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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(1): 151-153, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208595

RESUMO

The strain of tuberculous mycobacteria called Mycobacterium caprae infects many wild and domestic animals; however, because of its zoonotic potential and possibility of transmission between animals and humans, it poses a serious threat to public health. Due to diagnostic limitations regarding identification of MTB strains available data regarding the incidence of M. caprae, human infection does not reflect the actual size of the problem. Despite the fact that the possible routes of tuberculosis transmission are known, the epidemiological map of this zoonosis remains underestimated. The progress in diagnostic techniques, application of advanced methods of mycobacterium genome differentiation and cooperation between scientists in the field of veterinary medicine and microbiology, have a profound meaning for understanding the phenomenon of bovine tuberculosis and its supervise its incidence. This is the first bacteriologically confirmed case of human infection of M. caprae in Poland.

2.
Immunobiology ; : 151905, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007302

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective study of 453 Polish patients suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis and 267 healthy controls. Selected polymorphisms of the genes encoding for collectins, ficolins and MBL-associated serine protease 2 were investigated as were serum concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, surfactant protein D, ficolin-1 and ficolin-3. The number of MBL2 gene exon 1 variant allele carriers was significantly higher in patients, compared with controls. The homozygosity for SFTPA2 +26 C > A SNP variant allele occurred less commonly within TB, while homozygosity for the FCN1 -542 G > A major allele was less frequent within the control group. Two patients were found MASP-2-deficient. Serum concentrations of MBL, SP-D and ficolin-1 were higher amongst patients while the converse was found for ficolin-3. Ficolin-1 had high specificity to differentiate between individuals with tuberculosis and healthy persons and therefore may be considered potential disease marker.

3.
Eur J Med Chem ; 190: 112106, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061963

RESUMO

The series of new 4-substituted picolinohydrazonamides were synthesized (6-25) and evaluated for tuberculostatic activity. Compounds having a hydrophilic cyclic amine such as morpholine and pyrrolidine at the end of the thiosemicarbazide chain, exhibited the highest antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial activity of compounds 6, 11, and 15 (MIC 0.4-0.8 µg/mL) was higher than that of reference drugs. Moreover, derivative 15 exhibited lower activity against other tested microorganism such as bacteria gram-positive, gram-negative or fungi. Thus, this compound is characterized by the selectivity of antimicrobial activity. Antiproliferative study conducted against human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and mouse melanoma cell line (B16-F10) revealed low cytotoxicity of compound 15. Conducted research allowed to identify compound 15 as leading for further research.

4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 186: 111882, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753514

RESUMO

A series of halogenated (4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-amine regioisomers (1a-9a, 1b-9b) were synthesized from their corresponding thiourea analogues (1-9). The synthesis pathway was confirmed by an X-ray crystallographic studies of 1a, 1b and 5a. Title derivatives were tested for their in vitro antitubercular activity against standard, "wild-type" and atypical mycobacteria. The highest therapeutic potential was attributed to isomeric N-(bromophenyl)tetrazoles 8a and 9a. Their growth-inhibitory effect against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Spec. 210 was 8-16-fold stronger than that of the first-line tuberculostatics. Other new tetrazole-derived compounds were also more or equally effective towards that pathogen comparing to the established pharmaceuticals. Among non-tuberculous strains, Mycobacterium scrofulaceum was the most susceptible to the presence of the majority of tetrazole derivatives. The synergistic interaction was found between 9a and streptomycin, as well as the additivity of both 8a and 9a in pairs with isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. None of the studied compounds displayed antibacterial or cytotoxic properties against normal and cancer cell lines, which indicated their highly selective antimycobacterial effects.


Assuntos
Aminas/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Aminas/síntese química , Aminas/química , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Antituberculosos/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tetrazóis/síntese química , Tetrazóis/química
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 303-308, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880875

RESUMO

The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.The data on susceptibility to antifungals of new species within Candida glabrata complex are limited. Our study was to enrich a global knowledge of yeast epidemiology and drug resistance. The study was focused on the identification of species within clinical isolates of the C. glabrata complex and on the determination of their resistance to antifungals. Four hundred forty-five clinical C. glabrata sensu lato strains were isolated from different clinical samples at routine mycological exams at the Infant Jesus Teaching Hospital in Warsaw. The identification of the most of tested isolates to species complex level was performed using the ID 32 C system. The identification of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis species within the C. glabrata complex was performed by DNA sequencing. The MICs of amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, anidulafungin, and micafungin were determined by E-test. Twenty-four isolates did not have an ITS-1 region, characteristic of C. glabrata sensu stricto and their D1/D2 regions of the 26S rRNA were 99% homologous to C. nivariensis 26S rRNA. No strains of C. bracarensis were recovered. C. nivariensis strains were very susceptible to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, micafungin, and caspofungin. Ninety-two percent of C. nivariensis were resistant to itraconazole. The halves of the strains was resistant to posaconazole. Eighty-three percent of C. nivariensis were susceptible to voriconazole. None of the tested strains were susceptible to fluconazole. In the present study, none of the C. nivariensis strains were simultaneously resistant to azoles and echinocandins. C. nivariensis should be recognized as an emerging pathogen, resistant to azoles.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Triazóis/farmacologia
6.
J Clin Immunol ; 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749033

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of adverse reactions to live BCG Moreau vaccine, manufactured by Biomed in Poland, in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) patients. MATERIAL: The profiles of 52 SCID patients vaccinated at birth with BCG, hospitalized in Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw (CMHI), in the years 1980-2015 were compared with those of 349 BCG-vaccinated SCID patients from other countries analyzed by Beatriz E. Marciano et al. in a retrospective study (Marciano et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133(4):1134-1141). RESULTS: Significantly less disseminated BCG infections (10 out of 52 SCID, 19%) occurred in comparison with Marciano study-119 out of 349, 34% (p = 0.0028), with no death in patients treated with SCID anti-TB drug, except one in lethal condition. In our study, disseminated BCG infection was observed only in SCID with T-B+NK- phenotype and significantly lower NK cell counts (p = 0.0161). NK cells do not influence on the frequency of local BCG reaction. A significantly higher number of hematopoietic stem cells transplantations (HSCT) were performed in CMHI study (p = 0.0001). Anti-TB treatment with at least two medicines was provided. CONCLUSION: The BCG Moreau vaccine produced in Poland, with well-documented genetic characteristics, seems to be safer than other BCG substrains used in other regions of the world. Importantly, NK cells seem to play a role in protecting SCID patients against disseminated BCG complications, which NK- SCID patients are more prone to. HSCT and TB therapy could be relevant due to the patients' survival and the fact that they protect against BCG infection.

7.
Macromol Biosci ; 19(12): e1900254, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747130

RESUMO

Polycations, mimicking activity of antibacterial peptides, belong to an important class of molecules investigated as a support or as an alternative to antibiotics. In this work, studies of modified linear amphiphilic statistical polymethyloxazoline (PMOX) and polyethyleneimine copolymers (PMOX_PEI) series are presented. Variation of PEI content in the structure results in controllable changes of polymeric aggregates zeta potential. The structure with the highest positive charge shows the best antimicrobial activity, well visible in tests against model Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and mycobacterium strains. The polymer toxicity is evaluated with MTT and hemolysis assay as a reference. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) is used to investigate interaction between polycations and a model lipid membrane. Polymer activity correlates well with molecular structure, showing that amphiphilic component is altering polymer behavior in contact with the lipid bilayer.

8.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 396-399, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559792

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB, bovine TB) is caused by mycobacteria which are grouped within the MTBC. TB in animals is a highly infectious and progressive disease which can be transmitted to humans. Since 2009, Poland has gained official bTB-free status. Despite the official fact of bTB-free status, a dozen bTB outbreaks are still noted each year. Since 2000 in Poland, every year 1/5 of the national herd is subject to intradermal skin TB testing to control the bTB outbreaks in the cattle population. Application, with 5-year intervals between each government-funded skin test, undoubtedly resulted in financial savings. However it also seems to have caused several adverse and worrying events, e.g. an increase in the number of reactors detected and removed from a single tested herd. The objective of this study was the examination of 898 cattle imputed with bTB infection in Poland between 2008-2012. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study concerned a potential epidemic outbreak with suspected bTB transmission. 20 cows came from 3 herds in the same county located in the same province in southern Poland. RESULTS: 134 MTBC strains were identified. In MIRU-VNTR, all isolates showed the same genetic pattern 322532243421232. Based on molecular investigation, the characteristics of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle from 3 different herds confirmed the common source of this zoonotic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although not bacteriologically proven, everything points to the fact that humans were the vector of bovine tuberculosis transmission between herds. This finding confirms transmission between 3 cattle herds in the Malopolskie Province in southern Poland (Podhale). The outbreak of tuberculosis in animals finally compromised public health.


Assuntos
Vetores de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Polônia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Tuberculose Bovina/transmissão , Zoonoses/microbiologia
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(3): 511-513, 2019 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mycobacterial diseases of humans and animals can be caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT). The transmission of the infection primarily occurs via the respiratory or oral routes, but also via a damaged skin barrier. MOTT have high resistance to external factors; therefore, infected, undiagnosed animals can pose a risk for public health. CASE REPORT: The case study describes mycobacterial skin infection in a domestic cat. The correct diagnosis was reached four months after the appearance of the first clinical signs. Those were purulent, granulomatous lesions and fistulas, which could potentially act as a source of the infection for the owners and the veterinarian who cared for the animal. CONCLUSION: Despite using advanced diagnostic techniques, establishing the final cause of the cat's illness was a lengthy process. The skin lesions could contribute to the transmission of the bacteria in the environment. Non-targeted treatments could also cause antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/veterinária , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/veterinária , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Gatos , Masculino , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Bacterianas/microbiologia
10.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(1): 15-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050249

RESUMO

Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb - in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.Interferon gamma releasing assays (IGRAs) are extensively used in the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infections. Comparing to tuberculin skin test (TST) they lack false positive results in the populations vaccinated with BCG, and in most non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections. Nevertheless, Mycobacterium kansasii, Mycobacterium marinum, and Mycobacterium szulgai may induce positive IGRAs due to RD1 homology with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible influence of NTM respiratory isolates on the results of IGRAs. 39 patients (23 females and 16 males) of median age 61 years, with negative medical history concerning tuberculosis, entered the study. Identification of NTM was performed using the niacin test and molecular method GenoType CM test (Hain Lifescience). QFT-Plus was performed in 17 patients, T-SPOT-Tb ­ in 23 patients. Chest X-rays and a high-resolution computed tomography of the chest have been reviewed by the experienced radiologist blinded to the results of IGRAs, in search of past tuberculosis signs. Positive IGRAs results were obtained in three out of 39 patients (8%): 22% of patients with M. kansasii isolates and 18% of patients with radiological signs on HRCT that might be suggestive of past tuberculosis. Positive IGRAs correlated with radiological signs suggestive of past tuberculosis (r = 0.32, p = 0.04), and on the borderline with isolation of M. kansasii (r = 0.29, p = 0.06). These findings may suggest that a positive IGRAs result, in our material, could depend mostly on asymptomatic past Tb infection. The cross-reactivity of M. kansasii isolates with IGRAs was less probable; nevertheless, it requires further investigations.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium marinum , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas , Dados Preliminares , Escarro/microbiologia , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
11.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(1): 60-69, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860181

RESUMO

Background: The transmission of tuberculosis may affect the incidence rate of the disease in Poland. Genetic methods are of assistance in tracing the infection transmission, identifying its sources, determining the risk groups, and focusing on the preventive actions. Objectives: The objectives of this study lie in an assessment of tuberculosis transmission by genetic methods with the assistance of the standard epidemiologic interview. Methods: The genome DNA of 275 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains from tuberculosis patients, inhabitants of the city of Krakow, was subjected to a genetic analysis via the spoligotyping method and the IS6110-Mtb1-Mtb2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. If the DNA profiles were identical in both of the PCRs, they were considered identical and classified within one molecular family. Results: Among 275 strains, 104 genetic patterns (spoligotypes) were identified. Two hundred and three strains were divided into 66 molecular families (clusters) and analyzed with the IS6110- Mtb1-Mtb2 PCR method. Eighteen clusters were separated. In the Mtb1-Mtb2 clusters, 21 patients were in the risk groups (the homeless, prisoners, and nursing home residents). We did not confirm any direct or temporary contacts between the patients constituting the Mtb1-Mtb2 clusters (apart from the risk groups). However, the patients in these clusters often lived in the same parts of Krakow. Conclusions: The standard epidemiologic interview in tuberculosis patients should be combined with genetic methods. Active transmission of tuberculosis occurs largely among the individuals maintaining probably periodic contacts. The patients who are in the risk groups may play an important role in the transmission of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Epidemiologia Molecular , Tipagem Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/classificação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise por Conglomerados , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Polônia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Respir Med ; 2018 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: An increasing incidence rate of respiratory isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been noted recently in most European countries as well as in the US. Despite many publications, there is no consensus concerning the importance of different factors in promoting NTM lung disease (NTMLD). The aim of the present retrospective study was to analyse patients with positive NTM respiratory isolates in search of factors predisposing to NTMLD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 73 patients, 23 males, 50 females, median age 62.2 years, in whom NTM have been cultured from respiratory specimen (sputum and/or bronchial washings), in the period 2010-2015, entered the study. RESULTS: NTMLD (according to ATS/IDSA) has been recognised in 36 patients, airways colonisation by NTM - in 37 patients. NTMLD was diagnosed more often in the patients infected with M. kansasii, M. abscessus and M. avium/M. intracellulare comparing to those infected with M.xenopi, M. gordonae and M. fortuitum (p < 0.0001). The proportion of females to males was significantly higher in the NTMLD group comparing to the colonisation group (p < 0.007). Previous tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis were noted significantly more frequently in the group of patients with NTMLD comparing to the colonisation group (28% vs 8%, p = 0.038). Univariate regression analysis revealed M. kansasii, female gender, and previous tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis as significant predictors of NTMLD. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors of NTMLD recognition in the presented group of patients were the following: female gender, M. kansasii isolation, as well as past tuberculosis or mycobacteriosis.

13.
Adv Respir Med ; 2018 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30594996

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the last decades the prevalence of NTM infections has increased, especially in developed countries. The aim of the study was to provide an overview on all NTM isolated from clinical samples in Poland between 2013 and 2017. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised 2799 clinical specimens, mostly respiratory accessed in the reference laboratory of National Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Institute in Warsaw and in the Wielkopolska Center of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery, Poland, 2013-2017. RESULTS: During the study period 35 species of NTM were isolated . The number of isolates increased almost 1.6-fold: from 420 in 2013 to 674 in 2017. M. kansasii, M. avium, M. xenopi, M. gordonae and M. intracellulare were the most common species. This NTM pattern was rather stable over the time. If the aggregated amount of all MAC species was taken into account they dominated over M. kansasii from 2015. M. avium and M. intracellulare were more often isolated from women, while M. kansasii, M. gordonae and M. xenopi predominated in men. Men and women were infected almost with the same frequency. In older patients 65+ women were in majority, quite opposite to those aged 25 to 64 years. CONCLUSION: In Poland, like in other countries increased the frequency of isolated NTM. M. kansasii and M. avium were the most frequently identified species from clinical samples. Men and women were infected with NTM with the same frequency.

14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 25(4): 593-595, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586985

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an infectious disease that occurs in many species of both domestic and free-ranging animals, as well as animals kept in zoos. According to the Polish regulations, cattle tuberculosis are slaughtered and microbiological examinations are performed, the rest of animal species can be treated and laboratory diagnostics are not obligatory. CASE REPORT: The presented case concerns two male giraffes which were purchased by the zoo and united with a third male. After a year, the oldest male died. Post mortem examinations confirmed generalized tuberculosis. After a further six months, the second male was euthanized after suffering great pain. The material for the study of drug resistance was a swab from the nose, obtained ante mortem from the third male. Attempted treatments did not produce the expected results. Genotyping allowed the exclusion of a common source of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: The final effect of the anti-tuberculosis therapy in the male giraffe raises the question whether the research team should have undertaken the treatment of the animal with active tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Girafas , Masculino , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
15.
Pol J Microbiol ; 67(4): 487-492, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550235

RESUMO

Mycobacterioses are a constant problem in backyard poultry, as well as pet birds. To date, no evidence of direct transmission of atypical bacilli between humans has been demonstrated, but it cannot be ruled out that sick animals can be a source of infection for people in their environment. The aim of the study was to identify mycobacteria isolated from birds with diagnosed mycobacteriosis and to determine the susceptibility of mycobacterial isolates from these animals to antituberculous drugs most commonly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections in humans. For drug susceptibility tests, drugs such as isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, ofloxacin, capreomycin, cycloserine and ethionamide were used. A high degree of drug resistance was demonstrated, particularly in Mycobacterium avium . Isolates of Mycobacterium xenopi showed a relatively good susceptibility to the drugs tested. The drug resistance of Mycobacterium genavense has not been determined, but this mycobacterium was identified in ten cases, which is the second most frequent occurrence in the cases studied.Mycobacterioses are a constant problem in backyard poultry, as well as pet birds. To date, no evidence of direct transmission of atypical bacilli between humans has been demonstrated, but it cannot be ruled out that sick animals can be a source of infection for people in their environment. The aim of the study was to identify mycobacteria isolated from birds with diagnosed mycobacteriosis and to determine the susceptibility of mycobacterial isolates from these animals to antituberculous drugs most commonly used in the treatment of mycobacterial infections in humans. For drug susceptibility tests, drugs such as isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin, ethambutol, ofloxacin, capreomycin, cycloserine and ethionamide were used. A high degree of drug resistance was demonstrated, particularly in Mycobacterium avium. Isolates of Mycobacterium xenopi showed a relatively good susceptibility to the drugs tested. The drug resistance of Mycobacterium genavense has not been determined, but this mycobacterium was identified in ten cases, which is the second most frequent occurrence in the cases studied.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/veterinária , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Mycobacterium avium/efeitos dos fármacos , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Polônia/epidemiologia , Rifampina/farmacologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061294

RESUMO

Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to rifampin (RMP), mediated by mutations in the rpoB gene coding for the beta-subunit of RNA polymerase, poses a serious threat to the efficacy of clinical management and, thus, control programs for tuberculosis (TB). The contribution of many individual rpoB mutations to the development and level of RMP resistance remains elusive. In this study, the incidence of mutations throughout the rpoB gene among 115 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates, both resistant and susceptible to RMP, was determined. Of the newly discovered rpoB mutations, the role of three substitutions in the causation of RMP resistance was empirically tested. The results from in vitro mutagenesis experiments were combined with the assessment of the prevalence of rpoB mutations, and their reciprocal co-occurrences, across global M. tuberculosis populations. Twenty-two different types of mutations in the rpoB gene were identified and distributed among 58 (89.2%) RMP-resistant strains. The MICs of RMP were within the range of 40 to 800 mg/liter, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of 400 and 800 mg/liter, respectively. None of the mutations (Gln429His, Met434Ile, and Arg827Cys) inspected for their role in the development of RMP resistance produced an RMP-resistant phenotype in isogenic M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain-derived mutants. These mutations are supposed to compensate for fitness impairment incurred by other mutations directly associated with drug resistance.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Rifampina/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética
17.
Adv Respir Med ; 86(3)2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960282

RESUMO

Since the second half of the 20th century the incidence of tuberculosis has been declining in Poland. Despite this, current epidemiological data still support the need for the continued mass BCG vaccination in Poland in the near future. Apart from the protection against severe hematogenous forms of tuberculosis, vaccination lowers the risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Primary and acquired immunodeficiency, including immunity disorders associated with an ongoing treatment, are contraindications to BCG vaccination. The most common adverse effects following BCG vaccination are reactions at the site of injection and in regional lymph nodes, which usually does not require treatment. Methods of tuberculosis prevention, particularly recommended in low-incidence countries, include: diagnostic investigations of patients who had contacts with pulmonary tuberculosis as well as an active detection and treatment of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Latent tuberculosis infection can be identified on the basis of positive results of the tuberculin skin test or interferon-gamma release assays after the active disease has been ruled out. This condition does require prophylactic treatment.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Polônia , Teste Tuberculínico/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 111(2): 40-45, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29745876

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and its superantigens (SAg) seem to be a risk factor disease exacerbation in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). We investigated the association between the presence of SAg in nasal swabs and activity of disease in GPA patients also taking into account correlation with an antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: In a prospective study of a total of 150 GPA patients hospitalised in the period 2009-2016, nasal swabs were examined for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and SAg. Subsequently, the association with disease activity was assessed. RESULTS: Of 362 Staphylococcus aureus-positive nasal swab cultures from 115 of the 150 patients, the presence of at least one SAg in 126 samples (34.8%) from 56 patients (48.7%) was found. Among the 17 patients with limited to subglottic stenosis (SGS) disease, SAg were detected in 6 cases (35.3%). We did not find a significant correlation between the presence of SAg and disease activity (p=0.986), although when individual SAg were analysed separatively, SED and TSST-1 were more frequently present in active disease. Additionally, the results of the analysis demonstrated a protective effect of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (T/S) treatment (0R 0.52, p<0.0092) in GPA patients. Interestingly, GPA limited to SGS appeared as an unfavourable factor associated with disease activity (0R 1.84, p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The association between staphylococcal SAg in nasal swabs and GPA activity is not evident. Multiple mechanisms that may lead to disease activation still need to be investigated.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/imunologia , Portador Sadio/imunologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/imunologia , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Adulto , Portador Sadio/microbiologia , Feminino , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/microbiologia , Granulomatose com Poliangiite/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Laringoestenose/imunologia , Laringoestenose/microbiologia , Laringoestenose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
19.
Molecules ; 23(4)2018 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29690646

RESUMO

Compounds possessing benzimidazole system exhibit significant antituberculous activity. In order to examine how structure modifications affect tuberculostatic activity, a series of benzazole derivatives were synthesized and screened for their antitubercular activity. The compounds 1⁻20 were obtained by the reaction between o-diamine, o-aminophenol, or o-aminothiophenol with carboxylic acids or thioamides. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectra, and elemental analysis. Synthesized benzazoles were evaluated for their tuberculostatic activity toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Quantum chemical calculations were performed to study the molecular geometry and the electronic structure of benzimidazoles GK-151B, 4, 6, and benzoxazole 11, using the Gaussian 03W software (Gaussian, Inc., Wallingford, CT, USA). Three-dimensional structure of benzimidazoles 1⁻3, MC-9, and GK-151B was determined by ab initio calculation using Gamess-US software. The activity of the received benzimidazoles was moderate or good. All of the benzoxazoles and benzothiazoles demonstrated much lower activity. Benzoxazoles were less active by about 50 times, and benzothiazole by 100 times than the benzimidazole analogs. Quantum chemical calculations showed differences in the distribution of electrostatic potential in the benzazole system of benzimidazoles and benzoxazoles. Three-dimensional structure calculations revealed how the parity of the alkyl substituent at the C2 position impacts the activity. Benzimidazole system is essential for the antituberculosis activity that is associated with the presence of the imine nitrogen atom in N-1 position. Its replacement by an oxygen or sulfur atom results in a decrease of the activity. The parity of the alkyl substituent at the C-2 position also modifies the activity.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/química , Antituberculosos/síntese química , Benzoxazóis/química , Piridinas/química , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
20.
Adv Respir Med ; 86(1): 17-22, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29490418

RESUMO

Mycobacterial lung disease is caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), also known as atypical mycobacteria. NTM are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil and water; they may colonize the airways, gastrointestinal tract and genitourinary system, without the apparent signs of disease. Nevertheless, in some risk groups such as patients with chronic lung diseases or with immunodeficiency, mycobacterial lung disease is identified. Recently, increased recognition of mycobacterial lung disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients has been observed, especially in those treated with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids. In the present paper, we describe the patient treated for many years due to COPD and bronchiectasis, with clinical and radiological picture suggestive of lung tumor, in whom final diagnosis of mycobacterial lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium was made.


Assuntos
Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/microbiologia , Mycobacterium avium/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Idoso , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico
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