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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 76-84, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107546

RESUMO

Four epidemiologic studies have assessed the association between nut intake and pancreatic cancer risk with contradictory results. The present study aims to investigate the relation between nut intake (including seeds) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for nut intake and PDAC risk. Information on intake of nuts was obtained from the EPIC country-specific dietary questionnaires. After a mean follow-up of 14 years, 476,160 participants were eligible for the present study and included 1,283 PDAC cases. No association was observed between consumption of nuts and PDAC risk (highest intake vs nonconsumers: HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.72-1.10; p-trend = 0.70). Furthermore, no evidence for effect-measure modification was observed when different subgroups were analyzed. Overall, in EPIC, the highest intake of nuts was not statistically significantly associated with PDAC risk.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 146(1): 44-57, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807653

RESUMO

The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (pheterogeneity < 0.015), with a positive association with risk of advanced stage disease for butyric acid (4:0; HR1SD = 1.08; 95%CI = 1.01-1.15; p-trend = 0.026). There were no associations with fatal prostate cancer, with the exception of a slightly higher risk for those who consumed more eicosenoic acid (22:1n-9c; HR1SD = 1.05; 1.00-1.11; p-trend = 0.048) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3c; HR1SD = 1.07; 1.00-1.14; p-trend = 0.045). There was no evidence that dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were associated with overall prostate cancer risk. However, a higher intake of butyric acid might be associated with a higher risk of advanced, whereas intakes of eicosenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids might be positively associated with fatal prostate cancer risk.

4.
Pancreatology ; 19(8): 1009-1022, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking has been associated with increased risk of pancreatitis in several studies, however, not all studies have found an association and it is unclear whether there is a dose-response relationship between increasing amount of tobacco smoked and pancreatitis risk. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies on tobacco smoking and pancreatitis to clarify the association. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for relevant studies up to April 13th, 2019. Prospective studies that reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between tobacco smoking and pancreatitis were included and summary RRs were calculated using a random effects model. RESULTS: Ten prospective studies were included. The summary RR for acute pancreatitis was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.29-1.72, I2 = 68%, n = 7) for current smokers, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.15-1.34, I2 = 0%, n = 7) for former smokers, and 1.39 (95% CI: 1.25-1.54, I2 = 69%, n = 7) for ever smokers compared to never smokers. Similar results were observed for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined. The summary RR per 10 cigarettes per day was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.18-1.42, I2 = 42%, n = 3) and per 10 pack-years in current smokers was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.17, I2 = 14%, n = 4) for acute pancreatitis and results were similar for chronic pancreatitis and acute/chronic pancreatitis combined. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that tobacco smoking increases the risk of acute and chronic pancreatitis and acute and chronic pancreatitis combined and that there is a dose-response relationship between increasing number of cigarettes and pack-years and pancreatitis risk.

5.
Adv Nutr ; 10(Supplement_4): S404-S421, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728499

RESUMO

Although a high intake of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes has been recommended for chronic disease prevention, it has been unclear what is the optimal amount of intake of these foods and whether specific subtypes are particularly beneficial. The evidence from several recently published meta-analyses on plant foods and antioxidants and various health outcomes is reviewed as well as more recently published studies. In meta-analyses of prospective studies, inverse associations were observed between intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and nuts and the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease overall, total cancer, and all-cause mortality. The strongest reductions in risk were observed at an intake of 800 g/d for fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts, respectively. Whole-grain and nut consumption was also inversely associated with mortality from respiratory disease, infections, and diabetes. Stronger and more linear inverse associations were observed between blood concentrations of antioxidants (vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin E) and cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality than for dietary intake. Most studies that have since been published have been consistent with these results; however, further studies are needed on subtypes of plant foods and less common causes of death. These results strongly support dietary recommendations to increase intake of plant foods, and suggest optimal intakes for chronic disease prevention may be ∼800 g/d for intakes of fruits and vegetables, 225 g/d for whole grains, and 15-20 g/d for nuts. Diets high in plant foods could potentially prevent several million premature deaths each year if adopted globally.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652358

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that a metabolic profile associated with obesity may be a more relevant risk factor for some cancers than adiposity per se. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an indicator of overall body metabolism and may be a proxy for the impact of a specific metabolic profile on cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated the association of predicted BMR with incidence of 13 obesity-related cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). BMR at baseline was calculated using the WHO/FAO/UNU equations and the relationships between BMR and cancer risk were investigated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. A total of 141,295 men and 317,613 women, with a mean follow-up of 14 years were included in the analysis. Overall, higher BMR was associated with a greater risk for most cancers that have been linked with obesity. However, among normal weight participants, higher BMR was associated with elevated risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio per 1-standard deviation change in BMR [HR1-SD ]: 2.46; 95% CI 1.20; 5.03) and distal colon cancer (HR1-SD : 1.33; 95% CI 1.001; 1.77) among men and with proximal colon (HR1-SD : 1.16; 95% CI 1.01; 1.35), pancreatic (HR1-SD : 1.37; 95% CI 1.13; 1.66), thyroid (HR1-SD : 1.65; 95% CI 1.33; 2.05), postmenopausal breast (HR1-SD : 1.17; 95% CI 1.11; 1.22) and endometrial (HR1-SD : 1.20; 95% CI 1.03; 1.40) cancers in women. These results indicate that higher BMR may be an indicator of a metabolic phenotype associated with risk of certain cancer types, and may be a useful predictor of cancer risk independent of body fatness.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564045

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal cancer with currently limited opportunities for early detection and effective treatment. Modifiable factors may offer pathways for primary prevention. In this study, the association between the Healthy Lifestyle Index (HLI) and PC risk was examined. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 1113 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 400,577 participants followed-up for 15 years (median). HLI scores combined smoking, alcohol intake, dietary exposure, physical activity and, in turn, overall and central adiposity using BMI (HLIBMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, HLIWHR), respectively. High values of HLI indicate adherence to healthy behaviors. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Sensitivity analyses were performed by excluding, in turn, each factor from the HLI score. Population attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated assuming participants' shift to healthier lifestyles. The HRs for a one-standard deviation increment of HLIBMI and HLIWHR were 0.84 (95% CI: 0.79, 0.89; ptrend = 4.3e-09) and 0.77 (0.72, 0.82; ptrend = 1.7e-15), respectively. Exclusions of smoking from HLIWHR resulted in HRs of 0.88 (0.82, 0.94; ptrend = 4.9e-04). The overall PAF estimate was 19% (95% CI: 11%, 26%), and 14% (6%, 21%) when smoking was removed from the score. Adherence to a healthy lifestyle was inversely associated with PC risk, beyond the beneficial role of smoking avoidance. Public health measures targeting compliance with healthy lifestyles may have an impact on PC incidence.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(9): 1552-1555, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of prospective data on the potential association of Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) and colorectal cancer risk. In this study, we assessed whether antibody responses to F. nucleatum are associated with colorectal cancer risk in prediagnostic serum samples in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: We applied a multiplex serology assay to simultaneously measure antibody responses to 11 F. nucleatum antigens in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We observed neither a statistically significant colorectal cancer risk association for antibodies to individual F. nucleatum proteins nor for combined positivity to any of the 11 proteins (OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.62-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to F. nucleatum proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from a subset of colorectal cancer cases and matched controls within the EPIC study were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Our findings in prospectively ascertained serum samples contradict the existing literature on the association of F. nucleatum with colorectal cancer risk. Future prospective studies, specifically detecting F. nucleatum in stool or tissue biopsies, are needed to complement our findings.

9.
J Nutr ; 149(11): 1985-1993, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396627

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Beverage consumption is a modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but there is insufficient evidence to inform the suitability of substituting 1 type of beverage for another. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of T2D when consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) was replaced with consumption of fruit juice, milk, coffee, or tea. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study of 8 European countries (n = 27,662, with 12,333 cases of incident T2D, 1992-2007), beverage consumption was estimated at baseline by dietary questionnaires. Using Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusting for other beverages and potential confounders, we estimated associations of substituting 1 type of beverage for another on incident T2D. RESULTS: Mean ± SD of estimated consumption of SSB was 55 ± 105 g/d. Means ± SDs for the other beverages were as follows: fruit juice, 59 ± 101 g/d; milk, 209 ± 203 g/d; coffee, 381 ± 372 g/d; and tea, 152 ± 282 g/d. Substituting coffee for SSBs by 250 g/d was associated with a 21% lower incidence of T2D (95% CI: 12%, 29%). The rate difference was -12.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -5.0) per 10,000 person-years among adults consuming SSBs ≥250 g/d (absolute rate = 48.3/10,000). Substituting tea for SSBs was estimated to lower T2D incidence by 22% (95% CI: 15%, 28%) or -11.0 (95% CI: -20.0, -2.6) per 10,000 person-years, whereas substituting fruit juice or milk was estimated not to alter T2D risk significantly. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential benefit of substituting coffee or tea for SSBs for the primary prevention of T2D and may help formulate public health recommendations on beverage consumption in different populations.

10.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434255

RESUMO

Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the VDR, GC, and CYP27B1 genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (LRP2, CUBN, NCOA7, and HDAC9). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor ß (TGFß) signaling was associated with CRC risk (P ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being SMAD7 (PBH = 0.008) and SMAD3 (PBH = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites (P = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction P = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.

11.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319002

RESUMO

Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.

12.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 20(10): 1213-1223, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331825

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between muscular strength measures and mortality in outpatient populations with chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal disease, and metabolic and vascular diseases, and in critically ill hospitalized patients. DESIGN: A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was performed. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The databases Medline, Embase, Clinical Trial Register, and Cochrane Trial Register were searched from inception until September 30, 2018. The systematic literature review yielded 39 studies with a total of 39,852 participants. RESULTS: Lowest vs highest category of muscular strength revealed a statistically significant increased risk of all-cause mortality with a hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.80 (95% CI 1.54-2.10). Lower muscular strength was associated with enhanced mortality in patients with cancer (HR 2.40; 95% CI 1.57-3.69), critical illness (HR 2.06; 95% CI 1.33-3.21), renal disease (HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.37-2.47), metabolic and vascular diseases (HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.26-2.14), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.16-1.61). Conversely, a 5-kg higher level of muscular strength conferred a reduced risk of overall mortality (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.89) and was accompanied by a reduction in mortality in patients with metabolic and vascular diseases (HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.29-0.91), critical illness (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.61-0.99), and renal disease (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.91). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Muscular strength is inversely associated with mortality risk in various acute and chronic conditions. Future trials should focus on developing validated cut-points for diagnosing low muscular strength and their predictive value for hard end-points.

13.
BMJ ; 366: l2368, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270064

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarise the evidence of associations between dietary factors and incidence of type 2 diabetes and to evaluate the strength and validity of these associations. DESIGN: Umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prospective observational studies. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase, searched up to August 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Systematic reviews with meta-analyses reporting summary risk estimates for the associations between incidence of type 2 diabetes and dietary behaviours or diet quality indices, food groups, foods, beverages, alcoholic beverages, macronutrients, and micronutrients. RESULTS: 53 publications were included, with 153 adjusted summary hazard ratios on dietary behaviours or diet quality indices (n=12), food groups and foods (n=56), beverages (n=10), alcoholic beverages (n=12), macronutrients (n=32), and micronutrients (n=31), regarding incidence of type 2 diabetes. Methodological quality was high for 75% (n=115) of meta-analyses, moderate for 23% (n=35), and low for 2% (n=3). Quality of evidence was rated high for an inverse association for type 2 diabetes incidence with increased intake of whole grains (for an increment of 30 g/day, adjusted summary hazard ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93)) and cereal fibre (for an increment of 10 g/day, 0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)), as well as for moderate intake of total alcohol (for an intake of 12-24 g/day v no consumption, 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83)). Quality of evidence was also high for the association for increased incidence of type 2 diabetes with higher intake of red meat (for an increment of 100 g/day, 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26)), processed meat (for an increment of 50 g/day, 1.37 (1.22 to 1.54)), bacon (per two slices/day, 2.07 (1.40 to 3.05)), and sugar sweetened beverages (for an increase of one serving/day, 1.26 (1.11 to 1.43)). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the association between dietary factors and type 2 diabetes has been extensively studied, but few of the associations were graded as high quality of evidence. Further factors are likely to be important in type 2 diabetes prevention; thus, more well conducted research, with more detailed assessment of diet, is needed. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42018088106.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(6): 1089-1092, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up. METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems. IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

15.
Eur Heart J ; 40(34): 2859-2866, 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209455

RESUMO

AIMS: Although obesity has been associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), the associations of long-term obesity, recent obesity, and weight change with AF risk throughout adulthood are uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS: An ambispective cohort study was conducted which included 15 214 individuals. The cohort was created from 2006 to 2008 (the baseline) and was followed for incident AF until 2015. Weight and height were directly measured at baseline. Data on previous weight and height were retrieved retrospectively from measurements conducted 10, 20, and 40 years prior to baseline. Average body mass index (BMI) over time and weight change was calculated. During follow-up, 1149 participants developed AF. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 1.2 (95% confidence interval 1.0-1.4) for average BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and 1.6 (1.2-2.0) for average BMI ≥30 kg/m2 when compared with normal weight. The association of average BMI with AF risk was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for most recent BMI. In contrast, current BMI was not strongly associated with the risk of AF after adjustment for average BMI earlier in life. Compared with stable BMI, both loss and gain in BMI were associated with increased AF risk. After adjustment for most recent BMI, the association of BMI gain with AF risk was largely unchanged, while the association of BMI loss with AF risk was weakened. CONCLUSION: Long-term obesity and BMI change are associated with AF risk. Obesity earlier in life and weight gain over time exert cumulative effects on AF development even after accounting for most recent BMI.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high intake of dietary fibre has been associated with a reduced risk of diverticular disease in several studies; however, the dose-response relationship between fibre intake and diverticular disease risk has varied, and the available studies have not been summarised in a meta-analysis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to clarify the association between dietary fibre intake, fibre subtypes, and the risk of diverticular disease. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to August 9th 2018. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model and nonlinear associations were modelled using fractional polynomial models. RESULTS: Five prospective cohort studies with 19,282 cases and 865,829 participants were included in the analysis of dietary fibre and diverticular disease risk. The summary RR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.71-0.78, I2 = 0%) per 10 g/day. There was no evidence of a nonlinear association between dietary fibre intake and diverticular disease risk, pnonlinearity = 0.35, and there was a 23%, 41% and 58% reduction in risk for an intake of 20, 30, and 40 g/day, respectively, compared to 7.5 g/day. There was no evidence of publication bias with Egger's test, p = 0.58 and the association persisted in subgroup and sensitivity analyses. The summary RR per 10 g/day was 0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.81, I2 = 60%, n = 4) for cereal fibre, 0.56 (95% CI 0.37-0.84, I2 = 73%, n = 2) for fruit fibre, and 0.80 (95% CI 0.45-1.44, I2 = 87%, n = 2) for vegetable fibre. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a high fibre intake may reduce the risk of diverticular disease and individuals consuming 30 g of fibre per day have a 41% reduction in risk compared to persons with a low fibre intake. Further studies are needed on fibre types and risk of diverticular disease and diverticulitis.

17.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050823

RESUMO

Obesity has been associated with upper gastrointestinal cancers; however, there are limited prospective data on associations by subtype/subsite. Obesity can impact hormonal factors, which have been hypothesized to play a role in these cancers. We investigated anthropometric and reproductive factors in relation to esophageal and gastric cancer by subtype and subsite for 476,160 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox models. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 220 esophageal adenocarcinomas (EA), 195 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 243 gastric cardia (GC) and 373 gastric noncardia (GNC) cancers were diagnosed. Body mass index (BMI) was associated with EA in men (BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5-25 kg/m2 : HR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.25-3.03) and women (HR = 2.66, 95% CI: 1.15-6.19); however, adjustment for waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) attenuated these associations. After mutual adjustment for BMI and HC, respectively, WHR and waist circumference (WC) were associated with EA in men (HR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.99-6.06 for WHR >0.96 vs. <0.91; HR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.52-4.72 for WC >98 vs. <90 cm) and women (HR = 4.40, 95% CI: 1.35-14.33 for WHR >0.82 vs. <0.76; HR = 5.67, 95% CI: 1.76-18.26 for WC >84 vs. <74 cm). WHR was also positively associated with GC in women, and WC was positively associated with GC in men. Inverse associations were observed between parity and EA (HR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99; >2 vs. 0) and age at first pregnancy and GNC (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.32-0.91; >26 vs. <22 years); whereas bilateral ovariectomy was positively associated with GNC (HR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.04-3.36). These findings support a role for hormonal pathways in upper gastrointestinal cancers.

18.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027226

RESUMO

Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. Illumina Goldengate assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only TXNRD1 rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests (PACT = 0.10; PACT significance threshold was P < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (FRZB, SMAD3, SMAD7) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Genótipo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Selenoproteínas/genética
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(6): 547-555, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903463

RESUMO

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are fatal in 80% of the cases when ruptured. Hypertension has been considered a potential risk factor for AAA; but the findings from prospective cohort studies have not been entirely consistent, nor have they been summarised in a comprehensive meta-analysis. Our aim was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of the association between blood pressure, hypertension and AAA to clarify the strength and shape of these associations. We searched PubMed and Embase databases for relevant cohort studies up to April 30th, 2018. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The meta-analysis included 21 cohort studies (20 publications) with data on 28,162 cases and 5,440,588 participants. The findings indicate that the RR of AAA in hypertensive patients is 1.66 times (95% CI: 1.49-1.85, I2 = 79.3%, n = 13) that of non-hypertensive patients. In addition, there was a 14% (95% CI: 6-23%, I2 = 30.5%, n = 6) and a 28% (95% CI: 12-46%, I2 = 80.1%, n = 6) increase in the RR of AAA for every 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), respectively. The analysis of DBP showed evidence of a strong and highly significant nonlinear dose-response relationship (p < 0.001) with a steeper association from 80 mmHg and above. This meta-analysis suggests that hypertension increases the risk of developing AAA by 66%. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanism explaining the much stronger association between DBP and AAA than for SBP.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 41, 2019 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic with profound consequences for individuals and societies. Physical exercise is important to weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. However, results on what the most effective type of exercise are unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the effects of various exercise modalities with and without caloric restriction on body composition and metabolic health outcomes in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: We will perform a comprehensive literature search in PubMed, Embase (via Ovid) and CENTRAL (through the Cochrane Library). Relevant papers will be screened in two stages: first, by title and abstract and then the full text of the remaining papers. Two reviewers will screen all the studies, and any disagreements will be discussed with and resolved by a third reviewer. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment will be performed using a pre-piloted form. A network meta-analysis combining direct and indirect treatment effect estimates will be conducted if adequate data are available. The quality of the evidence will be judged using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. DISCUSSION: The results of this proposed systematic review and meta-analysis will identify whether any exercise modality should be preferred for overweight and obese adults, as well as assess the quality of the evidence. This knowledge has potential importance for clinicians and patients. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019103371.

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