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1.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899229

RESUMO

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to liver carcinogenesis because of their pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative properties. Diet is a major source of AGEs, but there is sparse human evidence on the role of AGEs intake in liver cancer aetiology. We examined the association between dietary AGEs and the risk of hepatobiliary cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort (n=450,111). Dietary intake of three AGEs, Nε -[carboxymethyl]lysine (CML), Nε -[1-carboxyethyl]lysine (CEL), and Nδ -[5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl]-ornithine (MG-H1), was estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires linked to an AGEs database. Cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between dietary AGEs and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder, and biliary tract cancers were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. After a median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 255 cases of HCC, 100 cases of gallbladder cancer, and 173 biliary tract cancers were ascertained. Higher intakes of dietary AGEs were inversely associated with risk of HCC (per 1 standard deviation [SD] increment, HR-CML =0.87, 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99, HR-CEL =0.84, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.96, and HR-MH-G1 = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74 to 0.97). In contrast, positive associations were observed with risk of gallbladder cancer (per 1 SD, HR-CML =1.28, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.56, HR-CEL =1.17; 95% CI: 0.96 to 1.40, HR-MH-G1 =1.27, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.54). No associations were observed for cancers of the intra- and extra-hepatic bile ducts. Our findings suggest that higher intakes of dietary AGEs are inversely associated with the risk of HCC and positively associated with the risk of gallbladder cancer.

2.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 81, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone receptor-defined molecular subtypes, menopausal status, and body size have rarely been conducted. METHODS: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between dietary intakes of TFAs (industrial trans fatty acids [ITFAs] and ruminant trans fatty acids [RTFAs]) and breast cancer risk among 318,607 women. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 13,241 breast cancer cases occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, higher total ITFA intake was associated with elevated breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). A similar positive association was found between intake of elaidic acid, the predominant ITFA, and breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). Intake of total RTFAs was also associated with higher breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P trend = 0.015). For individual RTFAs, we found positive associations with breast cancer risk for dietary intakes of two strongly correlated fatty acids (Spearman correlation r = 0.77), conjugated linoleic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20; P trend = 0.001) and palmitelaidic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16; P trend = 0.028). Similar associations were found for total ITFAs and RTFAs with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status, body mass index, and breast cancer subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the hypothesis that higher dietary intakes of ITFAs, in particular elaidic acid, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. Due to the high correlation between conjugated linoleic acid and palmitelaidic acid, we were unable to disentangle the positive associations found for these fatty acids with breast cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are needed to identify biological pathways that may underlie these associations.

3.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 707-711, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The estimated global burden of suicide is almost 1 million deaths per year, representing 57% of all violent deaths worldwide. In order to better identify at risk individuals and develop effective prevention strategies at the population level, a comprehensive understanding of the biological, psychological and social risk factors is required. METHOD: Data from the National Health Interview Survey (1997- 2004) were analyzed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: During a mean 6.3 years of follow-up of 242, 952 people (1.56 million person-years), 180 deaths due to suicide occurred. Of 18 risk factors, eight revealed associations with suicide. Participants who had never been married (HR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.44-4.62), current smokers (HR, 2.26; 1.49-3.43), current drinkers (HR, 1.93; 1.14-3.27]), participants with serious psychological distress (HR, 3.34; 1.81-6.18), and a history of emphysema (HR, 2.79; 1.18-6.59), liver disease (HR, 4.63; 2.10-10.20), kidney disease (HR, 2.26; 1.00-5.06) and cancer (HR, 2.18; 1.32-3.59) were at increased risk of completed suicide. LIMITATIONS: Due to the observational nature of this study, we cannot exclude the possibility of reverse or bi-directional causality. CONCLUSIONS: This large, prospective cohort study identified a series of biopsychosocial risk factors that may have utility in suicide prevention.


Assuntos
Suicídio Consumado , Suicídio , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0236904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported either null or weak protective associations for coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk using 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coffee consumption from a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 212,119 female UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Risk estimates for breast cancer were retrieved from publicly available GWA summary statistics from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) on 122,977 cases (of which 69,501 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 21,468 ER-negative) and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR analyses were performed along with several sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential MR assumption violations. RESULTS: One cup per day increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption in women was not associated with risk of total (IVW random-effects; odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.80-1.02, P: 0.12, P for instrument heterogeneity: 7.17e-13), ER-positive (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02, P: 0.09) and ER-negative breast cancer (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75-1.03, P: 0.12). Null associations were also found in the sensitivity analyses using MR-Egger (total breast cancer; OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.80-1.25), weighted median (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.05) and weighted mode (OR: 1.00, CI: 0.93-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large MR study do not support an association of genetically predicted coffee consumption on breast cancer risk, but we cannot rule out existence of a weak association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Café/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco
5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(3): 275-285, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33428024

RESUMO

Most cohort studies have only a single physical activity (PA) measure and are thus susceptible to reverse causation and measurement error. Few studies have examined the impact of these potential biases on the association between PA and mortality. A total of 133,819 participants from Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014) reported PA through biennial questionnaires. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for PA and mortality using different analytic approaches comparing single (baseline, simple update = most recent) versus repeated (cumulative average) measures of PA and applying various lag times separating PA measurement and time at risk. Over 3.2 million person-years, we documented 47,273 deaths. The pooled multivariable-adjusted HR (95% CI) of all-cause mortality per 10 MET-hour/week was 0.95 (0.94-0.96) for baseline PA, 0.78 (0.77-0.79) for simple updated PA and 0.87 (0.86-0.88) for cumulative average PA in the range of 0-50 MET-hour/week. Simple updated PA showed the strongest inverse association, suggesting larger impact of reverse causation. Application of 2-year lag substantially reduced the apparent reverse causation (0.85 (0.84-0.86) for simple updated PA and 0.90 (0.89-0.91) for cumulative average PA), and 4-12-year lags had minimal additional effects. In the dose-response analysis, baseline or simple updated PA showed a J or U-shaped association with all-cause mortality while cumulative average PA showed an inverse association across a wide range of PA (0-150 MET-hour/week). Similar findings were observed for different specific mortality causes. In conclusion, PA measured at baseline or with short lag time was prone to bias. Cumulative average PA showed robust evidence that PA is inversely associated with mortality in a dose-response manner.

6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2479, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33510262

RESUMO

Although obesity has been associated with an increased cancer risk in the general population, the association in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains controversial. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies of body mass index (BMI) and the risk of total and site-specific cancers in patients with T2D. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, and Medline until September 2020 for cohort studies on the association between BMI and cancer risk in patients with T2D. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random effects models. Ten prospective and three retrospective cohort studies (3,345,031 participants and 37,412 cases) were included in the meta-analysis. Each 5-unit increase in BMI (kg/m2) was associated with a 6% higher risk of total cancer (RR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10; I2 = 55.4%, n = 6), and with a 12% increased risk in the analysis of breast cancer (RR: 1.12, 95% CI 1.05, 1.20; I2 = 0%, n = 3). The pooled RRs showed no association with prostate cancer (RR: 1.02, 95% CI 0.92, 1.13; I2 = 64.6%, n = 4), pancreatic cancer (RR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.84, 1.11; I2 = 71%, n = 3), and colorectal cancer (RR: 1.05, 95% CI 0.98, 1.13; I2 = 65.9%, n = 2). There was no indication of nonlinearity for total cancer (Pnon-linearity = 0.99), however, there was evidence of a nonlinear association between BMI and breast cancer (Pnon-linearity = 0.004) with steeper increases in risk from a BMI around 35 and above respectively. Higher BMI was associated with a higher risk of total, and breast cancer but not with risk of other cancers, in patients with T2D, however, further studies are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

7.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(4): 367-381, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331992

RESUMO

Although physical activity is an established protective factor for cardiovascular diseases such as ischemic heart disease and stroke, less is known with regard to the association between specific domains of physical activity and heart failure, as well as the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and heart failure. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies to clarify the relations of total physical activity, domains of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of heart failure. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 14th, 2020. Summary relative risks (RRs) were calculated using random effects models. Twenty-nine prospective studies (36 publications) were included in the review. The summary RRs for high versus low levels were 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.85, I2 = 49%, n = 7) for total physical activity, 0.74 (95% CI 0.68-0.81, I2 = 88.1%, n = 16) for leisure-time activity, 0.66 (95% CI 0.59-0.74, I2 = 0%, n = 2) for vigorous activity, 0.81 (95% CI 0.69-0.94, I2 = 86%, n = 3) for walking and bicycling combined, 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.95, I2 = 0%, n = 3) for occupational activity, and 0.31 (95% CI 0.19-0.49, I2 = 96%, n = 6) for cardiorespiratory fitness. In dose-response analyses, the summary RRs were 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.95, I2 = 67%, n = 4) per 20 MET-hours per day of total activity and 0.71 (95% CI 0.65-0.78, I2 = 85%, n = 11) per 20 MET-hours per week of leisure-time activity. Nonlinear associations were observed in both analyses with a flattening of the dose-response curve at 15-20 MET-hours/week for leisure-time activity. These findings suggest that high levels of total physical activity, leisure-time activity, vigorous activity, occupational activity, walking and bicycling combined and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced risk of developing heart failure.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancer risk can be lowered by adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) guidelines. We derived metabolic signatures of adherence to these guidelines and tested their associations with colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Scores reflecting adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations (scale 1-5) were calculated from participant data on weight maintenance, physical activity, diet, and alcohol among a discovery set of 5,738 cancer-free EPIC participants with metabolomics data. Partial least squares regression was used to derive fatty acid and endogenous metabolite signatures of WCRF/AICR score in this group. In an independent set of 1,608 colorectal cancer cases and matched controls, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for colorectal cancer risk per unit increase in WCRF/AICR score and per the corresponding change in metabolic signatures using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Higher WCRF/AICR scores were characterized by metabolic signatures of elevated odd-chain fatty acids, serine, glycine and specific phosphatidylcholines. Signatures were more strongly inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (fatty acids: OR 0.51 per unit increase, 95% CI 0.29-0.90; endogenous metabolites: OR 0.62 per unit change, 95% CI 0.50-0.78) than the WCRF/AICR score (OR 0.93 per unit change, 95% CI 0.86-1.00) overall. Signature associations were stronger in male compared to female participants. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiles reflecting adherence to WCRF/AICR guidelines and additional lifestyle or biological risk factors were associated with colorectal cancer. Measuring a specific panel of metabolites representative of healthy or unhealthy lifestyle may identify strata of the population at higher risk of colorectal cancer.

9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22287, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339835

RESUMO

The association between physical activity and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm has been inconsistent with some studies reporting a reduced risk while others have found no association. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to quantify the association. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to 3 October 2020. Prospective studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of abdominal aortic aneurysm associated with physical activity. Summary RRs (95% CIs) were estimated using a random effects model. Nine prospective studies (2073 cases, 409,732 participants) were included. The summary RR for high vs. low physical activity was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.56-0.87, I2 = 58%) and per 20 metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours/week increase of activity was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95, I2 = 59%, n = 6). Although the test for nonlinearity was not significant (p = 0.09) the association appeared to be stronger when increasing the physical activity level from 0 to around 20-25 MET-hours/week than at higher levels. The current meta-analysis suggest that higher physical activity may reduce the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm, however, further studies are needed to clarify the dose-response relationship between different subtypes and intensities of activity and abdominal aortic aneurysm risk.

10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 360, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33213430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although neutrophils have been linked to the progression of cancer, uncertainty exists around their association with cancer outcomes, depending on the site, outcome and treatments considered. We aimed to evaluate the strength and validity of evidence on the association between either the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or tumour-associated neutrophils (TAN) and cancer prognosis. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to 29 May 2020 for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies on neutrophil counts (here NLR or TAN) and specific cancer outcomes related to disease progression or survival. The available evidence was graded as strong, highly suggestive, suggestive, weak or uncertain through the application of pre-set GRADE criteria. RESULTS: A total of 204 meta-analyses from 86 studies investigating the association between either NLR or TAN and cancer outcomes met the criteria for inclusion. All but one meta-analyses found a hazard ratio (HR) which increased risk (HR > 1). We did not find sufficient meta-analyses to evaluate TAN and cancer outcomes (N = 9). When assessed for magnitude of effect, significance and bias related to heterogeneity and small study effects, 18 (9%) associations between NLR and outcomes in composite cancer endpoints (combined analysis), cancers treated with immunotherapy and some site specific cancers (urinary, nasopharyngeal, gastric, breast, endometrial, soft tissue sarcoma and hepatocellular cancers) were supported by strong evidence. CONCLUSION: In total, 60 (29%) meta-analyses presented strong or highly suggestive evidence. Although the NLR and TAN hold clinical promise in their association with poor cancer prognosis, further research is required to provide robust evidence, assess causality and test clinical utility. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017069131 .

11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33245137

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets rich in plant foods are associated with a lower risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), but there is sparse information on fruit and vegetable subtypes and sources of dietary fibre. This study examined the associations of major plant foods, their subtypes and dietary fibre with risk of IHD in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 490 311 men and women without a history of myocardial infarction or stroke at recruitment (12.6 years of follow-up, n cases = 8504), in 10 European countries. Dietary intake was assessed using validated questionnaires, calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regressions were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) of IHD. RESULTS: There was a lower risk of IHD with a higher intake of fruit and vegetables combined [HR per 200 g/day higher intake 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.99, P-trend = 0.009], and with total fruits (per 100 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.021). There was no evidence for a reduced risk for fruit subtypes, except for bananas. Risk was lower with higher intakes of nuts and seeds (per 10 g/day 0.90, 0.82-0.98, P-trend = 0.020), total fibre (per 10 g/day 0.91, 0.85-0.98, P-trend = 0.015), fruit and vegetable fibre (per 4 g/day 0.95, 0.91-0.99, P-trend = 0.022) and fruit fibre (per 2 g/day 0.97, 0.95-1.00, P-trend = 0.045). No associations were observed between vegetables, vegetables subtypes, legumes, cereals and IHD risk. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, we found some small inverse associations between plant foods and IHD risk, with fruit and vegetables combined being the most strongly inversely associated with risk. Whether these small associations are causal remains unclear.

12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC. CONCLUSIONS: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.

13.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 229, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex. METHODS: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study. RESULTS: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (Pheterogeneity = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (Pheterogeneity ≥ 0.2). CONCLUSIONS: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.

14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16006, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994434

RESUMO

Several studies have investigated associations between overweight/obesity and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis, however, the evidence is not entirely consistent, and previous meta-analyses mainly included case-control studies, which can be affected by various biases. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies on adiposity and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. Random effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for rheumatoid arthritis in relation to different measures of adiposity. Thirteen cohort studies (10 publications) were included. The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increase in body mass index (BMI) was 1.11 (95% CI 1.05-1.18, I2 = 50%), but the association was restricted to women (1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.21, I2 = 17%) and not observed in men (0.89, 95% CI 0.73-1.09, I2 = 58%). The summary RR per 5 kg/m2 increment in BMI at age 18 years was 1.17 (95% CI 1.01-1.36, I2 = 26%, n = 3), and per 10 cm increase in waist circumference was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25, I2 = 44%, n = 2). Higher BMI in middle age, BMI at age 18 years, and waist circumference were associated with increased rheumatoid arthritis risk, suggesting adiposity could be targeted for primary prevention.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14541, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883969

RESUMO

Abdominal and general adiposity are independently associated with mortality, but there is no consensus on how best to assess abdominal adiposity. We compared the ability of alternative waist indices to complement body mass index (BMI) when assessing all-cause mortality. We used data from 352,985 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for other risk factors. During a mean follow-up of 16.1 years, 38,178 participants died. Combining in one model BMI and a strongly correlated waist index altered the association patterns with mortality, to a predominantly negative association for BMI and a stronger positive association for the waist index, while combining BMI with the uncorrelated A Body Shape Index (ABSI) preserved the association patterns. Sex-specific cohort-wide quartiles of waist indices correlated with BMI could not separate high-risk from low-risk individuals within underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) categories, while the highest quartile of ABSI separated 18-39% of the individuals within each BMI category, which had 22-55% higher risk of death. In conclusion, only a waist index independent of BMI by design, such as ABSI, complements BMI and enables efficient risk stratification, which could facilitate personalisation of screening, treatment and monitoring.

16.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2660-2667, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32868270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is sparse evidence for the association of suitable food substitutions for red and processed meat on the risk of type 2 diabetes. We modeled the association between replacing red and processed meat with other protein sources and the risk of type 2 diabetes and estimated its population impact. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct case cohort included 11,741 individuals with type 2 diabetes and a subcohort of 15,450 participants in eight countries. We modeled the replacement of self-reported red and processed meat with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, cheese, cereals, yogurt, milk, and nuts. Country-specific hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox regression and pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: There was a lower hazard for type 2 diabetes for the modeled replacement of red and processed meat (50 g/day) with cheese (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97) (30 g/day), yogurt (0.90, 0.86-0.95) (70 g/day), nuts (0.90, 0.84-0.96) (10 g/day), or cereals (0.92, 0.88-0.96) (30 g/day) but not for replacements with poultry, fish, eggs, legumes, or milk. If a causal association is assumed, replacing red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, or nuts could prevent 8.8%, 8.3%, or 7.5%, respectively, of new cases of type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of red and processed meat with cheese, yogurt, nuts, or cereals was associated with a lower rate of type 2 diabetes. Substituting red and processed meat by other protein sources may contribute to the prevention of incident type 2 diabetes in European populations.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13814, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796953

RESUMO

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.

18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13151, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753685

RESUMO

Sun exposure is a major environmental risk factor for skin cancers and is also an important source of vitamin D. However, while experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D may have a protective effect on skin cancer risk, epidemiologic studies investigating the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and/or vitamin D intake on skin cancer risk are conflicting. A systematic review and dose-response meta-analyses of prospective studies was conducted to clarify these associations. Relevant studies were identified by searching the PubMed database up to 30th August 2019. Random effects dose-response meta-analyses were used to estimate summary relative risks (SRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, thirteen prospective studies were included. Circulating level of 25(OH)D was associated with higher risks of melanoma (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol = 1.42 (1.17-1.72)) and keratinocyte cancer (KC) (SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L = 1.30 (1.13-1.49)). The SRR (95% CI) per 30 nmol/L increase in 25(OH) D level was 1.41 (1.19-1.67), and 1.57 (0.64-3.86), for basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), respectively. However, while we found that vitamin D intake (from diet, supplemental and total) was not associated with risks of melanoma and SCC, vitamin D intake was associated with slightly increased BCC risk, albeit with no heterogeneity across skin cancer type. This meta-analysis suggests positive associations between circulating 25(OH)D level and risk of melanoma and KC, however, this finding is most likely confounded by sun exposure. We found no associations between vitamin D intake skin cancers, except positive associations with BCC risk.

19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 318, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been associated with a significant reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death in epidemiological studies, however, the strength of the association needs clarification. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the available data from population-based prospective studies. METHODS: PubMed and Embase databases were searched for studies of physical activity and sudden cardiac death from inception to March 26th 2019. Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of sudden cardiac death associated with physical activity were included. A random effects model was used to estimate summary RRs (95% CIs). RESULTS: Thirteen prospective studies were included in the systematic review. Eight prospective studies with 1193 sudden cardiac deaths among 136,298 participants were included in the meta-analysis of physical activity and sudden cardiac death and the summary RR for highest vs. lowest level of physical activity was 0.52 (95% CI: 0.45-0.60, I2 = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.72). The association was similar in men and women and among American and European studies. In the dose-response analysis the summary RR was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.55-0.86, I2 = 44%, n = 3) per 20 MET-hours/week. Although the test for nonlinearity was not significant, pnonlinearity = 0.18, there was no further reduction in risk beyond 20-25 MET-hours/week. The summary RR was 0.58 (95% CI: 0.41-0.81, I2 = 0%, pheterogeneity = 0.65, n = 2) for the highest vs. the lowest level of cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggest that a high compared to a low level of physical activity may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death in the general population. Further studies are needed to clarify the dose-response relationship between specific subtypes and intensities of physical activity in relation to sudden cardiac death.

20.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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