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1.
Circulation ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078380

RESUMO

Background: Myocardial perfusion reflects the macro- and microvascular coronary circulation. Recent quantitation developments using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion permit automated measurement clinically. We explored the prognostic significance of stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR, the ratio of stress to rest MBF). Methods: A two center study of patients with both suspected and known coronary artery disease referred clinically for perfusion assessment. Image analysis was performed automatically using a novel artificial intelligence approach deriving global and regional stress and rest MBF and MPR. Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for co-morbidities and CMR parameters sought associations of stress MBF and MPR with death and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), including myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, late (>90 day) revascularization and death. Results: 1049 patients were included with median follow-up 605 (interquartile range 464-814) days. There were 42 (4.0%) deaths and 188 MACE in 174 (16.6%) patients. Stress MBF and MPR were independently associated with both death and MACE. For each 1ml/g/min decrease in stress MBF the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death and MACE were 1.93 (95% CI 1.08-3.48, P=0.028) and 2.14 (95% CI 1.58-2.90, P<0.0001) respectively, even after adjusting for age and co-morbidity. For each 1 unit decrease in MPR the adjusted HR for death and MACE were 2.45 (95% CI 1.42-4.24, P=0.001) and 1.74 (95% CI 1.36-2.22, P<0.0001) respectively. In patients without regional perfusion defects on clinical read and no known macrovascular coronary artery disease (n=783), MPR remained independently associated with death and MACE, with stress MBF remaining associated with MACE only. Conclusions: In patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease, reduced MBF and MPR measured automatically inline using artificial intelligence quantification of CMR perfusion mapping provides a strong, independent predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

2.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 13(1): e009712, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) has been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, the accurate incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is unknown. We, therefore, aimed to assess the incidence rate of LVNC-related cardiovascular events. METHODS: We systematically searched observational studies reporting the adverse outcomes related to LVNC. The primary end point was cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: We identified 28 eligible studies enrolling 2501 LVNC patients (mean age, 46 years; male/female ratio, 1.7). After a median follow-up of 2.9 years, the pooled event rate for cardiovascular mortality was 1.92 (95% CI, 1.54-2.30) per 100 person-years. LVNC patients had a similar risk of cardiovascular mortality compared with a dilated cardiomyopathy control group (odds ratio, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.18-6.67]). The incidence rates of all-cause mortality, stroke and systemic emboli, heart failure admission, cardiac transplantation, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac device implantation were 2.16, 1.54, 3.53, 1.24, 2.17, and 2.66, respectively, per 100 person-years. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses revealed that left ventricular ejection fraction, not the extent of left ventricular trabeculation, had an important influence on the variability of incidence rates. The risks of thromboembolism and ventricular arrhythmias in LVNC patients were similar to dilated cardiomyopathy patients. However, LVNC patients had a higher incidence of heart failure hospitalization than dilated cardiomyopathy patients. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LVNC carry a similar cardiovascular risk when compared with dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction-a conventional indicator of heart failure severity, not the extent of trabeculation-appears to be an important determinant of adverse outcomes in LVNC patients. Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/ Unique identifier: CRD42018096313.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223125, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644534

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in women who have had pregnancy complications such as spontaneous pregnancy loss. We used cross-sectional data from the UK Biobank Imaging Enhancement Study to determine whether pregnancy loss is associated with cardiac or vascular remodelling in later life, which might contribute to this increased risk. METHODS: Pregnancy history was reported by women participating in UK Biobank between 2006 and 2010 at age 40-69 years using a self-completed touch-screen questionnaire. Associations between self-reported spontaneous pregnancy loss and cardiovascular measures, collected in women who participated in the Imaging Enhancement Study up to the end of 2015, were examined. Cardiac structure and function were assessed by magnetic resonance (CMR) steady-state free precession imaging at 1.5 Tesla. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measurements were taken for both common carotid arteries using a CardioHealth Station. Statistical associations with CMR and carotid measures were adjusted for age, BMI and other cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Data were available on 2660 women of whom 111 were excluded because of pre-existing cardiovascular disease and 30 had no pregnancy information available. Of the remaining 2519, 446 were nulligravid and 2073 had a history of pregnancies, of whom 622 reported at least one pregnancy loss (92% miscarriages and 8% stillbirths) and 1451 reported no pregnancy loss. No significant differences in any cardiac or carotid parameters were evident in women who reported pregnancy loss compared to other groups (Table 1). CONCLUSION: Women who self-report pregnancy loss do not have significant differences in cardiac structure, cardiac function, or carotid structure in later life to explain their increased cardiovascular risk. This suggests any cardiovascular risks associated with pregnancy loss operate through other disease mechanisms. Alternatively, other characteristics of pregnancy loss, which we were not able to take account of, such as timing and number of pregnancy losses may be required to identify those at greatest cardiovascular risk.

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(10): e007549, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early prediction of cardiovascular risk in the general population remains an important issue. The T-wave morphology restitution (TMR), an ECG marker quantifying ventricular repolarization dynamics, is strongly associated with cardiovascular mortality in patients with heart failure. Our aim was to evaluate the cardiovascular prognostic value of TMR in a UK middle-aged population and identify any genetic contribution. METHODS: We analyzed ECG recordings from 55 222 individuals from a UK middle-aged population undergoing an exercise stress test in UK Biobank (UKB). TMR was used to measure ventricular repolarization dynamics, exposed in this cohort by exercise (TMR during exercise, TMRex) and recovery from exercise (TMR during recovery, TMRrec). The primary end point was cardiovascular events; secondary end points were all-cause mortality, ventricular arrhythmias, and atrial fibrillation with median follow-up of 7 years. Genome-wide association studies for TMRex and TMRrec were performed, and genetic risk scores were derived and tested for association in independent samples from the full UKB cohort (N=360 631). RESULTS: A total of 1743 (3.2%) individuals in UKB who underwent the exercise stress test had a cardiovascular event, and TMRrec was significantly associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.11; P=5×10-7), independent of clinical variables and other ECG markers. TMRrec was also associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.10) and ventricular arrhythmias (hazard ratio, 1.16). We identified 12 genetic loci in total for TMRex and TMRrec, of which 9 are associated with another ECG marker. Individuals in the top 20% of the TMRrec genetic risk score were significantly more likely to have a cardiovascular event in the full UKB cohort (18 997, 5.3%) than individuals in the bottom 20% (hazard ratio, 1.07; P=6×10-3). CONCLUSIONS: TMR and TMR genetic risk scores are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk in a UK middle-aged population, supporting the hypothesis that increased spatio-temporal heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization is a substrate for cardiovascular risk and the validity of TMR as a cardiovascular risk predictor.

6.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 20(12): 1368-1376, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504370

RESUMO

AIMS : The non-invasive assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and filling pressure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still an open issue. Pulmonary blood volume index (PBVI) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been proposed as a quantitative biomarker of haemodynamic congestion. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PBVI for left atrial pressure (LAP) estimation in patients with HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS : We retrospectively identified 69 consecutive HCM outpatients (age 58 ± 11 years; 83% men) who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CMR. Guideline-based detection of LV diastolic dysfunction was assessed by TTE, blinded to CMR results. PBVI was calculated as the product of right ventricular stroke volume index and the number of cardiac cycles for a bolus of gadolinium to pass through the pulmonary circulation as assessed by first-pass perfusion imaging. Compared to patients with normal LAP, patients with increased LAP showed significantly larger PBVI (463 ± 127 vs. 310 ± 86 mL/m2, P < 0.001). PBVI increased progressively with worsening New York Heart Association functional class and echocardiographic stages of diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.001 for both). At the best cut-off point of 413 mL/m2, PBVI yielded good diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction with increased LAP [C-statistic = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.94]. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, PBVI was an independent predictor of increased LAP (odds ratio per 10% increase: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.68; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION : PBVI is a promising CMR application for assessment of diastolic function and LAP in patients with HCM and may serve as a quantitative marker for detection, grading, and monitoring of haemodynamic congestion.

7.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(9): e009476, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Detection of early cardiac changes before manifest disease develops is important. We investigated early alterations in cardiac structure and function associated with DM using cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: Participants from the UK Biobank Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Substudy, a community cohort study, without known cardiovascular disease and left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% were included. Multivariable linear regression models were performed. The investigators were blinded to DM status. RESULTS: A total of 3984 individuals, 45% men, (mean [SD]) age 61.3 (7.5) years, hereof 143 individuals (3.6%) with DM. There was no difference in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (DM versus no DM; coefficient [95% CI]: -0.86% [-1.8 to 0.5]; P=0.065), LV mass (-0.13 g/m2 [-1.6 to 1.3], P=0.86), or right ventricular ejection fraction (-0.23% [-1.2 to 0.8], P=0.65). However, both LV and right ventricular volumes were significantly smaller in DM, (LV end-diastolic volume/m2: -3.46 mL/m2 [-5.8 to -1.2], P=0.003, right ventricular end-diastolic volume/m2: -4.2 mL/m2 [-6.8 to -1.7], P=0.001, LV stroke volume/m2: -3.0 mL/m2 [-4.5 to -1.5], P<0.001; right ventricular stroke volume/m2: -3.8 mL/m2 [-6.5 to -1.1], P=0.005), LV mass/volume: 0.026 (0.01 to 0.04) g/mL, P=0.006. Both left atrial and right atrial emptying fraction were lower in DM (right atrial emptying fraction: -6.2% [-10.2 to -2.1], P=0.003; left atrial emptying fraction:-3.5% [-6.9 to -0.1], P=0.043). LV global circumferential strain was impaired in DM (coefficient [95% CI]: 0.38% [0.01 to 0.7], P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: In a low-risk general population without known cardiovascular disease and with preserved LV ejection fraction, DM is associated with early changes in all 4 cardiac chambers. These findings suggest that diabetic cardiomyopathy is not a regional condition of the LV but affects the heart globally.

8.
Circulation ; 140(16): 1318-1330, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The genetic basis of left ventricular (LV) image-derived phenotypes, which play a vital role in the diagnosis, management, and risk stratification of cardiovascular diseases, is unclear at present. METHODS: The LV parameters were measured from the cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies of the UK Biobank. Genotyping was done using Affymetrix arrays, augmented by imputation. We performed genome-wide association studies of 6 LV traits-LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, LV stroke volume, LV ejection fraction, LV mass, and LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio. The replication analysis was performed in the MESA study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). We identified the candidate genes at genome-wide significant loci based on the evidence from extensive bioinformatic analyses. Polygenic risk scores were constructed from the summary statistics of LV genome-wide association studies to predict the heart failure events. RESULTS: The study comprised 16 923 European UK Biobank participants (mean age 62.5 years; 45.8% men) without prevalent myocardial infarction or heart failure. We discovered 14 genome-wide significant loci (3 loci each for LV end-diastolic volume, LV end-systolic volume, and LV mass to end-diastolic volume ratio; 4 loci for LV ejection fraction, and 1 locus for LV mass) at a stringent P<1×10-8. Three loci were replicated at Bonferroni significance and 7 loci at nominal significance (P<0.05 with concordant direction of effect) in the MESA study (n=4383). Follow-up bioinformatic analyses identified 28 candidate genes that were enriched in the cardiac developmental pathways and regulation of the LV contractile mechanism. Eight genes (TTN, BAG3, GRK5, HSPB7, MTSS1, ALPK3, NMB, and MMP11) supported by at least 2 independent lines of in silico evidence were implicated in the cardiac morphogenesis and heart failure development. The polygenic risk scores of LV phenotypes were predictive of heart failure in a holdout UK Biobank sample of 3106 cases and 224 134 controls (odds ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.26 - 1.58, for the top quintile versus the bottom quintile of the LV end-systolic volume risk score). CONCLUSIONS: We report 14 genetic loci and indicate several candidate genes that not only enhance our understanding of the genetic architecture of prognostically important LV phenotypes but also shed light on potential novel therapeutic targets for LV remodeling.

9.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; 26(18): 1987-1997, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409109

RESUMO

AIMS: The CHA2DS2VASc score is used to evaluate the risk of thromboembolic events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We assessed the prognostic yield of CHA2DS2VASc for new-onset atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a non-atrial fibrillation population. METHODS: We analysed a population-based cohort of 22,179 middle-aged individuals with (n = 3542) and without (n = 18,367) a history of atrial fibrillation; we grouped the population into five CHA2DS2VASc strata (0-1-2-3-≥4), and compared the risk of major adverse cerebro-cardiovascular events and mortality. Furthermore, we analysed the annual incidence of atrial fibrillation across different CHA2DS2VASc strata. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 15 years, 1572 patients (6.9%) had ischaemic strokes, 2162 (9.5%) coronary events and 5899 (26%) died. The cumulative incidence of ischaemic stroke in CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4 subjects without atrial fibrillation was similar to patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2VASc 2, with a 10-year crude incidence rate of 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.19) and 1.13 (95% CI 0.93-1.36) ischaemic strokes per 100 patient-years, respectively. CHA2DS2VASc in a non-atrial fibrillation population showed higher predictive accuracy for ischaemic stroke compared with an atrial fibrillation population (area under the curve 0.60 vs. 0.56; P = 0.001). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 2 was an independent predictor of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.58; 95% CI 2.42-2.76), cardiovascular death (aHR 3.40; 95% CI 2.98-3.89), ischaemic stroke (aHR 2.20; 95% CI 1.92-2.53) and coronary events (aHR 1.83; 95% CI 1.63-2.04). The cumulative incidence of atrial fibrillation was greater with increasing CHA2DS2VASc strata, with an absolute annual incidence of more than 2% per year if CHA2DS2VASc ≥ 4. CONCLUSION: The CHA2DS2VASc score is a sensitive tool for predicting new-onset atrial fibrillation and adverse outcomes in subjects both with and without atrial fibrillation.

10.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 41, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associations between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and the biventricular geometry of the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) have been difficult to assess, due to subtle and complex shape changes. We sought to quantify reference RV morphology as well as biventricular variations associated with common cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: A biventricular shape atlas was automatically constructed using contours and landmarks from 4329 UK Biobank cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) studies. A subdivision surface geometric mesh was customized to the contours using a diffeomorphic registration algorithm, with automatic correction of slice shifts due to differences in breath-hold position. A reference sub-cohort was identified consisting of 630 participants with no CVD risk factors. Morphometric scores were computed using linear regression to quantify shape variations associated with four risk factors (high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity and smoking) and three disease factors (diabetes, previous myocardial infarction and angina). RESULTS: The atlas construction led to an accurate representation of 3D shapes at end-diastole and end-systole, with acceptable fitting errors between surfaces and contours (average error less than 1.5 mm). Atlas shape features had stronger associations than traditional mass and volume measures for all factors (p < 0.005 for each). High blood pressure was associated with outward displacement of the LV free walls, but inward displacement of the RV free wall and thickening of the septum. Smoking was associated with a rounder RV with inward displacement of the RV free wall and increased relative wall thickness. CONCLUSION: Morphometric relationships between biventricular shape and cardiovascular risk factors in a large cohort show complex interactions between RV and LV morphology. These can be quantified by z-scores, which can be used to study the morphological correlates of disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Idoso , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9143, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235810

RESUMO

Arterial stiffness index (ASI) is a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness using infra-red finger sensors (photoplethysmography). It is a well-suited measure for large populations as it is relatively inexpensive to perform, and data can be acquired within seconds. These features raise interest in using ASI as a tool to estimate cardiovascular disease risk as prior work demonstrates increased arterial stiffness is associated with elevated systolic blood pressure, and ASI is predictive of cardiovascular disease and mortality. We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for ASI in 127,121 UK Biobank participants of European-ancestry. Our primary analyses identified variants at four loci reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8): TEX41 (rs1006923; P = 5.3 × 10-12), FOXO1 (rs7331212; P = 2.2 × 10-11), C1orf21 (rs1930290, P = 1.1 × 10-8) and MRVI1 (rs10840457, P = 3.4 × 10-8). Gene-based testing revealed three significant genes, the most significant gene was COL4A2 (P = 1.41 × 10-8) encoding type IV collagen. Other candidate genes at associated loci were also involved in smooth muscle tone regulation. Our findings provide new information for understanding the development of arterial stiffness.

12.
Med Image Anal ; 56: 26-42, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154149

RESUMO

Population imaging studies generate data for developing and implementing personalised health strategies to prevent, or more effectively treat disease. Large prospective epidemiological studies acquire imaging for pre-symptomatic populations. These studies enable the early discovery of alterations due to impending disease, and enable early identification of individuals at risk. Such studies pose new challenges requiring automatic image analysis. To date, few large-scale population-level cardiac imaging studies have been conducted. One such study stands out for its sheer size, careful implementation, and availability of top quality expert annotation; the UK Biobank (UKB). The resulting massive imaging datasets (targeting ca. 100,000 subjects) has put published approaches for cardiac image quantification to the test. In this paper, we present and evaluate a cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) image analysis pipeline that properly scales up and can provide a fully automatic analysis of the UKB CMR study. Without manual user interactions, our pipeline performs end-to-end image analytics from multi-view cine CMR images all the way to anatomical and functional bi-ventricular quantification. All this, while maintaining relevant quality controls of the CMR input images, and resulting image segmentations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published attempt to fully automate the extraction of global and regional reference ranges of all key functional cardiovascular indexes, from both left and right cardiac ventricles, for a population of 20,000 subjects imaged at 50 time frames per subject, for a total of one million CMR volumes. In addition, our pipeline provides 3D anatomical bi-ventricular models of the heart. These models enable the extraction of detailed information of the morphodynamics of the two ventricles for subsequent association to genetic, omics, lifestyle habits, exposure information, and other information provided in population imaging studies. We validated our proposed CMR analytics pipeline against manual expert readings on a reference cohort of 4620 subjects with contour delineations and corresponding clinical indexes. Our results show broad significant agreement between the manually obtained reference indexes, and those automatically computed via our framework. 80.67% of subjects were processed with mean contour distance of less than 1 pixel, and 17.50% with mean contour distance between 1 and 2 pixels. Finally, we compare our pipeline with a recently published approach reporting on UKB data, and based on deep learning. Our comparison shows similar performance in terms of segmentation accuracy with respect to human experts.

13.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 37(5): 288-297, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084561

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine effects of recently developed ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV LEDs) wavelengths on in vitro growth and gene expression of cultural periodontopathic bacteria, and on viability of experimental gingival fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Streptococcus oralis were irradiated by UV LEDs (265, 285, 310, 365, and 448 nm) at 600 mJ/cm2 and grown anaerobically in vitro. The colony forming units were counted after 1 week. Cell morphology was observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to investigate gene expression changes by 310 nm irradiation. Viability of the irradiated human gingival fibroblasts was evaluated using WST-8 assay. Results: Both 265 and 285 nm resulted in the complete death of bacteria and fibroblasts, whereas 310 nm caused partial killing and suppression of bacterial growth and much less damage to the fibroblasts in vitro. Both 365 and 448 nm resulted in no significant change. SEM showed that P. gingivalis cells gradually degraded from day 2 or 3 and were severely destructed on day 5 for 265, 285, and 310 nm. The 310 nm irradiation transiently suppressed the transcripts of SOS response- and cell division-relative genes. Conclusions: Both 265 and 285 nm may induce powerful bactericidal effects and severe fibroblast phototoxicity, and 310 nm may induce partial killing or growth suppression of bacterial cells with much less fibroblast phototoxicity. UV lights may have potential for bacterial suppression, with situations dependent on wavelength, in periodontal and peri-implant therapy.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/efeitos da radiação , Fusobacterium nucleatum/efeitos da radiação , Porphyromonas gingivalis/efeitos da radiação , Prevotella intermedia/efeitos da radiação , Streptococcus oralis/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Ultravioleta , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Fibroblastos/efeitos da radiação , Gengiva/microbiologia , Gengiva/patologia , Gengiva/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Células-Tronco
14.
Clin Diabetes ; 37(2): 183-187, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31057227
16.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001074

RESUMO

Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a cardiovascular autonomic disorder characterized by orthostatic intolerance and high prevalence among young women. The etiology of POTS is uncertain, though autoimmunity and inflammation may play an important role. We aimed to identify novel inflammatory biomarkers associated with POTS. Methods and Results: In the Syncope Study of Unselected Population in Malmö (SYSTEMA) cohort, we identified 396 patients (age range, 15-50 years) with either POTS (n = 113) or normal haemodynamic response during passive head-up-tilt test (n = 283). Blood samples were analyzed using antibody-based Proximity Extension Assay technique simultaneously measuring 57 inflammatory protein biomarkers. The discovery algorithm was a sequential two-step process of biomarker signature identification by supervised, multivariate, principal component analysis and verification by univariate ANOVA with Bonferroni correction. POTS patients were younger (26 vs. 31 years; p < 0.001) and there was no significant difference in sex distribution (74% vs. 67% females, p = 0.24). PCA and Bonferroni-adjusted ANOVA identified proconvertase furin as the most robust biomarker signature for POTS. Plasma level of proconvertase furin was lower (6.38 vs. 6.58 of normalized protein expression units (NPX); p < 0.001 in POTS, compared with the reference group. Proconvertase furin met Bonferroni-adjusted significance criteria in both uni- and multivariable regression analyses. Conclusion: Patients with POTS have lower plasma level of proconvertase furin compared with individuals with normal postural hemodynamic response. This finding suggests the presence of a specific autoimmune trait with disruption of immune peripheral tolerance in this hitherto unexplained condition. Further studies are needed for external validation of our results.

17.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 18, 2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The trend towards large-scale studies including population imaging poses new challenges in terms of quality control (QC). This is a particular issue when automatic processing tools such as image segmentation methods are employed to derive quantitative measures or biomarkers for further analyses. Manual inspection and visual QC of each segmentation result is not feasible at large scale. However, it is important to be able to automatically detect when a segmentation method fails in order to avoid inclusion of wrong measurements into subsequent analyses which could otherwise lead to incorrect conclusions. METHODS: To overcome this challenge, we explore an approach for predicting segmentation quality based on Reverse Classification Accuracy, which enables us to discriminate between successful and failed segmentations on a per-cases basis. We validate this approach on a new, large-scale manually-annotated set of 4800 cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) scans. We then apply our method to a large cohort of 7250 CMR on which we have performed manual QC. RESULTS: We report results used for predicting segmentation quality metrics including Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) and surface-distance measures. As initial validation, we present data for 400 scans demonstrating 99% accuracy for classifying low and high quality segmentations using the predicted DSC scores. As further validation we show high correlation between real and predicted scores and 95% classification accuracy on 4800 scans for which manual segmentations were available. We mimic real-world application of the method on 7250 CMR where we show good agreement between predicted quality metrics and manual visual QC scores. CONCLUSIONS: We show that Reverse classification accuracy has the potential for accurate and fully automatic segmentation QC on a per-case basis in the context of large-scale population imaging as in the UK Biobank Imaging Study.


Assuntos
Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/normas , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Automação , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido
18.
Heart ; 105(13): 990-998, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723101

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vigorous physical activity (PA) in highly trained athletes has been associated with heightened left ventricular (LV) trabeculation extent. It has therefore been hypothesised that LV trabeculation extent may participate in exercise-induced physiological cardiac remodelling. Our cross-sectional observational study aimed to ascertain whether there is a 'dose-response' relationship between PA and LV trabeculation extent and whether this could be identified at opposite PA extremes. METHODS: In a cohort of 1030 individuals from the community-based UK Biobank study (male/female ratio: 0.84, mean age: 61 years), PA was measured via total metabolic equivalent of task (MET) min/week and 7-day average acceleration, and trabeculation extent via maximal non-compaction/compaction ratio (NC/C) in long-axis images of cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies. The relationship between PA and NC/C was assessed by multivariate regression (adjusting for potential confounders) as well as between demographic, anthropometric and LV phenotypic parameters and NC/C. RESULTS: There was no significant linear relationship between PA and NC/C (full adjustment, total MET-min/week: ß=-0.0008, 95% CI -0.039 to -0.037, p=0.97; 7-day average acceleration: ß=-0.047, 95% CI -0.110 to -0.115, p=0.13, per IQR increment in PA), or between extreme PA quintiles (full adjustment, total MET-min/week: ß=-0.026, 95% CI -0.146 to -0.094, p=0.67; 7-day average acceleration: ß=-0.129, 95% CI -0.299 to -0.040, p=0.49), across all adjustment levels. A negative relationship was identified between left ventricular ejection fraction and NC/C, significantly modified by PA (ß difference=-0.006, p=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: In a community-based general population cohort, there was no relationship at, or between, extremes, between PA and NC/C, suggesting that at typical general population PA levels, trabeculation extent is not influenced by PA changes.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 1130, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718635

RESUMO

Left ventricular (LV) mass and volume are important indicators of clinical and pre-clinical disease processes. However, much of the shape information present in modern imaging examinations is currently ignored. Morphometric atlases enable precise quantification of shape and function, but there has been no objective comparison of different atlases in the same cohort. We compared two independent LV atlases using MRI scans of 4547 UK Biobank participants: (i) a volume atlas derived by automatic non-rigid registration of image volumes to a common template, and (ii) a surface atlas derived from manually drawn epicardial and endocardial surface contours. The strength of associations between atlas principal components and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and angina) were quantified with logistic regression models and five-fold cross validation, using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) metrics. Both atlases exhibited similar principal components, showed similar relationships with risk factors, and had stronger associations (higher AUC and lower AIC) than a reference model based on LV mass and volume, for all risk factors (DeLong p < 0.05). Morphometric variations associated with each risk factor could be quantified and visualized and were similar between atlases. UK Biobank LV shape atlases are robust to construction method and show stronger relationships with cardiovascular risk factors than mass and volume.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763349

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aortic distensibility can be calculated using semi-automated methods to segment the aortic lumen on cine CMR (Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance) images. However, these methods require visual quality control and manual localization of the region of interest (ROI) of ascending (AA) and proximal descending (PDA) aorta, which limit the analysis in large-scale population-based studies. Using 5100 scans from UK Biobank, this study sought to develop and validate a fully automated method to 1) detect and locate the ROIs of AA and PDA, and 2) provide a quality control mechanism. METHODS: The automated AA and PDA detection-localization algorithm followed these steps: 1) foreground segmentation; 2) detection of candidate ROIs by Circular Hough Transform (CHT); 3) spatial, histogram and shape feature extraction for candidate ROIs; 4) AA and PDA detection using Random Forest (RF); 5) quality control based on RF detection probability. To provide the ground truth, overall image quality (IQ = 0-3 from poor to good) and aortic locations were visually assessed by 13 observers. The automated algorithm was trained on 1200 scans and Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) was used to calculate the agreement between ground truth and automatically detected ROIs. RESULTS: The automated algorithm was tested on 3900 scans. Detection accuracy was 99.4% for AA and 99.8% for PDA. Aorta localization showed excellent agreement with the ground truth, with DSC ≥ 0.9 in 94.8% of AA (DSC = 0.97 ± 0.04) and 99.5% of PDA cases (DSC = 0.98 ± 0.03). AA×PDA detection probabilities could discriminate scans with IQ ≥ 1 from those severely corrupted by artefacts (AUC = 90.6%). If scans with detection probability < 0.75 were excluded (350 scans), the algorithm was able to correctly detect and localize AA and PDA in all the remaining 3550 scans (100% accuracy). CONCLUSION: The proposed method for automated AA and PDA localization was extremely accurate and the automatically derived detection probabilities provided a robust mechanism to detect low quality scans for further human review. Applying the proposed localization and quality control techniques promises at least a ten-fold reduction in human involvement without sacrificing any accuracy.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Algoritmos , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Controle de Qualidade , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
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