Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 44
Filtrar
1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(20)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We address novelty regarding metabolomic profiling in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients, in an attempt to postulate potential treatment strategies. METHODS: A large-scale literature search in existing scientific websites focusing on the keywords "renal cell carcinoma", "clear cell histology", "papillary histology", "metabolomic profiling", and "therapeutics" was performed. Results: The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is key in clear cell RCC metabolism and accordingly several drugs are presently available for routine use in clinical practice. Along this line, new treatment combinations against PI3K/Akt family members are currently under clinical investigation. On the other hand, new developed targets such as c-Met tyrosine kinase domain, glutathione (GSH) metabolism, and histone deacetylases enzymes (HDAC), as well as therapeutic strategies targeting them are currently being tested in clinical trials and here discussed. CONCLUSIONS: In RCC patients, the PI3K/Akt signaling is still the most effective targetable pathway. Targeting other metabolic pathways such as c-Met, GSH, and HDAC appears to be a promising approach and deserve further insights.

2.
Target Oncol ; 16(5): 625-632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation is a highly aggressive form of kidney cancer. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyze the outcomes of patients treated with cabozantinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers. Overall survival and progression-free survival were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: We collected data from 66 patients with metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma receiving cabozantinib as second-line (51%) or third-line (49%) therapy. The median progression-free survival from the start of cabozantinib was 7.59 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.75-17.49) and was longer in male patients (8.81 vs 5.95 months, p = 0.042) and in patients without bone metastases (7.59 vs 5.11 months, p = 0.010); the median overall survival was 9.11 months (95% CI 7.13-23.80). At the multivariate analysis, female sex (hazard ratio = 1.81; 95% CI 1.02-3.37, p = 0.046), bone metastases (hazard ratio = 2.62; 95% CI 1.34-5.10, p = 0.005), and International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (hazard ratio = 3.04; 95% CI 1.54-5.99, p = 0.001) were significant predictors of worse overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that cabozantinib is active in pretreated patients with sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma. Biomarkers are needed in this field to select patients for multi-kinase inhibitors or other options.

3.
Urol Oncol ; 39(10): 736.e1-736.e7, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301457

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report long-term oncological outcomes after penile-sparing surgery (PSS) for superficial (Ta-Tis) or initially invasive (T1) penile cancer patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 85 patients with Ta/Tis/T1cN0cM0 penile cancer (1996-2018). All patients underwent PSS: circumcision, excision or laser ablation. First, Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression models tested tumor recurrence rates (any local/regional/metastatic). Second, Kaplan-Meier plots depicted progression-free survival (≥T2 or N1-3 or M1 disease). RESULTS: Median (IQR) follow-up time was 64 (48-95) months. Overall, 48 (56%) patients experienced tumor recurrence. Median (IQR) time to tumor recurrence was 34 (7-52) months. Higher recurrence rates were observed for Tis (65%) and T1 (64%), compared to Ta (40%), but these differences were not significant on multivariable Cox regression analyses (HR:2.0 with 95% CI [0.9-5.1] and HR:2.2 with 95% CI [0.9-5.9], respectively). Moreover, higher recurrence rates were observed for G2-3 tumors (74%), compared to G1 (57%), but these differences were not significant on multivariable Cox regression analyses (HR:1.6; 95% CI [0.8-3.2]). During follow-up, 15 (17.5%) vs. 18 (21.2%) vs. 10 (11.5%) patients underwent 1 vs. 2 vs. ≥3 PSS. Moreover, 26 (30.6%) and 4 (4.7%) men were treated with glansectomy and partial/total penile amputation due to local progression, tumor size or patient preference. Additionally, 24 (28%) men underwent invasive nodal staging. Last, 22 (25.9%) patients experienced disease progression. Median (IQR) time to disease progression was 51 (31-82) months. CONCLUSION: Patients treated with PSS for newly diagnosed superficial or initially invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the penis should be informed about the non-negligible risk of tumor recurrence and disease progression over time. In consequence, strict follow-up protocols are needed.

4.
Transl Androl Urol ; 10(3): 1521-1529, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850786

RESUMO

Over the last few years efficacy of immunotherapy using immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has been investigated in patients with bladder cancer (BC) at all stages. The present article aims to assess new therapeutic options with emerging agents in BC patients, shedding light on ICI-based treatments encompassing all disease stages, from non-muscle invasive (NMIBC) to muscle-invasive (MIBC) BC, concluding with metastatic MIBC. In bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) unresponsive patients with carcinoma in situ, pembrolizumab has been recently approved. In the neoadjuvant setting, results from two clinical trials seem to identify pathological and genomic features of highly responsive tumors. Squamous cells and lymphoepithelioma/like histotypes, programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and high levels of activate T cells have been associated with higher response rate. In the metastatic setting, only 30% of patient may respond to ICI. A panel of biomarkers for patient selection is an actual need since the correlation between response and PD-L1 expression seem inconsistent across clinical trials, with some exceptions. Molecular characterization of BC, tumor mutation burden and immune-gene expression profiling might introduce new molecular biomarkers, hopefully transferable into the clinical-pathological practice.

5.
World J Urol ; 39(9): 3407-3414, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The prognostic significance of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients with metastatic seminoma is not defined. We investigated the prognostic impact of LDH levels prior to first-line systemic treatment and other clinical characteristics in this subset of patients. METHODS: Files from two registry studies and one single-institution database were analyzed retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify patient characteristics associated with recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and complete response rate (CRR). RESULTS: The dataset included 351 metastatic seminoma patients with a median follow-up of 5.36 years. Five-year RFS, OS and CRR were 82%, 89% and 52%, respectively. Explorative analysis revealed a cut-off LDH level of < 2.5 upper limit of normal (ULN) (n = 228) vs. ≥ 2.5 ULN (n = 123) to be associated with a significant difference concerning OS associated with 5-years OS rates of 93% vs. 83% (p = 0.001) which was confirmed in multivariate analysis (HR 2.87; p = 0.004). Furthermore, the cut-off LDH < 2.5 ULN vs. ≥ 2.5 ULN correlated with RFS and CRR associated with a 5-years RFS rate and CRR of 76% vs. 86% (p = 0.012) and 32% vs. 59% (p ≤ 0.001), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: LDH levels correlate with treatment response and survival in metastatic seminoma patients and should be considered for their prognostic stratification.

6.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477676

RESUMO

We analyzed the clinical and pathological features of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients treated with cabozantinib stratified by body mass index (BMI). We retrospectively collected data from 16 worldwide centers involved in the treatment of RCC. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Cox proportional models were used at univariate and multivariate analyses. We collected data from 224 patients with advanced RCC receiving cabozantinib as second- (113, 5%) or third-line (111, 5%) therapy. The median PFS was significantly higher in patients with BMI ≥ 25 (9.9 vs. 7.6 months, p < 0.001). The median OS was higher in the BMI ≥ 25 subgroup (30.7 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.003). As third-line therapy, both median PFS (9.2 months vs. 3.9 months, p = 0.029) and OS (39.4 months vs. 11.5 months, p = 0.039) were longer in patients with BMI ≥ 25. BMI was a significant predictor for both PFS and OS at multivariate analysis. We showed that a BMI ≥ 25 correlates with longer survival in patients receiving cabozantinib. BMI can be easily assessed and should be included in current prognostic criteria for advanced RCC.

7.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 19(2): e84-e91, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262083

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The incidence of kidney cancer is increasing; it could be counteracted with new ways to predict and detect it. We aimed to implement an artificial neural network in order to predict new cases of renal-cell carcinoma (RCC) in the population using population rate, obesity, smoking incidence, uncontrolled hypertension, and life expectancy data in the United States. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Statistics were collected on US population numbers, life expectancy, obesity, smoking, and hypertension. We used MATLAB R2018 (MathWorks) software to implement an artificial neural network. Data were repeatedly and randomly divided into training (70%) and validation (30%) subsets. RESULTS: The number of new RCC cases will grow from 44,400 (2020) to 55,400 (2050), an increase of +24.7%. Our data show that preventing hypertension would have the greatest impact on reduction of the incidence, estimated at -775 and -575 cases per year in 2020 and in 2030, respectively. The prevention of obesity and smoking would have a more limited impact, estimated at -64 and -180 cases per year in 2020 and in 2030, respectively, for obesity, and -173 and -21 cases per year in 2020 and in 2030, respectively, for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our predictions underline the need for accurate studies on RCC-related risk factors to reduce the incidence.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais , Neoplasias Renais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Fatores de Risco , Fumar , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Cells ; 9(12)2020 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321757

RESUMO

Around 80-90% of prostate cancer (PCa) cases are dependent on androgens at initial diagnosis; hence, androgen ablation therapy directed toward a reduction in serum androgens and the inhibition of androgen receptor (AR) is generally the first therapy adopted. However, the patient's response to androgen ablation therapy is variable, and 20-30% of PCa cases become castration resistant (CRPCa). Several mechanisms can guide treatment resistance to anti-AR molecules. In this regard, AR-dependent and -independent resistance mechanisms can be distinguished within the AR pathway. In this article, we investigate the multitude of AR signaling aspects, encompassing the biological structure of AR, current AR-targeted therapies, mechanisms driving resistance to AR, and AR crosstalk with other pathways, in an attempt to provide a comprehensive review for the PCa research community. We also summarize the new anti-AR drugs approved in non-metastatic castration-resistant PCa, in the castration-sensitive setting, and combination therapies with other drugs.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/uso terapêutico , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores Androgênicos/química , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Immunotherapy ; 12(17): 1257-1268, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998603

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have radically changed the treatment approach to metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). In the present article, we reported and discussed the available data with immunocombinations in mRCC, offering new perspectives in the treatment landscape of these patients. We discussed the main results of pivotal clinical trials of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of mRCC. Moreover, we discussed novel immuno-based treatments currently under investigation in ongoing clinical trials. Renal cell carcinoma is a particularly immunogenic tumor and immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment approach. A wide series of clinical trials is exploring novel promising immunocombinations in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

10.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575429

RESUMO

Current developments in the treatment of genitourinary tumors underline the unmet clinical need for biomarkers to improve decision-making in a challenging clinical setting. The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become one of the most exciting and important new approaches to identifying biomarkers at different stages of disease in a non-invasive way. Potential applications of CTCs include monitoring treatment efficacy and early detection of progression, selecting tailored therapies, as well as saving treatment costs. However, despite the promising implementation of CTCs in a clinical scenario, the isolation and characterization of these cells for molecular studies remain expensive with contemporary platforms, and significant technical challenges still need to be overcome. This updated, critical review focuses on the state of CTCs in patients with genitourinary tumor with focus on prostate cancer, discussing technical issues, main clinical results and hypothesizing potential future perspectives in clinical scenarios.


Assuntos
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Contagem de Células/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Cells ; 9(6)2020 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580469

RESUMO

Medical treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients has progressively been evolving from a nonspecific clinical approach to genomics-oriented therapies. The scientific community is in fact increasingly focusing on developing DNA damage repair (DDR) defect-driven novel molecules, both as single-agent therapy and in combined treatment strategies. Accordingly, research is under way into combined drug therapies targeting different pathways, e.g. androgen receptor signaling (ARS) and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) enzymes, immune checkpoint (IC) and PARP, IC, and ARS, and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). In an attempt to formulate evolving treatment paradigms in mCRPC patients, here we selected clinical research into patients undergoing therapies with emerging molecules, with particular emphasis towards PARP-, IC-, and PSMA-inhibitors. In order to focus on those molecules and drug combinations most likely to be translated into routine clinical care in the near future, we selected only those clinical studies currently recruiting patients. A PubMed search focusing on the keywords "prostate cancer", "metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer", "DDR pathways", "ARS inhibitors", "PARP inhibitors", "IC inhibitors", "PSMA-targeting agents", and "drug combinations" was performed.


Assuntos
Terapia Combinada/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 127-135, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum levels in seminoma patients remains uncertain. This observational study evaluates the prognostic impact of tumour marker levels, and other clinicopathological findings, in hCG-positive seminoma patients. METHODS: Seminoma patients with serum hCG levels above normal at first diagnosis were eligible for recruitment. Statistical analysis, including multivariate regression, was performed to identify risk factors. Primary end-points were overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS). RESULTS: We recruited 1031 hCG-positive patients (stage I: n = 586; stage II + III: n = 427) diagnosed between 1981 and 2018. In metastatic disease, LDH levels ≥3 above upper normal limit (UNL) pre- (n = 109) or post-orchiectomy (n = 73) and patients aged ≥40 years (n = 187) were associated with poor prognosis: 5-year OS rates of 84% (LDH ≥3 UNL pre-orchiectomy) versus 92% (<3 UNL pre-orchiectomy) (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.155, [95% confidence interval {CI}: 1.28-7.75], P = 0.012), 82% (≥3 UNL post-orchiectomy) versus 92% (<3 UNL post-orchiectomy) (HR: 6.877, [95% CI: 1.61-29.34]; P = 0.009) and 86% (≥40 years) versus 91% (<40 years) (HR: 6.870, [95% CI: 1.45-13.37], P = 0.009), respectively. A subset of patients with hCG levels ≥2000 IU/l pre-orchiectomy (n = 17) exhibited a poor prognosis, with 5-year OS rates of 73% (≥2000 IU/l) versus 94% (<2000 IU/l) (HR: 3.936, [95% CI: 1.02-12.61], P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Age and LDH levels are significantly associated with poor prognosis in hCG-positive seminoma patients. A small number of patients, with levels of hCG ≥2000 IU/l, may represent a separate prognostic subgroup associated with impaired survival rates.


Assuntos
Gonadotropina Coriônica/metabolismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/mortalidade , Orquiectomia/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Seminoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Testiculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/patologia , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Seminoma/metabolismo , Seminoma/patologia , Seminoma/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Neoplasias Testiculares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia
13.
Cells ; 9(5)2020 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344931

RESUMO

The term aggressive variant prostate cancer (AVPCa) refers to androgen receptor (AR)-independent anaplastic forms of prostate cancer (PCa), clinically characterized by a rapidly progressive disease course. This involves hormone refractoriness and metastasis in visceral sites. Morphologically, AVPCa is made up of solid sheets of cells devoid of pleomorphism, with round and enlarged nuclei with prominent nucleoli and slightly basophilic cytoplasm. The cells do not show the typical architectural features of prostatic adenocarcinoma and mimic the undifferentiated carcinoma of other organs and locations. The final diagnosis is based on the immunohistochemical expression of markers usually seen in the prostate, such as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). A subset of AVPCa can also express neuroendocrine (NE) markers such as chromogranin A, synaptophysin and CD56. This letter subset represents an intermediate part of the spectrum of NE tumors which ranges from small cell to large cell carcinoma. All such tumors can develop following potent androgen receptor pathway inhibition. This means that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPCa) transdifferentiates and becomes a treatment-related NE PCa in a clonally divergent manner. The tumors that do not show NE differentiation might harbor somatic and/or germline alterations in the DNA repair pathway. The identification of these subtypes has direct clinical relevance with regard to the potential benefit of platinum-based chemotherapy, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors and likely further therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo
14.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 43(6): 381-387, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079853

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) is the most common and successful chemotherapy regimen for germ-cell tumor (GCT) patients, accompanied by a bleomycin-induced dose-dependent lung toxicity in certain patients. In an attempt to reduce bleomycin-toxicity, we developed a modified-BEP (mBEP) regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 2008 and February 2018, 182 unselected mainly testicular GCT patients (39 with adjuvant purpose and 143 with curative purpose) received a tri-weekly 5-day hospitalization schedule with bleomycin 15 U intravenous (IV) push on day 1 and 10 U IV continuous infusion over 12 hours on days 1 to 3, cisplatin 20 mg/m IV, and etoposide 100 mg/m IV on days 1 to 5. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed through chest computed tomography scan and clinical monitoring. RESULTS: Median number of mBEP cycles was 3 (range: 1 to 4). In the curative setting, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) prognostic system, 112, 21, and 9 patients had good-risk, intermediate-risk, and poor-risk class, respectively; 66 (46%) patients had complete response (CR), 67 (47%) had partial response (52 of whom became CR afterwards), 6 (4%) had stable disease (that in 3 became CR afterwards), 3 (2%) progressed, and 1 (1%) died of brain stroke. At a median follow-up of 2.67 years (interquartile range: 1.23-5.00 y), 1 and 5-year overall survival and progression-free survival were 99% and 95%, and 90% and 88%, respectively. In the entire patient population, there was grade 3/4 neutropenia in 92 patients (51%), febrile neutropenia in 11 patients (6%), grade 1/2 nausea in 74 patients (41%), and no death due to pulmonary toxicity. CONCLUSION: In GCT patients, our mBEP-schedule would suggest an effective treatment modality without suffering meaningful pulmonary toxicity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Pneumopatias/induzido quimicamente , Pneumopatias/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Embrionárias de Células Germinativas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Bleomicina/efeitos adversos , Institutos de Câncer , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Etoposídeo/administração & dosagem , Etoposídeo/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Drug Targets ; 21(4): 416-423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625471

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is considered a second life in Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) patients, mainly due to the introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-Programmed-death (PD)-1, alone or in combination with anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen (CTLA)-4. Several trials are investigating the efficacy/safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors in sequential or combined strategies with radiotherapy. Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T cells therapy as a promising approach in cancer patients has opened the way to novel possibilities of integrating therapies. The identification of biomarkers of tumor response to these combinations represents a challenge in RCC, together with the research for the best partner for immunotherapy in metastatic patients. In this review we illustrated preclinical/clinical data on the integration of radiotherapy with immunocheckpoint inhibitors or CART cells in RCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Animais , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/radioterapia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Renais/imunologia , Neoplasias Renais/radioterapia , Camundongos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos , Linfócitos T
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766196

RESUMO

Obesity is a well-known risk factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) development. However, the RCC-obesity link has not been fully addressed when considering a comprehensive scenario starting from pathogenetic aspects through pathological issues up to the outcome of medical treatment. We therefore conducted an electronic PubMed search using keywords "obesity", "body mass index", "overweight", "renal cell carcinoma/kidney cancer", "medical treatment", "targeted therapy", and "immunotherapy/immune checkpoint inhibitors". The selected data supported a crosstalk between adipose tissue (adipocytes and other white adipose tissue cells) and cancer cells inducing several signaling pathways that finally stimulated angiogenesis, survival, and cellular proliferation. Accurate sampling of renal sinus fat correlated with a prognostic value. Retrospective clinical evidence in metastatic RCC patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and treated with targeted therapies and/or immune checkpoint inhibitors showed advantageous survival outcomes. Therefore, obesity may influence the course of RCC patients, although the interplay between obesity/BMI and RCC warrants a large prospective confirmation. We are therefore still far from determining a clear role of obesity as a prognostic/predictive factor in metastatic RCC patients undergoing targeted therapy and immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/complicações , Neoplasias Renais/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Renais/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Neoplasias Renais/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Obesidade/patologia , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443386

RESUMO

Background: In human populations, a certain amount of data correlate obesity/body mass index (BMI) with urothelial cancer (UC) and prostate cancer (PCa) occurrence, however this is not fully elucidated at all stages of disease. In an attempt to shed light on uncertain areas in such field, in the present review we illustrate the main molecular mechanisms linking obesity and cancer, focusing on the correlation between obesity and tumor risk, disease progression and response to chemo- and immunotherapy in patients with UC and the predictive/prognostic role of obesity in PCa patients treated with the currently available therapeutic approaches. Methods: We did a large-scale literature search on existing scientific websites focusing on keywords "obesity", "body mass index (BMI)", "urothelial cancer", "prostate cancer", "docetaxel", "cabazitaxel", "abiraterone acetate", "enzalutamide", and "radium223". Results: Many adipocytes-induced molecules support tumor proliferation through activation of various cellular pathways. The available evidence in the postoperative setting do the role of BMI in oncological outcomes prediction still not completely clear. Likewise, in metastatic UC patients controversial results link the role of obesity/BMI with clinical outcomes of tumor response to chemotherapy. Adipose stromal cells recruitment, induced by PCa cells, from white adipose tissue to the tumor sites inducing cell invasiveness was associated with poor survival. Conflicting data, although more oriented towards a better survival outcome, resulted in obese patients treated with docetaxel. In PCa cell-lines a certain cabazitaxel chemo resistance adipose stromal cells (ASC)-mediated was demonstrated. In metastatic castration-resistant PCa patients with high BMI (>25 kg/m2) receiving abiraterone acetate there were significant worse survival outcomes, while in enzalutamide patients BMI did not affect survival outcome. In radium 223 patients higher BMI significantly correlated with favorable overall survival. Conclusions: The main focus of this review was to understand the interplay between obesity/BMI and UC/PCa. Several pathogenic cellular pathways exploring the issue are discussed, opening the way to challenging tailored treatments on the basis of BMI. Improving the knowledge of molecular connections between obesity and UC and PCa could favor the development of new therapies likely reducing chemo- and immunotherapy drug resistance.

19.
Oncol Lett ; 13(2): 979-983, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28356988

RESUMO

The clinical management of frail, elderly patients affected by colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a subject of debate. The present study reports the case of an elderly man with metastatic CRC (mCRC) who was successfully treated with capecitabine. The patient survived for 29 months, thus highlighting its potential activity in terms of obtaining a complete response and high efficacy. A 77-year-old man presented with adenocarcinoma of the rectum with multiple and synchronous liver metastases, in addition to several comorbidities. The patient received single-agent capecitabine chemotherapy (825 mg/mq twice a day) on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle. Following 12 cycles of well-tolerated therapy, a computed tomography scan revealed a complete response with no evidence of liver metastases. An overall survival of 29 months was documented, and the patient eventually succumbed to a diabetes-related complication. In compromised patients with mCRC, reduced-dose capecitabine is an excellent therapeutic option due to its positive safety profile, activity and efficacy.

20.
Anticancer Drugs ; 28(2): 206-212, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27754995

RESUMO

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related toxicities have been reported to be predictive and/or prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aim to investigate the incidence of cumulative toxicity and its prognostic role in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib. mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan were reviewed for the incidence of adverse events. Cumulative toxicity was defined as the presence of more than one selected adverse event of any grade. Prognoses were evaluated by the International mRCC Database Consortium criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis. A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis. Only 18.3% did not experience any of the selected toxicities: 26.9% had one, 35.6% had two and 19.2% all three toxicities. Accordingly, 54.8% of patients experienced cumulative toxicity. In those with or without cumulative toxicity, the median PFS was 27.6 versus 7.2 months and the median OS was 61.2 versus 18.7 months, respectively. When cumulative toxicity was adjusted for International mRCC Database Consortium prognostic groups, it maintained its prognostic role for both PFS (hazard ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.49; P<0.001) and OS (hazard ratio: 0.27, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.48; P<0.001). A major limitation was the retrospective and monocentric nature of the analysis. We reported the prognostic role of cumulative toxicity because of hypertension, hypothyroidism and hand-foot syndrome in patients affected by mRCC and treated with sunitinib or pazopanib.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sulfonamidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe , Taxa de Sobrevida
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...