: Este manuscrito está basado en un documento base y en el trabajo deliberativo realizado por los miembros (54 participantes, 12 países) que asistieron al LatamPF, a través de la metodología design thinking. RESULTADOS: Los participantes coincidieron en que la relación inapropiada entre la ETESA y la toma de decisión atenta hoy contra la legitimidad de las decisiones, expone al proceso de ETESA a una excesiva influencia política y judicial, y condiciona que algunos actores se sientan relegados del proceso de evaluación y toma de decisión. Se identificaron los atributos del proceso de ETESA más prioritarios y factibles de ser mejorados en la región, y con el mayor potencial para generar un cambio positivo en los sistemas de salud. La mayor parte de estos están vinculados con la apropiada institucionalización de la ETESA, ampliar la participación de los diferentes actores y mejorar la transparencia de los procesos de ETESA. CONCLUSIONES: El LatamPF ha identificado barreras y recomendado acciones para reforzar el vínculo entre ETESA y la decisión. A su vez, existe en estos momentos una ventana de oportunidad en la región, ya que el tema es visualizado como una prioridad por gran parte de los actores de la sociedad. Por ello, los diferentes actores de los sistemas sanitarios deberían ahora tomar esta oportunidad para avanzar en el fortalecimiento del vínculo entre ETESA y toma de decisión.

6.
Rev. colomb. cancerol ; 23(4): 135-143, Oct-Dic. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058357

RESUMO

Resumen Objetivo: estimar la carga de enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en Colombia y evaluar el potencial efecto sanitario y económico del aumento de precio en los cigarrillos mediante impuestos. Materiales y métodos: se diseñó un modelo de simulación de Monte Cario de primer orden que incorporó la historia natural, los costos y la calidad de vida de enfermedades relacionadas con el consumo de tabaco en adultos. Se estimó el impacto en la prevalencia de tabaquismo y en la recaudación de diferentes escenarios de aumento de precio a través de impuestos. Resultados: en Colombia cada año mueren 32.088 personas como consecuencia del consumo de cigarrillo y pueden atribuírsele los siguientes porcentajes: el 16% de las muertes cardiovasculares, el 13% de las producidas por accidentes cerebrovasculares, el 77% de las muertes ocasionadas por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el 80% de las muertes por cáncer de pulmón. Las enfermedades relacionadas con el cigarrillo representan un costo directo anual al sistema de salud de más de 4,5 billones de pesos, mientras la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas logra cubrir un 10% de este gasto. Un aumento en el precio de los cigarrillos del 50% podría evitar, en un horizonte de 10 años, más de 45.000 muertes y generar recursos por 8 billones por ahorro en gastos sanitarios y aumento de recaudación. Conclusiones: la carga de enfermedad y el costo para el sistema de salud asociados al consumo de tabaco son muy elevados en Colombia. Un aumento del precio de los cigarrillos a través de los impuestos tendría importantes beneficios tanto sanitarios como económicos.


Abstract Objective: to estimate the burden of disease associated with tobacco consumption in Colombia and to evaluate the potential health and economic effect of the price increase in cigarettes through taxes. Materials and methods: to estimate the burden of disease, a first-order Monte Carlo simulation model was designed that incorporated the natural history, costs and quality of life of diseases related to tobacco consumption in adults. A tax model was designed to calculate the impact on the prevalence of smoking and on the collection of different price increase scenarios. Results: according to the proposed model, it can be estimated that in Colombia 26,464 people die every year as a result of cigarette smoking. 13% of cardiovascular deaths, 13% of those caused by strokes, 77% of deaths caused by chronic lung disease and 81 % of deaths from lung cancer can be attributed to their consumption. The diseases related to cigarettes in Colombia represent a direct annual cost of more than 4 billion pesos, while the tax collection from the sale of cigarettes barely covers 10% of this expense. An increase in the price of cigarettes of 50% could prevent more than 30,000 deaths in ten years and generate resources for 7.9 billion savings in health spending and increased collection. Conclusions: the burden of disease and the cost to the health system associated with tobacco use are very high in Colombia. An increase in the price of cigarettes through taxes would have important health and economic benefits for Colombia.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tabagismo , Pneumopatias , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Impostos , Produtos do Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco , Fumar Cigarros
7.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 180-190, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654963

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology, the consumption of resources and the relevant costs in the management of hepatitis C in four Latin American countries: Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay and Venezuela. STUDY DESIGN: Bibliographic review, study of costs and elicitation by experts METHODS: A literature search was carried out to collect epidemiological and cost data for the management of the disease. Information was additionally elicited with hepatologists from each country using the modified Delphi Panel technique. For the estimation of costs, the perspective of the health system was adopted. The direct medical costs of the different stages associated with the natural history of the disease were considered through micro-costing. RESULTS: Extensive epidemiological and economic information is provided for the four countries under study. The age range between 40 and 60 years was the most affected. The frequency of genotypes showed a predominance of genotype 1 (68 to 88%), genotype 1b having been reported as the most prevalent in Argentina and Colombia and 1a in Uruguay and Venezuela. The costs of drug regimens, associated health events and adverse events present important differences in the four selected countries of Latin America. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis C presents a high burden of disease in the countries under study, and its management imposes significant costs on health systems.

8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1378, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Around 6% of total deaths are related to alcohol consumption worldwide. Mathematical models are important tools to estimate disease burden and to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions to address this burden. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review on models, searching main health literature databases up to July 2017. Pairs of reviewers independently selected, extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. We selected those models exploring: a) disease burden (main metrics being attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life years, quality-adjusted life years) or b) economic evaluations of health interventions or policies, based on models including the aforementioned outcomes. We grouped models into broad families according to their common central methodological approach. RESULTS: Out of 4295 reports identified, 63 met our inclusion criteria and were categorized in three main model families that were described in detail: 1) State transition -i.e Markov- models, 2) Life Table-based models and 3) Attributable fraction-based models. Most studies pertained to the latter one (n = 29, 48.3%). A few miscellaneous models could not be framed into these families. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can be useful for future researchers and decision makers planning to undertake alcohol-related disease burden or cost-effectiveness studies. We found several different families of models. Countries interested in adopting relevant public health measures may choose or adapt the one deemed most convenient, based on the availability of existing data at the local level, burden of work, and public health and economic outcomes of interest.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(8): e00129118, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483047

RESUMO

The prevalence of smoking in Brazil has decreased considerably in recent decades, but the country still has a high burden of disease associated with this risk factor. The study aimed to estimate the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society associated with smoking in 2015 and the potential impact on health outcomes and the economy based on price increases for cigarettes through taxes. Two models were developed: the first is a mathematical model based on a probabilistic microsimulation of thousands of individuals using hypothetical cohorts that considered the natural history, costs, and quality of life of these individuals. The second is a tax model applied to estimate the economic benefit and health outcomes in different price increase scenarios in 10 years. Smoking was responsible for 156,337 deaths, 4.2 million years of potential life lost, 229,071 acute myocardial infarctions, 59,509 strokes, and 77,500 cancer diagnoses. The total cost was BRL 56.9 billion (USD 14.7 billion), with 70% corresponding to the direct cost associated with healthcare and the rest to indirect cost due to lost productivity from premature death and disability. A 50% increase in cigarette prices would avoid 136,482 deaths, 507,451 cases of cardiovascular diseases, 64,382 cases of cancer, and 100,365 cases of stroke. The estimated economic benefit would be BRL 97.9 billion (USD 25.5 billion). In conclusion, the burden of disease and economic losses associated with smoking is high in Brazil, and tax increases are capable of averting deaths, illness, and costs to society.

10.
Value Health Reg Issues ; 20: 142-148, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a public health problem that affects millions of hospitalized patients worldwide. In Argentina, evidence suggests that its incidence has risen in recent years. When severe, AKI may require a renal replacement therapy (RRT) where continuous RRT (CRRT) and intermittent RRT (IRRT) are plausible options for patients in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost utility of CRRT versus IRRT for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners, the largest social security health insurance for elders in Argentina. METHODS: This was a model-based cost-utility analysis. Long-term costs and health outcomes were estimated for a hypothetical cohort with a Markov model. Parameters used were obtained from published literature and validated with local experts. Local costs were estimated and expressed in $AR of 2016. Several sensitivity analyses were run to analyze the impact of uncertainty on results. RESULTS: Continuous RRT dominated IRRT by cumulating over the model more quality-adjusted life years and less costs. Total discounted quality-adjusted life years for both cohorts were 1049 and 1034, respectively, and total costs were $95 362 and $103 871. Cost-effectiveness (CE) results reflect these differences in favor of CRRT with a deterministic cost-saving incremental CE ratio and a probability of CRRT being CE of 65.4%, considering a CE threshold of 1 gross domestic product per capita. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous RRT for patients with AKI eligible for CRRT or IRRT would probably be a cost-effective intervention for the National Institute of Social Services for Retirees and Pensioners' view. Nevertheless, there is considerable uncertainty around results, mainly due to the lack of adequate controlled studies and local data on the prognosis of these patients in Argentina.

12.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 35(1): 64-68, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938278

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The recent development of value frameworks to inform healthcare resource allocation responds to a demand to make the decision-making process more inclusive and explicit. The objectives of the 2018 Latin American (LAtam) Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) Policy Forum were to explore the current international experiences and to discuss the potential application of value frameworks in Latin America. METHODS: A background paper, presentations, and group discussions of Policy Forum members (43 participants, 12 LAtam countries represented) at the 2018 HTAi Policy Forum meeting informed this paper. RESULTS: Participants agreed that HTA and decision making based on more comprehensive and inclusive value frameworks could improve health system effectiveness, efficiency, sustainability, and equity; promote transparency in the decision process; sustain a more comprehensive assessment of technologies; and facilitate stakeholder participation as well as accountability of decisions. Criteria that were identified as essential to be included in a value framework for LAtam were burden of illness and severity of the disease, effectiveness and safety of the technology, quality of the evidence, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact. Potential challenges identified for the application of value frameworks in LAtam, included scarcity of human resources and delays in the assessment process. CONCLUSIONS: Forum participants agreed that the next steps should be to identify appropriate processes and methodologies, adapted to the context of each country, regarding the application of value frameworks to improve the link between HTA and decision making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Orçamentos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/normas , Política de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 35(1): 69-74, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30938279

RESUMO

ResumenObjetivosEl reciente desarrollo de marcos de valor responde a una demanda por hacer más explícito e inclusivo el proceso de toma de decisiones sobre asignación de recursos sanitarios. El objetivo del Foro de Políticas en Latino América 2018 de Health Technology Assessment International fue explorar las experiencias internacionales y discutir la potencial aplicación de marcos de valor en la región.MétodosEste manuscrito está basado en un documento base y en las presentaciones y discusiones mantenidas por los miembros del Foro (43 participantes, 12 países) durante el Foro del 2018.ResultadosLos participantes coincidieron en que un proceso de evaluación y toma de decisión basado en marcos de valor más inclusivos y abarcativos podría mejorar la efectividad, eficiencia, sustentabilidad y equidad; promover la transparencia y una evaluación más completa de las tecnologías, mejorar la rendición de cuentas de las decisiones y la participación de actores. Se identificaron como criterios esenciales para ser incluidos en marcos de valor en la región a la carga de enfermedad y severidad de la condición, la efectividad y seguridad de la tecnología, la calidad de la evidencia, la costo-efectividad e impacto presupuestario. Los potenciales desafíos para su implementación identificados incluyeron la escasez de recursos humanos y las demoras en el proceso de evaluación que se podrían producir.ConclusionesLos participantes remarcaron que los próximos pasos deberían ser identificar procesos y metodologías apropiadas, adaptadas al contexto de cada país, para facilitar la aplicación de marcos de valor y mejorar el vínculo entre la evaluación y la toma de decisiones.

14.
Value Health ; 22(1): 13-20, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661627

RESUMO

The systematic use of evidence to inform healthcare decisions, particularly health technology assessment (HTA), has gained increased recognition. HTA has become a standard policy tool for informing decision makers who must manage the entry and use of pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other technologies (including complex interventions) within health systems, for example, through reimbursement and pricing. Despite increasing attention to HTA activities, there has been no attempt to comprehensively synthesize good practices or emerging good practices to support population-based decision-making in recent years. After the identification of some good practices through the release of the ISPOR Guidelines Index in 2013, the ISPOR HTA Council identified a need to more thoroughly review existing guidance. The purpose of this effort was to create a basis for capacity building, education, and improved consistency in approaches to HTA-informed decision-making. Our findings suggest that although many good practices have been developed in areas of assessment and some other key aspects of defining HTA processes, there are also many areas where good practices are lacking. This includes good practices in defining the organizational aspects of HTA, the use of deliberative processes, and measuring the impact of HTA. The extent to which these good practices are used and applied by HTA bodies is beyond the scope of this report, but may be of interest to future researchers.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/normas , Formulação de Políticas , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Benchmarking/economia , Benchmarking/métodos , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos , Participação dos Interessados , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/economia , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/métodos
15.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 35(8): e00129118, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019619

RESUMO

A prevalência do tabagismo no Brasil reduziu sobremaneira nas últimas décadas, mas o país ainda tem uma elevada carga de doença associada a este fator de risco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a carga de mortalidade, morbidade e custos para a sociedade associada ao tabagismo em 2015 e o potencial impacto gerado em desfechos de saúde e para a economia a partir do aumento de preços dos cigarros por meio de impostos. Foram desenvolvidos dois modelos: o primeiro é um modelo matemático baseado em uma microssimulação probabilística de milhares de indivíduos usando-se coortes hipotéticas que considerou a história natural, custos e a qualidade de vida destes indivíduos. O segundo é um modelo de impostos aplicado para estimar o benefício econômico e em desfechos de saúde de diferentes cenários de aumento de preços em 10 anos. O tabagismo foi responsável por 156.337 mortes, 4,2 milhões de anos de vida perdidos, 229.071 infartos agudos do miocárdio, 59.509 acidentes vasculares cerebrais e 77.500 diagnósticos de câncer. O custo total foi de R$ 56,9 bilhões, dos quais 70% corresponderam ao custo direto associado à assistência à saúde e o restante ao custo indireto devido à perda de produtividade por morte prematura e incapacidade. Um aumento de 50% do preço do cigarro evitaria 136.482 mortes, 507.451 casos de doenças cardiovasculares, 64.382 de casos de câncer e 100.365 acidentes vasculares cerebrais. O benefício econômico estimado seria de R$ 97,9 bilhões. Concluiu-se que a carga da doença e econômica associada ao tabagismo é elevada no Brasil e o aumento de impostos é capaz de evitar mortes, adoecimento e custos para a sociedade.


La prevalencia del tabaquismo en Brasil se redujo sobremanera en las últimas décadas, pero el país todavía cuenta con una elevada carga de enfermedad asociada a este factor de riesgo. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estimar la carga de mortalidad, morbilidad y costes para la sociedad, asociada al tabaquismo en 2015, y el impacto potencial generado en los desenlaces de salud y para la economía a partir del aumento de precios del tabaco a través de impuestos. Se desarrollaron dos modelos: el primero es un modelo matemático, basado en una microsimulación probabilística de millares de individuos, a través de cohortes hipotéticas, que consideró la historia natural, costes y calidad de vida de esos individuos. El segundo se trata de un modelo de impuestos aplicado para estimar el beneficio económico y en desenlaces de salud de diferentes escenarios con el aumento de precios durante 10 años. El tabaquismo fue responsable de 156.337 muertes, 4,2 millones de años de vida perdidos, 229.071 infartos agudos de miocardio, 59.509 accidentes vasculares cerebrales y 77.500 diagnósticos de cáncer. El coste total fue de BRL 56,9 billones (USD 14,7 billones), de los cuales un 70% correspondieron al coste directo asociado a la asistencia a la salud y lo restante al coste indirecto, debido a la pérdida de productividad por muerte prematura e incapacidad. Un aumento de un 50% del precio del tabaco evitaría 136.482 muertes, 507.451 casos de enfermedades cardiovasculares, 64.382 de casos de cáncer y 100.365 accidentes vasculares cerebrales. El beneficio económico estimado sería de BRL 97,9 billones (USD 25,5 billones). Se concluyó que la carga de la enfermedad y económica asociada al tabaquismo es elevada en Brasil y el aumento de impuestos es capaz de evitar muertes, enfermedad y costes para la sociedad.


The prevalence of smoking in Brazil has decreased considerably in recent decades, but the country still has a high burden of disease associated with this risk factor. The study aimed to estimate the burden of mortality, morbidity, and costs for society associated with smoking in 2015 and the potential impact on health outcomes and the economy based on price increases for cigarettes through taxes. Two models were developed: the first is a mathematical model based on a probabilistic microsimulation of thousands of individuals using hypothetical cohorts that considered the natural history, costs, and quality of life of these individuals. The second is a tax model applied to estimate the economic benefit and health outcomes in different price increase scenarios in 10 years. Smoking was responsible for 156,337 deaths, 4.2 million years of potential life lost, 229,071 acute myocardial infarctions, 59,509 strokes, and 77,500 cancer diagnoses. The total cost was BRL 56.9 billion (USD 14.7 billion), with 70% corresponding to the direct cost associated with healthcare and the rest to indirect cost due to lost productivity from premature death and disability. A 50% increase in cigarette prices would avoid 136,482 deaths, 507,451 cases of cardiovascular diseases, 64,382 cases of cancer, and 100,365 cases of stroke. The estimated economic benefit would be BRL 97.9 billion (USD 25.5 billion). In conclusion, the burden of disease and economic losses associated with smoking is high in Brazil, and tax increases are capable of averting deaths, illness, and costs to society.

16.
Value Health ; 21(12): 1357-1364, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30502778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS: A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS: The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Análise Custo-Benefício , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Hipertensão/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/economia , Pobreza , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Argentina , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Recursos em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Médicos , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Envio de Mensagens de Texto
17.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 35(4): 599-609, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-985793

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivos. Estimar la carga de enfermedad asociada al consumo de tabaco en Paraguay y evaluar el potencial efecto económico y sanitario del aumento de precio mediante impuestos. Materiales y métodos. Se diseñó un modelo de microsimulación de Monte Carlo que incorporó la historia natural, costos y calidad de vida de enfermedades asociadas al tabaquismo para el 2015. Asimismo, se estimó el impacto en varios escenarios de aumento de impuestos sobre la prevalencia de tabaquismo y la recaudación fiscal. Resultados. 3354 personas mueren al año en Paraguay por consecuencia del tabaquismo. El 19 % de las muertes son por enfermedad isquémica cardíaca, el 15 % por accidentes cerebrovasculares. El 77 % de las muertes por enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y el 83 % de cáncer de pulmón son atribuibles al tabaquismo. Estas enfermedades en Paraguay representan un costo médico directo anual de más de 1,5 x 106 millones de guaraníes, mientras la recaudación impositiva por la venta de cigarrillos apenas llega a cubrir un 20 % de este gasto. Un aumento en el precio de los cigarrillos del 50 % vía impuestos, podría llevar a evitar 2507 muertes en diez años y generar recursos por 2,4 x 106 millones por ahorro en gastos sanitarios y aumento de recaudación. Conclusiones. El costo y la carga de enfermedad asociado al consumo de tabaco en el sistema de salud es elevado en Paraguay. Un aumento del precio de los cigarrillos a través de los impuestos tendría importantes beneficios sanitarios y podría compensar parcialmente los costos sanitarios.


ABSTRACT Objectives . To consider the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption in Paraguay and to evaluate the potential economic and health effect of price increase through taxes. Materials and Methods . A Monte Carlo simulation model was designed incorporating natural history, costs, and quality of life of diseases associated to smoking for 2015. Also, several scenarios were considered for the impact of tax raises on the prevalence of smoking and fiscal collection. Results . In Paraguay, 3,354 people die every year as a consequence of smoking. Nineteen percent of deaths are due to cardiac ischemia, 15% due to stroke. 77% of deaths due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and 83% of lung cancer can be attributed to smoking. These diseases in Paraguay represent an annual direct medical cost of more than 1.5 trillion PYG, while the tax collection from cigarette sales barely covers 20% of this expense. A 50% increase in the price of cigarettes via taxes could avoid 2507 deaths in ten years and generate resources by 2.4 trillion in savings in health expenses and tax of collection. Conclusions . The cost and the burden of disease associated to tobacco consumption is high in the health system in Paraguay. An increase in cigarette price through taxes could have significant health benefits and could offset health costs in part.

18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42, sep. 2018. Special Issue Alma-Ata.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49465

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Explorar las motivaciones y expectativas de los usuarios del Programa de Estaciones Saludables en la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y evaluar su potencial impacto sanitario. Métodos. Se realizaron entrevistas en profundidad (n = 34) y una encuesta autoadministrada (n = 605) a usuarios del programa. Se desarrolló un modelo epidemiológico para estimar el impacto del programa sobre los eventos cardiovasculares y los años de vida ajustados por discapacidad (AVAD). Resultados. Los principales factores motivadores para el uso de las estaciones saludables fueron la accesibilidad geográfica, económica (servicios gratuitos) y la satisfacción con la atención recibida. El 14,4% (intervalos de confianza del 95% [IC95%] 10,3–18,5%) de los usuarios hipertensos y el 24,8% (IC95% 17,6–32,0%) de los diabéticos informó haberse enterado de sus valores alterados en las estaciones saludables. Más de la mitad de los encuestados reportó alguna mejora de conocimientos sobre los beneficios de realizar actividad física y una alimentación saludable; esto fue más frecuente entre los usuarios más jóvenes, de menor nivel educativo, usuarios del sistema público de salud, usuarios de estaciones saludables de la zona sur y los que tenían algún factor de riesgo cardiometabólico (p<0.05). Se estimó que debido a la existencia de estaciones saludables se evitarían 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares y cerebrovasculares por año en la población asistida (4,75 eventos/100 000 personas) y 47,75 AVAD por estas causas. Conclusiones. Las estaciones saludables resultan un espacio propicio para la implementación de acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención, contribuyendo en la detección y facilitando el monitoreo de los factores de riesgo, con potencialidad para prevenir eventos cardiovasculares y sus consecuencias.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To explore the motivations and expectations of the users of the Program for Healthy Centers in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires and to evaluate its potential health impact. Methods. In-depth interviews were conducted (n = 34) and a self-administered survey was sent to users of the program (n = 605). An epidemiological model was developed to estimate the impact of the program on cardiovascular events (CVE) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Results. The main motivating factors for using the healthy centers were geographic and economic accessibility (free services) and satisfaction with the care received. 14.4% (95% CI, 10.3-18.5%) of hypertensive users and 24.8% (95% CI, 17.6-32.0%) of diabetic users reported having learned of their altered values in the healthy center. More than half of the respondents reported some improvement in their knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and healthy eating; this was more frequent among those who were younger, of lower educational level, users of the public health system, users of a healthy center in the South zone and those who had a cardiometabolic risk factor (p<0.05). It was estimated that the healthy centers would prevent 12.5 cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events per year in the assisted population (4.75 events/100 000) and 47.75 DALYs due to these causes. Conclusions. The healthy centers are a favorable space for the implementation of health promotion and prevention actions, contributing to the detection of and facilitating the monitoring of risk factors, with a potential to prevent cardiovascular events and its consequences.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Explorar as motivações e expectativas dos usuários do Programa Estações Saudáveis na Cidade Autônoma de Buenos Aires e avaliar seu impacto potencial na saúde. Métodos. Foram realizadas entrevistas em profundidade (n = 34) e uma pesquisa auto-administrada (n = 605) a usuários do programa. Um modelo epidemiológico foi desenvolvido para estimar o impacto do programa em eventos cardiovasculares e anos de vida ajustados por incapacidade (DALY). Resultados. Os principais fatores motivadores para o uso do estações saudáveis foram a acessibilidade geográfica, econômica (serviços gratuitos) e a satisfação com o atendimento recebido. 14,4% (intervalo de confiança de 95% [IC95%] 10,3-18,5%) de usuários hipertensos e 24,8% (IC95% 17,6-32,0%) dos diabéticos relataram ter aprendido sobre seus valores alterados na estação saudável. Mais da metade dos entrevistados relataram alguma melhora no conhecimento sobre os benefícios da atividade física e da alimentação saudável, com maior freqüência entre os mais jovens, de menor escolaridade, usuários do sistema público de saúde, usuários de estações saudáveis na zona sul e aqueles que apresentaram algum fator de risco cardiometabólico (p<0,05). Estimou-se que, devido à existência de estações saudáveis, 12,5 eventos cardiovasculares e cerebrovasculares por ano seriam evitados na população atendida (4,75 eventos/100 000) e 47,75 DALY por essas causas. Conclusões. As estações saudáveis são um espaço propício para a implementação de ações de promoção e prevenção da saúde, contribuindo para a detecção e facilitação do monitoramento dos fatores de risco, com potencial para prevenir os eventos cardiovasculares e suas consequências.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Argentina , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção Primária , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Avaliação em Saúde
19.
s.l; IECS; jul. 2018. ilus, tab.
Não convencional em Espanhol | BRISA/RedTESA | ID: biblio-947431

RESUMO

CONTEXTO CLÍNICO: La degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE) se caracteriza por una serie de alteraciones a nível de la mácula, (zona de mejor visión), que evolucionan frecuentemente a una disminución de la agudeza visual, pudiendo ser causa de ceguera. Afecta al 4% de la población mayor de 55 años, y su prevalência alcanza el 8% en mayores de 75 años. Las formas precoces se caracterizan por la presencia de geodas (manchas amarillentas en el fondo de ojo que son producto del depósito de glicoproteínas entre la retina y la coroides, a nivel de la membrana de Bruch), y áreas de hiper y/o hipopigmentación del epitelio pigmentario, siendo estos cambios benignos y su presencia no implica necesariamente la evolución a estadíos más avanzados. Entre las formas avanzadas se describen dos tipos: una forma seca (90%) y otra, húmeda o exudativa (10%). TECNOLOGÍA: El bevacizumab es un anticuerpo monoclonal completo (porción Fc y Fab) dirigido contra el factor de crecimiento derivado del endotelio (FCEV), capaz de unirse a todas sus isoformas, inhibiendo parcialmente la angiogénesis. Fue desarrollado para el tratamiento de diversos tumores como pulmón, colon y riñón. 6 Si bien hasta hace unos meses no contaba con la aprobación para su uso intravítreo, su uso off label se encuentra extendido mundialmente desde el primer reporte de su utilización para DMAE en 2005, circunstancia promovida por el alto costo de otros agentes antiangiogénicos. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del presente informe es evaluar la evidencia disponible acerca de la eficacia, seguridad y aspectos relacionados a las políticas de cobertura del uso de bevacizumab para degeneración macular asociada a la edad. MÉTODOS: Se realizó una búsqueda en las principales bases de datos bibliográficas, en buscadores genéricos de internet, y financiadores de salud. Se priorizó la inclusión de revisiones sistemáticas (RS), ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados (ECAs), evaluaciones de tecnologías sanitarias (ETS), evaluaciones económicas, guías de práctica clínica (GPC) y políticas de cobertura de diferentes sistemas de salud. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron una RS, tres GPC, seis informes de ETS, y ocho informes de políticas de cobertura de bevacizumab para degeneración macular asociada a la edad. CONCLUSIONES: Evidencia de moderada calidad sugiere que Bevacizumab mejora la agudeza visual y retrasa la progresión de la degeneración macular asociada a la edad. Asimismo, no muestra diferencias em mortalidad, ni eventos trombóticos, aunque tendría mayor probabilidad de presentar al menos um evento adverso serio al compararlo con ranibizumab y aflibercept. Las guías de práctica clínica relevadas coinciden en que su eficacia y seguridad es similar a otros agentes antiangiogénicos. Se encuentra aprobado solo por las agencias regulatorias de Brasil y Canadá, las cuales financian su uso para esta indicación. Sin embargo, su uso off-label ha sido sustentado por la evidencia y ampliamente utilizado dado su similar efecto y menor costo que comparadores. También presta cobertura un financiador privado de salud estadounidense. Si bien no se encontraron estudios de costo-efectividad o análisis de impacto presupuestario em nuestro país, el costo es marcadamente inferior al de sus comparadores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Ranibizumab/uso terapêutico , Degeneração Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Fatores Etários , Análise Custo-Benefício
20.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 34(3): 241-247, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify good practice principles for health technology assessment (HTA) that are the most relevant and of highest priority for application in Latin America and to identify potential barriers to their implementation in the region. METHODS: HTA good practice principles proposed at the international level were identified and then explored during a deliberative process in a forum of assessors, funders, and product manufacturers. RESULTS: Forty-two representatives from ten Latin American countries participated. Good practice principles proposed at the international level were considered valid and potentially relevant to Latin America. Five principles were identified as priority and with the greatest potential to be strengthened at this time: transparency in the production of HTA, involvement of relevant stakeholders in the HTA process, mechanisms to appeal decisions, clear priority-setting processes in HTA, and a clear link between HTA and decision making. The main challenge identified was to find a balance between the application of these principles and the available resources in a way that would not detract from the production of reports and adaptation to the needs of decision makers. CONCLUSIONS: The main recommendation was to progress gradually in strengthening HTA and its link to decision making by developing appropriate processes for each country, without trying to impose, in the short-term, standards taken from examples at the international level without adequate adaptation of these to local contexts.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/organização & administração , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Prioridades em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , América Latina , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica/normas , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração
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